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Fielding Systems-of-Systems, Riding the agile sw tiger

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  • 1. The Fourth National Conference INCOSE_IL 2007 • Session: Integration – Unsolved Question • Lecture Name: Fielding Systems-of-Systems – Ride the Software Tiger • Presented by Sergey Tozik1 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 2. 2 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 3. Outline • Challenge: Fielding of SW-intensive SoS • Method: Knowledge driven IVVT • Technique: Explorative Modeling3 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 4. SoS: Complexity of Operation Specify Operate Modify Needs Systems System Integrate Capability Capability Capability Capability System System Test4 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 5. SoS: Emergent Dependency Project A Project B independent Capability A Capability B Change Change No Change No Change Change System 1 System 2 System 3 System 2 System 3 Reqs Reqs Reqs System 1 System 2 System 3 Capability A dependent Capability B5 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 6. SW Challenge • Simple designs, Agile development very short development • Interdependence of systems  abundance of surprises  very long fielding times • Challenge for integrators & testers: hang for your life and still deliver6 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 7. Hang for Your life, dear… It’s AGILE !!!!7 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 8. What Users Want? 1. More Mission Capabilities 2. Easier Operation 3. No Surprises8 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 9. Elements of Solution • Focus on “Knowledge Creation” instead of “Test against Spec” • Hunt for unintended consequences • Know what works and field it!9 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 10. MaSK Methodology • Explorative Modeling • Semi-automatic test generation • Session-based testing • Knowledge factory concept10 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 11. Integration Engineer Roles Information Information Gatherer Tester Directions of Inquire Test Ideas Analyst Knowledge Stakeholder • Information Gatherer searches the sources for information and clues about past and supposed behavior • Tester creates and executes tests to capture information about actual behavior • Analyst directs the gatherers, creates knowledge and morphs it to stakeholders’ needs11 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 12. Knowledge Generation Steps 1. Gather Initial Batch of Information 2. Analyze Information 3. Create Knowledge 4. Detect Knowledge Gaps 5. Direct the Hunters for more Info 6. Gather More Information 7. Go to Step 2 Never Stop Asking Questions!12 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 13. Sources of Information 1. Users’ Manuals 2. Requirements 3. Design Documentation 4. Interface Control Documents 5. Test Results 6. Interviews of Developers 7. Interviews of Users13 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 14. The Knowledge Factory Workflow Gather Info Info Create/Refine Models Info Hunting Use Model Technical Model Loop 1..N 1..N Question Analyse Models Insight 1..N Knowledge 1..N Tests Refinement Stakeholder Loop Value Loop Plan, Execute Tests Customer Testing Publish Loop Test Results 1..N Report Analyse Test Results14 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 15. Explorative Modeling 1. Motivation: technique for fast learning with limited domain expertise 2. Language: Cause-Effect Graphs 3. Use Models captures Business Processes in Users’ Language 4. Technical Models capture Design Information in Developers’ Language15 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 16. Have You a SPEC? Explorative No?!! Modeling Tool I beg You, Not Again!!!!16 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 17. Basic link in Cause-Effect Graph Data, Matter, E Data, Matter, nergy Energy Trigger Output Entity Input Entity Processing Event Pre-Contition Post-Condition System Event Environment causes changes in State system/environment Environment State17 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 18. Knowledge Gaps Discovery 1. Not enough information to complete Use Model 2. Not enough information to understand processes initiated by System Event 3. Inconsistencies in information sources 4. Developer’s insecurity (Oops factor)18 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 19. Example – Story of Two Cities • Two neighbor cities • Each city has Traffic Light Control System (TLCS) • Every TLCS has manual and automatic modes • Each TLCS did the job well until some day suddenly the effectiveness of the AUTO mode have dropped. • Why? • We’ll try to generate clues using Exploratory Modeling technique19 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 20. Use Model Focus: visible system behavior, user actions Identify System Events (Identify Trigger) • Set System to Manual (User) • Set System to Automatic (User) • Change Single Traffic Light Mode (User) • Change Traffic Light Pattern (System, Periodic) • Respond to Traffic Light Pattern (Natural) Connect Events with I/O Entities/Conditions  Build Cause-Effect Graph20 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 21. Cause-Effect Graph Nothing happens without a reason! Manual Respond to Traffic Lights Mutual Influence Respond to Traffic Lights Feedback City A Traffic Pattern City B Loop Traffic Pattern Auto Feedback Auto Loop Feedback City A Loop Traffic Light Pattern System B System A Generate Traffic Cycle Clock Cycle Clock Light Pattern - City A City B Generate Traffic Traffic Light Pattern Light Pattern - City B Periodic Change Activation Traffic Light Change Traffic Light Disable when AUTO Display Traffic Disable when AUTO Pattern Display Traffic Pattern System A System B Auto/Man Auto/Man Set to MANUAL Set to MANUAL Operator City B Operator City A Set to AUTO Transient Set to AUTO Generator21 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 22. Directions for Inquiry 1. Analyze mutual influence and concurrency of automatic control feedback loops 2. Analyze mutual influence and concurrency of manual control feedback loops 3. Analyze mutual influence of automatic and manual feedback loops 4. Analyze concurrency of AUTO/MANUAL transients22 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 23. Direct Test Case Derivation 1. Identify EVENT 2. Prepare INPUT ENTITYs for the EVENT 3. Set INPUT CONDITIONs for the EVENT 4. Initiate EVENT 5. Verify OUTPUT ENTITYs 6. Verify OUTPUT CONDITIONs23 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 24. 5-Step Test Cycle 1. Design Initial Test Event 2. Execute Initial Test Event, Gather Data 3. Analyze Data, Identify Knowledge Gaps 4. Execute Investigative Test, Gather Data 5. Analyze Data, Draw Conclusions, Report24 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 25. Technical Models • Motivation: enrich understanding of System Events • Analysis of cause-effect chains triggered by System Events • Utilize developers’ expertise • Discover missing conditions and entities • Technique: anything useful!25 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 26. What’s Next? • Enrich Technical Analysis • Discover appropriate CAD tools • Add Simulation Capabilities • Add Knowledge Management Tools • Evaluate utility of Systems Theory26 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007
  • 27. Summary • SW + SoS = the real challenge • Methodology: Knowledge Factory • Techniques: Explorative Modeling • There’s still a lot to learn to ride the tiger and survive!27 Integration-unsolved question Fielding SoS – Ride the SW Tiger INCOSE_IL 2007