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Nazmi Bilir, Institute of Public Health, Turkey
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Nazmi Bilir, Institute of Public Health, Turkey


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  • 2008 Law
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    • 1. Reduction of Adult Smoking by usingComprehensive ApproachNazmi Bilir MDProf. of Public HealthHacettepe UniversityInstitute of Public
    • 2. Tobacco facts of Turkey• Turkey is a tobacco producing country– Providing 1.7% of world production (before 4%)• ... has long history and culture of tobacco use– Since 1600’s– “coffee-houses” ...– “exclusive male behavior”– Offered to the guests– Children are allowed during ceremonies; wedding, funerals...– Grandfather offers to grandson !!!• TEKEL; State Monopoly: no advertisement !!!
    • 3. Before Tobacco Control Law• 1984: Import of “foreign” cigarettes– TEKEL has the right to import and sell• 1986: TEKEL’s right to import “abolished”– Private companies also has the right to import and sell– “advertisement” started• 1991: Multinational tobacco companies has the rightto establish cigarette manufacturing factory
    • 4. Cigarette sales, Turkey, 1925 - 2011TC Law,1996TC Law, 2008State Monopoly - TEKEL
    • 5. • 1980-2000: Cigarette sales “doubled”– 58 bn – 112 bn cigaretes /yr.• 2.5 times of population increase• 1993: First Symposium on Tobacco Control• 1995: National Coalition Against Tobacco
    • 6. Tobacco Control Law, 1996(Prevention of Harms of Tobacco Products)• Ban smoking in indoor public places– Health, education, public transport, government office– “not in hospitality venues”• Ban all kinds of advertisement and promotion• Ban selling tobacco products to minors (18 yr.)• Health warning: “tobacco harms health”– 14 text warnings: 2005, pictorial warnings: 2010• TV: 90 min/mo. air time – harms of tobacco use• Fines“motivational role of civil society”
    • 7. Tobacco Control Law, 2008• Expanding smoke-free places:“all indoor public places, incl. hospitality venues”• Provincial TC Board:– Governor; participation of govt. & NGO– Inspection team:(police, health pers., municipal police)• Fines: clearly defined
    • 8. Keys to Success• Political commitment– Government, all political parties• Strong partnership– Civil society• Natl. Coalition on T-H• Health professionals assoc.– Academia– International partners• WHO, CDC, Bloomberg GI, EU, other countries …
    • 9. Major Activities• National Tobacco Control Program– 2008-2012 / 2013-2017• Training– Government officials, inspection teams– Health professionals– Stakeholders; hospitality ind. representatives– General public; mass media campaigns ...• Projects; (provide evidence-based data)– Compliance, indoor air q., health complaints, ...– Monitoring implementation of FCTC& MPOWER strategies
    • 10. Tobacco Use Prevalence Studies• Global Adult Tobacco Survey– GATS 2008– GATS 2012• Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey– HPTUS 2007– HPTUS 2011• Global Medical Students Survey, 2010• Studies on various adult groups
    • 11. Monitor: Prevalence of current tobacco smoking
    • 12. Protect: Exposure to secondhand smoke invarious places** In the past 30days
    • 13. Raise: Average amount paid for 20 cigarettes*and total tax shown as a percentage shareof retail price†*Average amount paid in 2008 was adjusted for inflation for direct comparison to 2012†Source: Turkey Ministry of Finance, General Directorate of Revenue Policies, 2013
    • 14. Adult Smoking Prevalence in Turkey, 1993-2012%
    • 15. Conclusion-1• Turkey achieved remarkable success on TC– Tobacco use prevalence reduced– Indoor air quality improved– Compliance: high– Public support: high• Keys to success– Political stability and whole government approach– Strong and supportive NGO and academia– Tax increase– Comprehensive ad. ban– Strong mass media campaigns• TV, press media, billboards …
    • 16. Conclusion-2Challenging areas• Tobacco use prevalence is still too high– 14.8 million smokers• Violations– Inspections should be enhanced• Cigarette price is low• Cessation services should be increased (PH Care)• Tobacco industry activities increasing– Noticing tobacco ad.s increased, among women– More effective implementation of the fines• Comprehensive TC policies should be continued
    • 17. “Turkey is the first and, to date, the only countryin the world to attain the highest implementation score forall of WHO’s MPOWER measures.”Thank