TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft WindowsMicrosoft CorporationPublished: May 21, 2006Updated: Jan 9, 2012Author: Joseph Da...
The information contained in this document represents the current view ofMicrosoft Corporation on the issues discussed as ...
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: iContentsChapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IP..................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: iiARP Process ...............................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: iiiIPv4 Address Syntax ......................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: ivIPv6 Interface Identifiers.................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: vVariable Length Subnetting..................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: viDefault Route Metric ......................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: viiThe Initializing State ...................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: viiiConfiguring DHCPv6 Scopes and Options....................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: ixName Resolution............................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xConfiguration for Remote Access Clients.....................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xiWINS Reverse Lookup .......................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xiiHTTP Get Message to the Web Server........................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xiiiName Release ............................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xivConfiguration of the WINS Client for Remote Access Clients................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xvDefault Response Rule......................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xviUser Authentication ......................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xviiConfiguring a Demand-dial Interface......................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xviii6to4 ...................................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xixTest NetBIOS Name Resolution with Nbtstat.................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xxSolicited-Node Address ....................................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xxiComputer Browsing Overview ...............................................
TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xxii
Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPTCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: 1Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPAbstr...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPTCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: 2Chapter ObjectivesAfter completing this...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPTCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: 3History of TCP/IPTransmission Control P...
Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPTCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: 4 IP is the term used to describe featu...
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  1. 1. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft WindowsMicrosoft CorporationPublished: May 21, 2006Updated: Jan 9, 2012Author: Joseph DaviesEditor: Anne TaussigAbstractThis online book is a structured, introductory approach to the basic concepts and principles of theTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite, how the most importantprotocols function, and their basic configuration in the Microsoft® Windows Vista™, WindowsServer® 2008, Windows® XP, and Windows Server 2003 families of operating systems. Thisbook is primarily a discussion of concepts and principles to lay a conceptual foundation for theTCP/IP protocol suite and provides an integrated discussion of both Internet Protocol version 4(IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6).
  2. 2. The information contained in this document represents the current view ofMicrosoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date ofpublication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing marketconditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part ofMicrosoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of anyinformation presented after the date of publication.This content is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NOWARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THEINFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT.Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of theuser. The terms of use of this document can be found athttp://www.microsoft.com/info/cpyright.mspx.Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights,or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in thisdocument. Except as expressly provided in any written licenseagreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not giveyou any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or otherintellectual property.Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products,domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and eventsdepicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any real company,organization, product, domain name, email address, logo, person, place,or event is intended or should be inferred.© 2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.Microsoft, Active Directory, Windows, Windows NT 4.0, Windows Vista,and Windows Server are either registered trademarks or trademarks ofMicrosoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.
  3. 3. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: iContentsChapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IP........................................................................................................ 1Chapter Objectives ................................................................................................................................ 2History of TCP/IP ................................................................................................................................... 3The Internet Standards Process ............................................................................................................ 5Requests for Comments (RFCs)........................................................................................................ 5TCP/IP Terminology............................................................................................................................... 7TCP/IP Components in Windows........................................................................................................... 9Configuring the IPv4-based TCP/IP Component in Windows............................................................ 9Automatic Configuration ............................................................................................................... 10Manual Configuration.................................................................................................................... 11Installing and Configuring the IPv6-based TCP/IP Component in Windows ................................... 12Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008................................................................................... 12Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 ...................................................................................... 13Name Resolution Files in Windows.................................................................................................. 14TCP/IP Tools in Windows................................................................................................................. 14The Ipconfig Tool .......................................................................................................................... 15The Ping Tool ............................................................................................................................... 16Network Monitor ............................................................................................................................... 17Chapter Summary................................................................................................................................ 19Chapter Glossary ................................................................................................................................. 20Chapter 2 – Architectural Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite.................................................... 23Chapter Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 24The TCP/IP Protocol Suite................................................................................................................... 25Network Interface Layer ................................................................................................................... 25Internet Layer ................................................................................................................................... 26Transport Layer ................................................................................................................................ 26Application Layer.............................................................................................................................. 27IPv4 Internet Layer............................................................................................................................... 28ARP .................................................................................................................................................. 28ARP Cache ................................................................................................................................... 28
  4. 4. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: iiARP Process ................................................................................................................................ 29Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)..................................................................................................... 30Fragmentation and Reassembly................................................................................................... 31Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ...................................................................................... 31Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) ................................................................................. 32IPv6 Internet Layer............................................................................................................................... 34IPv6 .................................................................................................................................................. 34IPv6 Extension Headers ............................................................................................................... 35Fragmentation in IPv6................................................................................................................... 35Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6)..................................................................... 36Neighbor Discovery (ND) ................................................................................................................. 37Address Resolution....................................................................................................................... 38Router Discovery .......................................................................................................................... 39Address Autoconfiguration............................................................................................................ 39Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) ................................................................................................. 39Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) .................................................................................................. 41TCP Ports......................................................................................................................................... 41TCP Three-Way Handshake ............................................................................................................ 42User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ........................................................................................................... 43UDP Ports......................................................................................................................................... 43Packet Multiplexing and Demultiplexing .............................................................................................. 44Application Programming Interfaces.................................................................................................... 46Windows Sockets ............................................................................................................................. 46NetBIOS ........................................................................................................................................... 47TCP/IP Naming Schemes in Windows ................................................................................................ 48Host Names...................................................................................................................................... 48NetBIOS Names............................................................................................................................... 48Chapter Summary................................................................................................................................ 50Chapter Glossary ................................................................................................................................. 51Chapter 3 – IP Addressing.................................................................................................................... 53Chapter Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 54IPv4 Addressing................................................................................................................................... 55
  5. 5. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: iiiIPv4 Address Syntax ........................................................................................................................ 55Converting from Binary to Decimal............................................................................................... 56Converting from Decimal to Binary............................................................................................... 57IPv4 Address Prefixes ...................................................................................................................... 58Prefix Length Notation .................................................................................................................. 58Dotted Decimal Notation............................................................................................................... 59Types of IPv4 Addresses ................................................................................................................. 59IPv4 Unicast Addresses ................................................................................................................... 60Internet Address Classes.............................................................................................................. 60Modern Internet Addresses .......................................................................................................... 62Public Addresses .......................................................................................................................... 63Illegal Addresses .......................................................................................................................... 63Private Addresses......................................................................................................................... 63Automatic Private IP Addressing .................................................................................................. 64Special IPv4 Addresses................................................................................................................ 65Unicast IPv4 Addressing Guidelines ............................................................................................ 65IPv4 Multicast Addresses................................................................................................................. 66IPv4 Broadcast Addresses............................................................................................................... 66IPv6 Addressing................................................................................................................................... 68IPv6 Address Syntax ........................................................................................................................ 68Converting Between Binary and Hexadecimal ............................................................................. 69Compressing Zeros ...................................................................................................................... 70IPv6 Address Prefixes ...................................................................................................................... 70Types of IPv6 Addresses ................................................................................................................. 70IPv6 Unicast Addresses ................................................................................................................... 71Global Unicast Addresses ............................................................................................................ 71Link-Local Addresses ................................................................................................................... 73Site-Local Addresses.................................................................................................................... 73Zone IDs for Local-Use Addresses............................................................................................... 74Unique Local Addresses............................................................................................................... 74Special IPv6 Addresses................................................................................................................ 75Transition Addresses .................................................................................................................... 75
  6. 6. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: ivIPv6 Interface Identifiers................................................................................................................... 76EUI-64 Address-based Interface Identifiers.................................................................................. 77IEEE 802 Address Conversion Example ...................................................................................... 79Temporary Address Interface Identifiers ...................................................................................... 79IPv6 Multicast Addresses................................................................................................................. 80Solicited-Node Multicast Address................................................................................................. 81IPv6 Anycast Addresses .................................................................................................................. 82IPv6 Addresses for a Host................................................................................................................ 82IPv6 Addresses for a Router ............................................................................................................ 83Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing................................................................................................. 84Chapter Summary................................................................................................................................ 85Chapter Glossary ................................................................................................................................. 86Chapter 4 – Subnetting ......................................................................................................................... 89Chapter Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 90Subnetting for IPv4 .............................................................................................................................. 91Determining the Subnet Prefix of an IPv4 Address Configuration ................................................... 92Prefix Length Notation .................................................................................................................. 93Subnet Mask Notation .................................................................................................................. 94Defining a Prefix Length................................................................................................................... 95Subnetting Within an Octet............................................................................................................... 97Defining the Subnetted Address Prefixes..................................................................................... 98Defining the Range of IPv4 Addresses for Each Subnet.............................................................. 99Subnetting Across an Octet Boundary........................................................................................... 102Defining the Subnetted address prefixes.................................................................................... 102Defining the Range of IPv4 Addresses for Each Subnet............................................................ 104Variable Length Subnetting............................................................................................................ 105Variable Length Subnetting Example ......................................................................................... 106Variable Length Subnetting and Routing.................................................................................... 108Subnetting for IPv6 ............................................................................................................................ 109Subnetting a Global or Unique Local Address Prefix..................................................................... 109Determining the Number of Subnetting Bits ............................................................................... 109Enumerating Subnetted Address Prefixes.................................................................................. 110
  7. 7. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: vVariable Length Subnetting............................................................................................................ 113Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 114Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 115Chapter 5 – IP Routing ........................................................................................................................ 117Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 118IP Routing Overview .......................................................................................................................... 119Direct and Indirect Delivery ............................................................................................................ 119IP Routing Table............................................................................................................................. 120Routing Table Entries ................................................................................................................. 120Static and Dynamic Routing........................................................................................................... 121Dynamic Routing ........................................................................................................................ 122Routing Protocol Technologies................................................................................................... 122IPv4 Routing....................................................................................................................................... 124IPv4 Routing with Windows............................................................................................................ 124Contents of the IPv4 Routing Table............................................................................................ 124Route Determination Process..................................................................................................... 125Determining the Next-Hop Address and Interface...................................................................... 126Example Routing Table for an IPv4 Host Running Windows ..................................................... 127Static IPv4 Routing......................................................................................................................... 129Configuring Static IPv4 Routers.................................................................................................. 130Dynamic IPv4 Routing.................................................................................................................... 130RIP.............................................................................................................................................. 131OSPF .......................................................................................................................................... 131BGP-4 ......................................................................................................................................... 131Integrating Static and Dynamic Routing......................................................................................... 132IPv4 Route Aggregation and Summarization................................................................................. 133Route Summarization for Internet Address Classes: Supernetting............................................ 134IPv4 Routing Support in Windows.................................................................................................. 135Static Routing ............................................................................................................................. 135Dynamic Routing with RIP and OSPF ........................................................................................ 135Configuring Hosts for IPv4 Routing................................................................................................ 135Default Gateway Setting............................................................................................................. 136
  8. 8. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: viDefault Route Metric ................................................................................................................... 137ICMP Router Discovery .............................................................................................................. 137Static Routes .............................................................................................................................. 138Persistent Static Routes ............................................................................................................. 138RIP Listener ................................................................................................................................ 138Routing for Disjoint Networks......................................................................................................... 138Network Address Translation ......................................................................................................... 140How Network Address Translation Works.................................................................................. 141IPv6 Routing....................................................................................................................................... 144IPv6 Routing Tables ....................................................................................................................... 144IPv6 Routing Table Entry Types................................................................................................. 144Route Determination Process..................................................................................................... 145Example Windows IPv6 Routing Table ...................................................................................... 145IPv6 Routing Protocols................................................................................................................... 147RIPng for IPv6 ............................................................................................................................ 147OSPF for IPv6............................................................................................................................. 147Integrated IS-IS for IPv6 ............................................................................................................. 147BGP-4 ......................................................................................................................................... 148IPv6 Route Aggregation and Summarization................................................................................. 148Windows Support for IPv6 Static Routing ...................................................................................... 149Configuring Hosts for IPv6 Routing................................................................................................ 153Routing Tools..................................................................................................................................... 154Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 155Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 156Chapter 6 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.......................................................................... 159Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 160DHCP Overview................................................................................................................................. 161Benefits of Using DHCP ................................................................................................................. 162Configuring TCP/IP Manually ..................................................................................................... 162Configuring TCP/IP Using DHCP ............................................................................................... 162How DHCP Works.............................................................................................................................. 163DHCP Messages and Client States ............................................................................................... 163
  9. 9. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: viiThe Initializing State ................................................................................................................... 165The Selecting State .................................................................................................................... 166The Requesting State................................................................................................................. 168The Bound State......................................................................................................................... 169The Renewing State ................................................................................................................... 170The Rebinding State ................................................................................................................... 171Restarting a Windows DHCP Client ........................................................................................... 172The Windows DHCP Server Service ................................................................................................. 174Installing the DHCP Server Service ............................................................................................... 174DHCP and Active Directory Integration.......................................................................................... 175BOOTP Support ............................................................................................................................. 175DHCP Server Service Configuration.................................................................................................. 176Properties of the DHCP Server ...................................................................................................... 176DHCP Scopes ................................................................................................................................ 177Configuring a DHCP Scope........................................................................................................ 177Deploying Multiple DHCP Servers.............................................................................................. 178Superscopes................................................................................................................................... 179Options ........................................................................................................................................... 179Client Reservations ........................................................................................................................ 181Fault Tolerance for Client Reservations ..................................................................................... 182DHCP Options Classes.................................................................................................................. 182Vendor Classes .......................................................................................................................... 183User Classes .............................................................................................................................. 183The DHCP Relay Agent ..................................................................................................................... 185Installing the DHCP Relay Agent ................................................................................................... 185Address Autoconfiguration for IPv6 ................................................................................................... 187Autoconfigured Address States...................................................................................................... 187Types of Autoconfiguration............................................................................................................. 188Autoconfiguration Process ............................................................................................................. 188DHCPv6.......................................................................................................................................... 189DHCPv6 Messages and Message Exchanges........................................................................... 190DHCPv6 Support in Windows ........................................................................................................ 192
  10. 10. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: viiiConfiguring DHCPv6 Scopes and Options................................................................................. 192Installing and Configuring the DHCPv6 Relay Agent ................................................................. 193Using the Ipconfig Tool ...................................................................................................................... 195Verifying the IP Configuration......................................................................................................... 195Renewing a Lease.......................................................................................................................... 195Releasing a Lease.......................................................................................................................... 196Setting and Displaying the Class ID............................................................................................... 196Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 197Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 198Chapter 7 – Host Name Resolution.................................................................................................... 201Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 202TCP/IP Naming Schemes.................................................................................................................. 203Host Names Defined ...................................................................................................................... 203Host Name Resolution Process......................................................................................................... 204Resolving Names with a Hosts File................................................................................................ 205Resolving Names with LLMNR....................................................................................................... 206Resolving Names with a DNS Server ............................................................................................ 206Windows Methods of Resolving Host Names ................................................................................ 207The Hosts File.................................................................................................................................... 208IPv4 Entries .................................................................................................................................... 208IPv6 Entries .................................................................................................................................... 209The DNS Client Resolver Cache ....................................................................................................... 210Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 212Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 213Chapter 8 – Domain Name System Overview................................................................................... 215Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 216The Domain Name System................................................................................................................ 217DNS Components .......................................................................................................................... 217DNS Names.................................................................................................................................... 218Domains and Subdomains ............................................................................................................. 218DNS Servers and the Internet ........................................................................................................ 219Zones.............................................................................................................................................. 220
  11. 11. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: ixName Resolution................................................................................................................................ 222DNS Name Resolution Example .................................................................................................... 222Reverse Queries ............................................................................................................................ 223Reverse Queries for IPv4 Addresses ......................................................................................... 224Reverse Queries for IPv6 Addresses ......................................................................................... 225Caching and TTL............................................................................................................................ 225Negative Caching ........................................................................................................................... 225Round Robin Load Balancing ........................................................................................................ 225Name Server Roles............................................................................................................................ 227Forwarders ..................................................................................................................................... 228Forwarders in Non-exclusive Mode ............................................................................................ 229Forwarders in Exclusive Mode.................................................................................................... 229Caching-Only Name Servers.......................................................................................................... 230Resource Records and Zones ........................................................................................................... 231Resource Record Format............................................................................................................... 231Resource Record Types................................................................................................................. 232Delegation and Glue Records..................................................................................................... 232The Root Hints File......................................................................................................................... 233Zone Transfers................................................................................................................................... 234Full Zone Transfer.......................................................................................................................... 234Incremental Zone Transfer............................................................................................................. 235DNS Notify...................................................................................................................................... 235DNS Dynamic Update........................................................................................................................ 237Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 238Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 239Chapter 9 – Windows Support for DNS............................................................................................. 241Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 242The DNS Client Service ..................................................................................................................... 243DNS Client Configuration ............................................................................................................... 243DHCP Configuration of the DNS Client Service ......................................................................... 243Manual Configuration of the DNS Client Service Using Network Connections.......................... 243Manual Configuration Using Netsh............................................................................................. 246
  12. 12. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xConfiguration for Remote Access Clients................................................................................... 247Configuration of DNS Settings Using Group Policy.................................................................... 247Name Resolution Behavior............................................................................................................. 248Name Resolution for FQDNs...................................................................................................... 248Name Resolution for Single-Label, Unqualified Domain Names................................................ 248Name Resolution for Multiple-Label, Unqualified Domain Names ............................................. 249The DNS Server Service.................................................................................................................... 250Installing the DNS Server Service.................................................................................................. 251DNS and Active Directory............................................................................................................... 252Active Directory Location Service............................................................................................... 252Storage of Zones Integrated with Active Directory ..................................................................... 253DNS Server Service Configuration .................................................................................................... 255Properties of the DNS Server......................................................................................................... 255Maintaining Zones .......................................................................................................................... 256Forward Lookup Zones............................................................................................................... 256Reverse Lookup Zones............................................................................................................... 257Delegation................................................................................................................................... 258Zone Transfers ........................................................................................................................... 259Resource Records.......................................................................................................................... 259IPv4 Address Records ................................................................................................................ 259IPv6 Address Records ................................................................................................................ 260Pointer Records .......................................................................................................................... 260DNS Traffic Over IPv6.................................................................................................................... 260Using Locally Configured Unicast Addresses............................................................................. 260Using Well-Known Unicast Addresses ....................................................................................... 261Dynamic Update and Secure Dynamic Update.............................................................................. 261How Computers Running Windows Update their DNS Names.................................................. 262DNS Dynamic Update Process .................................................................................................. 263Configuring DNS Dynamic Update ............................................................................................. 263Secure Dynamic Update ................................................................................................................ 265DNS and WINS Integration ............................................................................................................ 265How WINS Lookup Works .......................................................................................................... 265
  13. 13. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xiWINS Reverse Lookup ............................................................................................................... 266Using the Nslookup Tool.................................................................................................................... 267Nslookup Modes............................................................................................................................. 267Nslookup Syntax ............................................................................................................................ 267Examples of Nslookup Usage ........................................................................................................ 267Example 1: Nslookup in Interactive Mode .................................................................................. 267Example 2: Nslookup and Forward Queries............................................................................... 268Example 3: Nslookup Forward Query Using Another DNS Server ............................................ 268Example 4: Nslookup Debug Information................................................................................... 268Example 5: Nslookup Reverse Query ........................................................................................ 269Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 270Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 271Chapter 10 – TCP/IP End-to-End Delivery......................................................................................... 273Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 274End-to-End IPv4 Delivery Process..................................................................................................... 275IPv4 on the Source Host ................................................................................................................ 275IPv4 on the Router ......................................................................................................................... 276IPv4 on the Destination Host.......................................................................................................... 279Step-by-Step IPv4 Traffic Example.................................................................................................... 281Network Configuration.................................................................................................................... 281Web Client .................................................................................................................................. 282Router 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 283Router 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 283Router 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 283DNS Server................................................................................................................................. 283Web Server................................................................................................................................. 283Web Traffic Example ...................................................................................................................... 284DNS Name Query Request Message to the DNS Server .......................................................... 284DNS Name Query Response Message to the Web Client ......................................................... 286TCP SYN Segment to the Web Server....................................................................................... 288TCP SYN-ACK Segment to the Web Client ............................................................................... 290TCP ACK Segment to the Web Server....................................................................................... 291
  14. 14. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xiiHTTP Get Message to the Web Server...................................................................................... 292HTTP Get-Response Message to the Web Client...................................................................... 293End-to-End IPv6 Delivery Process..................................................................................................... 295IPv6 on the Source Host ................................................................................................................ 295IPv6 on the Router ......................................................................................................................... 296IPv6 on the Destination Host.......................................................................................................... 299Step-by-Step IPv6 Traffic Example.................................................................................................... 301Network Configuration.................................................................................................................... 301Web Client .................................................................................................................................. 302Router 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 302Router 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 302Router 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 302DNS Server................................................................................................................................. 303Web Server................................................................................................................................. 303Web Traffic Example ...................................................................................................................... 303DNS Name Query Request Message to the DNS Server .......................................................... 303DNS Name Query Response Message to the Web Client ......................................................... 306TCP SYN-ACK Segment to the Web Client ............................................................................... 309TCP ACK Segment to the Web Server....................................................................................... 310HTTP Get Segment to the Web Server ...................................................................................... 311HTTP Get-Response Segment to the Web Client...................................................................... 312Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 314Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 315Chapter 11 – NetBIOS over TCP/IP .................................................................................................... 317Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 318NetBIOS over TCP/IP Overview ........................................................................................................ 319Enabling NetBIOS over TCP/IP...................................................................................................... 320NetBIOS Names............................................................................................................................. 321Common NetBIOS Names.......................................................................................................... 322NetBIOS Name Registration, Resolution, and Release................................................................. 323Name Registration ...................................................................................................................... 323Name Resolution ........................................................................................................................ 323
  15. 15. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xiiiName Release ............................................................................................................................ 324Segmenting NetBIOS Names with the NetBIOS Scope ID............................................................ 324NetBIOS Name Resolution ................................................................................................................ 326Resolving Local NetBIOS Names Using a Broadcast.................................................................... 326Limitations of Broadcasts............................................................................................................ 327Resolving Names with a NetBIOS Name Server ........................................................................... 327Windows Methods of Resolving NetBIOS Names ......................................................................... 327NetBIOS Node Types ........................................................................................................................ 329Using the Lmhosts File ...................................................................................................................... 330Predefined Keywords ..................................................................................................................... 330Using a Centralized Lmhosts File .................................................................................................. 331Creating Lmhosts Entries for Specific NetBIOS Names ................................................................ 332Name Resolution Problems Using Lmhosts................................................................................... 333The Nbtstat Tool................................................................................................................................. 334Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 335Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 336Chapter 12 – Windows Internet Name Service Overview ................................................................ 339Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 340Introduction to WINS.......................................................................................................................... 341How WINS Works .............................................................................................................................. 342Name Registration.......................................................................................................................... 342When a Duplicate Name Is Found.............................................................................................. 342When WINS Servers are Unavailable ........................................................................................ 343Name Renewal............................................................................................................................... 343Name Refresh Request .............................................................................................................. 343Name Refresh Response ........................................................................................................... 343Name Release................................................................................................................................ 343Name Resolution............................................................................................................................ 344The WINS Client ................................................................................................................................ 345DHCP Configuration of a WINS Client ........................................................................................... 345Manual Configuration of the WINS Client Using Network Connections......................................... 345Manual Configuration of the WINS Client Using Netsh.................................................................. 346
  16. 16. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xivConfiguration of the WINS Client for Remote Access Clients........................................................ 347The WINS Server Service.................................................................................................................. 348Installing the WINS Server Service ................................................................................................ 348Properties of the WINS Server....................................................................................................... 349Static Entries for Non-WINS Clients............................................................................................... 350Database Replication Between WINS Servers .............................................................................. 351Push and Pull Operations ........................................................................................................... 353Configuring a WINS Server as a Push or Pull Partner ............................................................... 354Configuring Database Replication .............................................................................................. 354WINS Automatic Replication Partners........................................................................................ 356The WINS Proxy ................................................................................................................................ 357How WINS Proxies Resolve Names .............................................................................................. 357WINS Proxies and Name Registration ........................................................................................... 358Configuration of a WINS Proxy ...................................................................................................... 359Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 360Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 361Chapter 13 – Internet Protocol Security and Packet Filtering ........................................................ 363Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 364IPsec and Packet Filtering Overview ................................................................................................. 365IPsec .................................................................................................................................................. 366Security Properties of IPsec-protected Communications............................................................... 366IPsec Protocols .............................................................................................................................. 367IPsec Modes................................................................................................................................... 367Transport Mode .......................................................................................................................... 367Tunnel Mode............................................................................................................................... 369Negotiation Phases ........................................................................................................................ 370Phase I or Main Mode Negotiation ............................................................................................. 371Phase II or Quick Mode Negotiation........................................................................................... 372Connection Security Rules............................................................................................................. 372IPsec Policy Settings...................................................................................................................... 373General IPsec Policy Settings .................................................................................................... 373Rules........................................................................................................................................... 375
  17. 17. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xvDefault Response Rule............................................................................................................... 376Filter List ..................................................................................................................................... 376Filter Settings.............................................................................................................................. 377Filter Action................................................................................................................................. 377IPsec Security Methods.............................................................................................................. 379Custom Security Methods........................................................................................................... 380Authentication ............................................................................................................................. 381Tunnel Endpoint.......................................................................................................................... 382Connection Type......................................................................................................................... 382IPsec for IPv6 Traffic...................................................................................................................... 383Packet Filtering .................................................................................................................................. 384Windows Firewall ........................................................................................................................... 384Configuring Rules with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Snap-in ........................ 385Configuring Windows Firewall with Control Panel...................................................................... 385How Windows Firewall Works .................................................................................................... 386Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) ................................................................................................. 387TCP/IP Filtering .............................................................................................................................. 388Packet Filtering with Routing and Remote Access ........................................................................ 389Basic Firewall.............................................................................................................................. 390IP Packet Filtering....................................................................................................................... 391IPv6 Packet Filtering ...................................................................................................................... 392Windows Firewall........................................................................................................................ 393IPv6 Packet Filtering with Routing and Remote Access ............................................................ 393Basic IPv6 Firewall ..................................................................................................................... 393IPv6 ICF...................................................................................................................................... 393Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 395Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 396Chapter 14 – Virtual Private Networking........................................................................................... 399Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 400Virtual Private Networking Overview.................................................................................................. 401Components of a VPN.................................................................................................................... 401Attributes of a VPN Connection...................................................................................................... 402
  18. 18. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xviUser Authentication .................................................................................................................... 403Encapsulation ............................................................................................................................. 403Encryption................................................................................................................................... 403Types of VPN Connections ............................................................................................................ 403Remote Access........................................................................................................................... 403Site-to-Site .................................................................................................................................. 405VPN Protocols.................................................................................................................................... 407Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)......................................................................................................... 407Phase 1: PPP Link Establishment.............................................................................................. 407Phase 2: User Authentication ..................................................................................................... 407Phase 3: PPP Callback Control.................................................................................................. 409Phase 4: Invoking Network Layer Protocol(s) ............................................................................ 409Data-Transfer Phase .................................................................................................................. 409Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)...................................................................................... 409Layer Two Tunneling Protocol with IPsec (L2TP/IPsec)................................................................ 410Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) .................................................................................... 410Remote Access VPN Connections .................................................................................................... 412VPN Client Support ........................................................................................................................ 412Network Connections Folder ...................................................................................................... 412Connection Manager .................................................................................................................. 412VPN Server Support....................................................................................................................... 413VPN Server Support in Windows Vista....................................................................................... 414VPN Server Support in Windows XP.......................................................................................... 415IP Address Assignment and Routing and Remote Access ............................................................ 415Obtaining IPv4 Addresses via DHCP ......................................................................................... 415Obtaining IPv4 Addresses from a Static Address Pool .............................................................. 416The Process for Setting Up a Remote Access VPN Connection ................................................... 417Step 1: Logical Link Setup.......................................................................................................... 417Step 2: PPP Connection Setup .................................................................................................. 419Step 3: Remote Access VPN Client Registration ....................................................................... 419Site-to-Site VPN Connections............................................................................................................ 420Configuring a Site-to-Site VPN Connection ................................................................................... 421
  19. 19. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xviiConfiguring a Demand-dial Interface.......................................................................................... 421Connection Example for a Site-to-Site VPN................................................................................... 422The Connection Process for Site-to-Site VPNs.............................................................................. 424Using RADIUS for Network Access Authentication ........................................................................... 425RADIUS Components .................................................................................................................... 425Access Clients ............................................................................................................................ 426Access Servers........................................................................................................................... 426RADIUS Servers......................................................................................................................... 426User Account Databases............................................................................................................ 426RADIUS Proxies ......................................................................................................................... 427NPS or IAS as a RADIUS Server................................................................................................... 427Network and Remote Access Policies........................................................................................ 429Network or Remote Access Policy Conditions and Restrictions ................................................ 429NPS or IAS as a RADIUS Proxy .................................................................................................... 430Connection Request Processing ................................................................................................ 431Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 432Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 433Chapter 15 – IPv6 Transition Technologies...................................................................................... 435Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 436Introduction to IPv6 Transition Technologies..................................................................................... 437IPv6 Transition Mechanisms.............................................................................................................. 438Dual Stack or Dual IP Layer Architectures..................................................................................... 438DNS Infrastructure.......................................................................................................................... 439Address Selection Rules............................................................................................................. 439IPv6 Over IPv4 Tunneling .............................................................................................................. 440Tunneling Configurations............................................................................................................ 440Types of Tunnels ........................................................................................................................ 441ISATAP .............................................................................................................................................. 442Using an ISATAP Router................................................................................................................ 443Resolving the ISATAP Name...................................................................................................... 444Using the netsh interface isatap set router Command ............................................................... 445Setting up an ISATAP Router......................................................................................................... 445
  20. 20. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xviii6to4 .................................................................................................................................................... 4466to4 Support in Windows ............................................................................................................... 448Teredo................................................................................................................................................ 452Teredo Components....................................................................................................................... 452Teredo Addresses .......................................................................................................................... 454How Teredo Works......................................................................................................................... 455Initial Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 455Initial Communication Between Two Teredo Clients in Different Sites ...................................... 455Migrating to IPv6 ................................................................................................................................ 458Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 459Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 460Chapter 16 – Troubleshooting TCP/IP............................................................................................... 463Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 464Identifying the Problem Source.......................................................................................................... 465Windows Troubleshooting Tools........................................................................................................ 466Troubleshooting IPv4 ......................................................................................................................... 468Verifying IPv4 Connectivity............................................................................................................. 468Repair the Connection ................................................................................................................ 468Verify Configuration .................................................................................................................... 469Manage Configuration ................................................................................................................ 469Verify Reachability...................................................................................................................... 470Check Packet Filtering................................................................................................................ 471View and Manage the Local IPv4 Routing Table........................................................................ 472Verify Router Reliability .............................................................................................................. 472Verifying DNS Name Resolution for IPv4 Addresses .................................................................... 472Verify DNS Configuration............................................................................................................ 472Display and Flush the DNS Client Resolver Cache ................................................................... 473Test DNS Name Resolution with Ping........................................................................................ 473Use the Nslookup Tool to View DNS Server Responses ........................................................... 473Verifying NetBIOS Name Resolution ............................................................................................. 473Verify NetBIOS over TCP/IP Configuration ................................................................................ 473Display and Reload the NetBIOS Name Cache ......................................................................... 474
  21. 21. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xixTest NetBIOS Name Resolution with Nbtstat............................................................................. 474Verifying IPv4-based TCP Sessions .............................................................................................. 474Check for Packet Filtering........................................................................................................... 474Verify TCP Session Establishment............................................................................................. 475Verify NetBIOS Sessions............................................................................................................ 475Troubleshooting IPv6 ......................................................................................................................... 476Verifying IPv6 Connectivity............................................................................................................. 476Verify Configuration .................................................................................................................... 476Manage Configuration ................................................................................................................ 477Verify Reachability...................................................................................................................... 477Check Packet Filtering................................................................................................................ 478View and Manage the IPv6 Routing Table ................................................................................. 479Verify Router Reliability .............................................................................................................. 479Verifying DNS Name Resolution for IPv6 Addresses .................................................................... 479Verify DNS Configuration............................................................................................................ 479Display and Flush the DNS Client Resolver Cache ................................................................... 480Test DNS Name Resolution with the Ping Tool.......................................................................... 480Use the Nslookup Tool to View DNS Server Responses ........................................................... 480Verifying IPv6-based TCP Connections......................................................................................... 480Check for Packet Filtering........................................................................................................... 480Verify TCP Connection Establishment ....................................................................................... 481Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................................. 482Chapter Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 483Appendix A – IP Multicast................................................................................................................... 485Overview of IP Multicast .................................................................................................................... 486IP Multicast-Enabled Intranet ......................................................................................................... 486Host Support for IP Multicast...................................................................................................... 487Router Support for IP Multicast .................................................................................................. 487Multicast Addresses........................................................................................................................... 490IPv4 Multicast Addresses............................................................................................................... 490Mapping IPv4 Multicast to MAC-Layer Multicast........................................................................ 490IPv6 Multicast Addresses............................................................................................................... 491
  22. 22. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xxSolicited-Node Address .............................................................................................................. 492Mapping IPv6 Multicast to MAC-Layer Multicast........................................................................ 493Multicast Subnet Membership Management.................................................................................. 493IGMP for IPv4 ............................................................................................................................. 494MLD for IPv6............................................................................................................................... 494IPv4 Multicast Forwarding Support in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003 ................ 496IPv4 Multicast Forwarding.............................................................................................................. 496IGMP Routing Protocol Component............................................................................................... 496IGMP Router Mode..................................................................................................................... 497IGMP Proxy Mode ...................................................................................................................... 498IPv4 Multicast Address Allocation with MADCAP.............................................................................. 500Using Multicast Scopes .................................................................................................................. 500Reliable Multicast with Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM) ............................................................. 502PGM Overview ............................................................................................................................... 502Adding and Using the Reliable Multicast Protocol ......................................................................... 503Adding the Reliable Multicast Protocol ....................................................................................... 503Writing PGM-enabled Applications............................................................................................. 503How PGM and the Reliable Multicast Protocol Works ................................................................... 503Appendix B – Simple Network Management Protocol..................................................................... 505SNMP Overview................................................................................................................................. 506The Management Information Base............................................................................................... 507The Hierarchical Name Tree....................................................................................................... 507SNMP Messages............................................................................................................................ 508SNMP Communities ....................................................................................................................... 509How SNMP Works.......................................................................................................................... 510Windows SNMP Service .................................................................................................................... 512Installing and Configuring the SNMP Service ................................................................................ 513Agent Tab ................................................................................................................................... 513Traps Tab.................................................................................................................................... 514Security Tab................................................................................................................................ 514Evntcmd Tool.................................................................................................................................. 515Appendix C – Computer Browser Service ........................................................................................ 517
  23. 23. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xxiComputer Browsing Overview ........................................................................................................... 518Browsing Collection and Distribution.............................................................................................. 519The Collection Process............................................................................................................... 519The Distribution Process............................................................................................................. 520Servicing Browse Client Requests ................................................................................................. 521Obtaining the List of Servers Within its LAN Group ................................................................... 521Obtaining the List of Servers Within Another LAN Group .......................................................... 522Obtaining the List of Shares on a Server.................................................................................... 523The Computer Browser Service on Computers Running Windows Server 2008 .......................... 523Computer Browser Service Operation on an IPv4 Network .............................................................. 525Domain Spanning an IPv4 Router.................................................................................................. 525Collection and Distribution Process............................................................................................ 526Servicing Browse Client Requests ............................................................................................. 527Configuring the Lmhosts File for an Domain that Spans IPv4 Routers...................................... 528Multiple Domains Separated By IPv4 Routers............................................................................... 528Collection and Distribution Process............................................................................................ 529Servicing WINS-enabled Client Requests for Remote Domains................................................ 530Servicing non-WINS Client Requests for Remote Domains....................................................... 532Workgroup Spanning an IPv4 Router ............................................................................................ 533Multiple Workgroups Separated By IPv4 Routers.......................................................................... 534
  24. 24. TCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: xxii
  25. 25. Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPTCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: 1Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPAbstractThis chapter introduces Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), both as an industry standard protocolsuite and as it is supported in the Microsoft Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, andWindows XP families of operating systems. For the TCP/IP protocol suite, network administrators must understand itspast, the current standards process, and the common terms used to describe network devices and portions of anetwork. For the TCP/IP components in Windows, network administrators must understand the installation andconfiguration differences of the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-based and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-basedcomponents and the primary tools for troubleshooting.
  26. 26. Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPTCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: 2Chapter ObjectivesAfter completing this chapter, you will be able to: Describe the purpose and history of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Describe the Internet standards process and the purpose of a Request for Comments (RFC) document. Define common terms used in TCP/IP. Describe the advantages of including TCP/IP components in Windows. Describe how to configure the IPv4-based TCP/IP component in Windows. Describe how to install and configure the IPv6-based TCP/IP component in Windows. List and define the set of name resolution files and diagnostic tools used by the TCP/IP components inWindows. Test the TCP/IP components of Windows with the Ipconfig and Ping tools. Install and use Network Monitor.
  27. 27. Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPTCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: 3History of TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is an industry standard suite of protocols thatis designed for large networks consisting of network segments that are connected by routers. TCP/IP isthe protocol that is used on the Internet, which is the collection of thousands of networks worldwide thatconnect research facilities, universities, libraries, government agencies, private companies, andindividuals.The roots of TCP/IP can be traced back to research conducted by the United States Department ofDefense (DoD) Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Thefollowing list highlights some important TCP/IP milestones: In 1970, ARPANET hosts started to use Network Control Protocol (NCP), a preliminary form of whatwould become the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). In 1972, the Telnet protocol was introduced. Telnet is used for terminal emulation to connect dissimilarsystems. In the early 1970s, these systems were different types of mainframe computers. In 1973, the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was introduced. FTP is used to exchange files betweendissimilar systems. In 1974, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was specified in detail. TCP replaced NCP andprovided enhanced reliable communication services. In 1981, the Internet Protocol (IP) (also known as IP version 4 [IPv4]) was specified in detail. IPprovides addressing and routing functions for end-to-end delivery. In 1982, the Defense Communications Agency (DCA) and ARPA established the Transmission ControlProtocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) as the TCP/IP protocol suite. In 1983, ARPANET switched from NCP to TCP/IP. In 1984, the Domain Name System (DNS) was introduced. DNS resolves domain names (such aswww.example.com) to IP addresses (such as 192.168.5.18). In 1995, Internet service providers (ISPs) began to offer Internet access to businesses and individuals. In 1996, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) was introduced. The World Wide Web uses HTTP. In 1996, the first set of IP version 6 (IPv6) standards were published.For more information about these protocols and the layers of the TCP/IP protocol architecture, seeChapter 2, "Architectural Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite."With the refinement of the IPv6 standards and their growing acceptance, the chapters of this onlinebook make the following definitions: TCP/IP is the entire suite of protocols defined for use on private networks and the Internet. TCP/IPincludes both the IPv4 and IPv6 sets of protocols. IPv4 is the Internet layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite originally defined for use on the Internet. IPv4 is inwidespread use today. IPv6 is the Internet layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite that has been recently developed. IPv6 is gainingacceptance today.
  28. 28. Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IPTCP/IP Fundamentals for Microsoft Windows Page: 4 IP is the term used to describe features or attributes that apply to both IPv4 and IPv6. For example, anIP address is either an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address.Note Because the term IP indicates IPv4 in most of the TCP/IP implementations today, the term IP will beused for IPv4 in some instances. These references will be made clear in the context of the discussion.When possible, the chapters of this online book will use the term IP (IPv4).

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