Cryptosporidium hominis

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Cryptosporidium hominis

  1. 1. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM HOMINIS By Stephanie Chiong BSBI3A Parasite Biology Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations Diagnosis Treatment Epidemiology Prevention and Control
  2. 2. PARASITE BIOLOGY Oocysts are found in feces of human and animals (each oocyst contains foursporozoites) The oocysts are infectious and when ingested, sporozoites attach to thegastrointestinal tract Sporozoites develop into trophozoites and become intracellular but extracytoplasmic The trophozoites divide by schizogony, producing mesozoites Macro and microgametocytes are eventually produced A zygote develops and later, an oocyst Oocysts pass in the feces and contaminate food and water
  3. 3. C. HOMINIS LIFECYCLE
  4. 4. PATHOGENESIS AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Self-limiting diarrhea(2-3 weeks), abdominal pain, anorexia, fever, nausea, weightloss for immunocompetent hosts Severe and progressively worse diarrhea for immunocompromised patients Bile duct and gall bladder heavily affected acute and gangrenous cholecystitis Respiratory infections chronic coughing, dyspnea, bronchiolitis and pneumonia Villi of intestines become blunted and infiltration of inflammatory cells Varying degrees of malabsorption and excessive fluid loss DEATH
  5. 5. DIAGNOSIS Stool exmination methods Sheather’s sufar flotation Formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique Kinyoun;s modified acid-fast stain Indirect fluorescent antibody Enzyme immunoassay and DNA probes specific for C. hominis Acid-fast stain preferred
  6. 6. TREATMENT NO ACCEPTABLE TREATMENT Nitazoxanide proven effective in preliminary trials Bovine colostrum, Paramomycin and Clarithromycin severediarrhea Azithromycin
  7. 7. EPIDEMIOLOGY Universal distribution Infections reported worldwide Unusual in North America over many cases in Wisconsin, USA due tofaulty water purification system Mostly associated with water, in many cases, contaminated with calf feces Other sources of infection: unpasteurized milk and apple cider Nosocomial infections in health workers
  8. 8.  Crptosporidium parvum bovines Cryptosporidium hominis humans Prevalence in developing countries: 3-20% Philippines 2.6% Study in San Lazaro Hospital: 8.5% Study in Philippine General Hospital: 1.7%
  9. 9. PREVENTION AND CONTROL Water-borne transmission = synergystic effect of multipledisinfectants and combined WATER TREATMENT processes Chlorination no effect on parasite Natural water and swimming pool water NOT TO BESWALLOWED Contamination of drinking water NO NO
  10. 10. ~End~

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