Cryptosporidium presentation

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MLS Student presentation on Cryptosporidium

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Cryptosporidium presentation

  1. 1. cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/ Angie BainStephanie Hood
  2. 2.  Protozoan Phylum: Apicomplexa Class: Sporozoasida Order: Eucoccidiida Family Cryptosporiidae Genus: Criptosporidium waterfilterreview.com Species: parvum, muris, meleagridis, felis, etc.
  3. 3.  Recognized in mice in 1907 Reported in humans in 1976  Immunocompetent child  Immunosuppressed adult Recognized globally in 1980s and 1990s www.nap.edu  AIDS patients Ernest Edward Tyzzer  Outbreak among veterinary students
  4. 4.  Cryptosporidium is a spore producing parasite found in the intestine of infected people and animals. Cryptosporidium spp. is landesbioscience.com the most common cause of Cryptosporidiosis.
  5. 5.  Infection  Ingesting food or drinks contaminated with fecal material  Swallowing recreational water contaminated with secretsofsoa.com Cryptosporidium  Not washing hands  Sexual practices leading to oral exposure with fecal material victorystore.com
  6. 6.  Buries into intestinal lining of the gut  Goes through Life Cycle Alters osmotic pressure  Diarrhea Atrophy of intestinal villi  Alters uptake of fluids, electrolytes, and nutrients  Malabsorption syndrome CDC DPDx Library
  7. 7.  Symptoms (2 to 10 days after infection and can last up to 30 days)  Diarrhea  Stomach cramps treehugger.com  Dehydration  Nausea  Vomiting  Fever  Weight loss  Sometimes no symptoms are seen bathroomscalereview.com
  8. 8.  White Blood Cells Phagocytize Parasites  Segmented neutrophils  Macrophages  Lymphocytes  Eosinophils labmed.hallym.ac.kr
  9. 9.  CD4+ T cells  Early infection CD8+ T cells  Elimination CD154 and CD40  Stimulate nitric oxide  IFN-γ, IL-12  T cell response  Apoptosis Other Cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL- 4, IL-10, IL-15, etc. Patients with AIDS  Decreased CD4+ count Ashton-Rickardt, 2004
  10. 10.  IgM IgG IgA X-linked immunodefiencey  Mutations in CD154 gene  Defected IgM cannot allerresponz.com mount immune response
  11. 11.  Specimen Source  Multiple Stool Specimens Diagnostic Techniques  Wet Mount  Modified Acid Fast Stain  Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Assay Detection Methods  Safranin Stain  Trichrome Stain  Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) savethecanyoncall.com  Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)  Rapid Immunochromatographic cartridge Assays
  12. 12.  Visualization of Oocysts  4 to 6 µm Bight-Field Microscopy Differential Interference contrast (DIC) High Sensitivity and CDC DPDx Library Specificity Wet Mount Slide
  13. 13.  Visualization of Oocytes  Light pink to dark red  Can also visualize sporozoites Relatively High Sensitivity and Specificity Irregular Staining CDC DPDx Library  cause “ghost” oocysts Modified Acid Fast Stain
  14. 14.  Fluorescence microscope “Gold Standard”  High sensitivity and specificity Does not provide archievable stained slide Requires special equipment CDC DPDx Library Fluorescent Stain Auramine Rhodamine
  15. 15.  Safranin stain  Oocysts stain a bright red orange  Not widely used because oocysts may not stain properly Trichrome Stain CDC DPDx Library Safranin Stain  Oocysts may appear unstained Lowest sensitivity and specificity among all tests Can detect Oocysts, but Cryptosporidium should be confirmed by diagnostic CDC DPDx Library techniques Trichrome Stain
  16. 16.  Detects isolated antigens from a patients sample using antibodies that are tagged with a color changing enzyme. Relatively high Sensitivity and Specificity Does not involve microscopy techlab.com Screens large numbers of specimens
  17. 17.  Separates DNA fragments based on size 435 bp High Sensitivity and Specificity CDC DPDx Library
  18. 18.  Detects isolated antigens from sample using antibodies. A positive test is indicated by a colored bar. Variable Sensitivity and alibaba.com Specificity Some Assays Have Been Recalled
  19. 19.  Nitazoxanide Paromomycin Azithroycin Individuals with AIDS  anti-retroviral therapy generecsmed.com
  20. 20.  Ashton-Rickardt, P.G. A license to remember. Nat. Immunol. 5, 1097-1098 (2004). Beach, M.J. And Johnston, S. P. Manufacturers recall of rapid cartridge assay kits on the basis of false-positive Cryptosporidium antigen tests — Colorado. MMWR. 53, 198-199 (2004). CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/. Accessed September 22, 2011 Dillingham, R. A., Aldo, A. A., and Guerrant, R. L. Cryptosporidiosis: epidemiology and impact. Microb. Infect. 4, 1059-1066 (2002). Mahon, C.R., Lehman, D.C., and Manuselis, G. Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. 4th Ed. Elsevier (2011) Riggs, M. W. Recent Advances in cryptosporidiosis: the immune response. Microb. Infect. 4, 1067-1080 (2002). Stevens, C.D. Clinical Immunology & Serology: A Laboratory Perspective. 3rd Ed. F.A. Davis Company (2010). Tzipori, S. and Honorine, W. Cryptosporidiosis: biology, pathogenesis and disease. Microb. Infect. 4, 1047-1058 (2002).

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