Approaches to Teaching in Higher Education (HE)This resource has been used to provide an introduction for new staff wishing some initial guidance and for more experienced staff who have come to realise that that the student mix has altered to the extent that traditional delivery and support approaches are increasingly unsuitable if retention and progression figures are to be maintained. What are the principles of good practice in teaching in HE?In 1987, authors Chickering and Gamson published "Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" (AAHE Bulletin). These principles can be modified and applied to today's universities as well:1 Encourage Student-Staff ContactIn and out of the classroom, frequent student-faculty contact is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. 2 Encourage Cooperation Among StudentsGood learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. 3 Encourage Active Learning Learning is not a spectator sport. 4 Give Prompt Feedback to students on assignmentsStudents need appropriate feedback on performance to benefit from courses. 5 Emphasise “Time on Task”Learning to use one's time well is critical for students and professionals alike. 6 Communicate High ExpectationsExpecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations. 7 Respect Diverse Talents and Ways of LearningStudents need the opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be motivated to learn in new ways that do not come so easily. In view of the above, how is the main delivery method in higher education, the lecture, viewed by researchers and scholars of HE pedagogy? Lectures as TeachingAre Lectures a suitable delivery method?Studies have shown that although lectures are the most widely used method of delivery in Universities many students in tertiary educational institutions have not yet developed the abstract reasoning that will allow them to learn new ideas simply by listening to lectures and reading text. Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience model (Dale, 1969) suggests that lecture and text are the least effective ways to introduce new concepts to students. So what course delivery methodology would appear to suit us?From the literature it would appear that an active learning approach is most likely to result in increased student motivation and retention. At the most basic and most effective level of instruction, students are introduced to new material through an actual hands-on experience or “doing the real thing”. Students see, do and talk about the concept.What is active learning?Basically it is ensuring that the students are actively involved with what they are learning. Learning is neither passive nor a spectator activity. To learn you must wish to learn and practice what you are attempting to learn. Students require regular instruction that either anchors the concepts directly into their previous experience or provides a concrete experience with data from which the concept may be inferred. (Blanc, et al., 1983; Karplus et al., 1976; Renner et al, 1976) What does this mean for lectures?It means that the use of passive lectures should be minimised – particularly for 1st year students. As a minimum lectures must be changed to introduce activities or micro breaks at planned regular intervals of around 20 minutes. I have to use a lecture so what do I do?As a minimum tell the students that you will stop lecturing after a predetermined time – it has been suggested that 20 minutes is a suitable break time or change of teaching method. At the end of this time you could allow the students to ask questions, you could ask the students questions, you could ask the students to review what has been covered and produce a Mind Map etc. Even a 30 second break is enough to improve memory. It has been found that we remember best what is taught at the beginning and the end of a fixed learning period. We also remember better if we are allowed a few minutes rest from the subject at the end of every learning period and if we review the material at an early stage. (Buzan, 1989). See the graph below: References Blanc, R.A., DeBuhr, L., & Martin, D.C. "Breaking the attrition cycle: The effects of Supplemental Instruction on undergraduate performance and attrition", Journal of Higher Education, 1983, 54(1), 80-89. Buzan, T. Use Your Head (Revised Edition). London: BBC Books, 1989 Chickering, A.W., & Gamson, A.F., (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Racine, WI: The Johnson Foundation, Inc./Wingspread. [Available by contacting the Seven Principles Resources Center, P.O. Box 5838, Winona State University, Winona, MN 55987-5838; (507) 457-5020] Dale, E. Audiovisual methods in teaching. New York: Holt. Rinehard and Winston, Inc, 1969. Karplus, R., Lawson, A.E., Wollman, W., Appel, M., Bernoff, R., Howe, A., Rusch, J.J., & Sullivan, F. Science teaching and the development of reasoning: A workshop. Berkeley, CA: Regents of the University of California, 1976. Renner, J.W., Stafford, D.G., Lawson, A.W., McKinnon, J.W., Friot, F.E., & Kellogg, D.H. Research, teaching and learning with the Piaget model. Norman, OK: The University of Oklahoma Press, 1976.
http://donaldclarkplanb.blogspot.com/2010/05/10-techniques-to-massively-increase.html10 techniques to massively increase retention This is the classic ‘forgetting curve’ by Ebbinghaus, a fundamental truth in memory theory, totally ignored by most educators and trainers. Most fixed ’courses’ or ‘lectures’ take no notice of the phenomenon, condemning much of their effort to the world of lost memories. Most educational and training pedagogies are hopelessly inefficient because they fail to recognise this basic truth. Smart learners get it. They revise over a period, with regular doses to consolidate their memories.Little and oftenThe real solution, to this massive problem of forgetfulness, is spaced practice, little and often, the regular rehearsal and practice of the knowledge/skill over a period of time to elaborate and allow deep processing to fix long-term memories. If we get this right, increases on the productivity of learning can be enormous. We are not talking small increase in knowledge and retention but increases of 200-700%. It has the potential to radically alter the attainment levels in schools, colleges, universities and organisations. OK, that’s the theory, what about the practice?What strategies enable spaced practice?I’ll start with a few ‘learner’ tips, then a few ‘teacher/trainer’ practices and end on some technical techniques.1. Self- rehearsal – This is very powerful, but needs self-discipline. You sit quietly, and recall the learning on a regular, spaced practice basis. The hour/day/week/month model is one, but a more regular pattern of reinforcement will be more successful. Research suggests that the spacing different for individuals and that it is good to rehearse when you have a quiet moment and feel you are in the mood to reflect. Recent research has shown that rehearsal just prior to sleep is a powerful technique. Another bizarre, but effective, model is to place the textbook/notes in your toilet. It’s something you do daily, and offers the perfect opportunity for repeated practice!2. Take notes – write up your learning experience, in your own words, diagrams, analogies. This can result in dramatic increases in learning (20-30%). Then re-read a few times afterwards or type up as a more coherent piece. It is important to summarise and re-read your notes as soon as possible after the learning experience.3. Blogging – if the learner blogs his/her learning experience after the course, then responds to the tutors’, and others’ comments for a few weeks afterwards, we have repeated consolidation, and the content has a much higher chance of being retained. 4. Repetition – within the course, but also at the start of every subsequent period, lesson or lecture, repeat (not in parrot fashion) the ground that was covered previously. Take five or ten minutes at the start to ask key questions about the previous content.5. Delayed assessment – give learners exercises to do after the course and explain that you will assess them a few weeks, months after the course has finished. This prevents reliance on short-term memory and gives them a chance to consolidate their knowledge/skills.6.Record – it is education and training’ great act of stupidity, not to record talks, lectures and presentations. They give the learner subsequent access to the content and therefore spaced practice. 7. Games pedagogy – Games have powerful pedagogies. They have to as they are hard. It works through repeated attempts and failure. You only progress as your acquired competence allows. Most games involve huge amounts of repetition and failure with levels of attainment that take days, weeks and months to complete.8. Spaced e-learning – schedule a pattern in your online learning, so that learners do less in one sitting and spread their learning over a longer period of time, with shorter episodes. Free your learners from the tyranny of time and location, allowing them to do little and often. In education this is homework and assignments, in training subsequent talks that need to be emailed back to the trainer/tutor.9. Mobile technology – the drip feed of assessment over a number of weeks after the course or redesign the whole course as a drip-feed experience. We have the ideal device in our pockets – mobiles. They’re powerful, portable and personal. Push out small chunks or banks of questions, structured so that repetition and consolidation happens. This usually involves the repeated testing of the individual until you feel that the learning has succeeded.10. Less long holidays – it terms of public policy, increasing school results would be betters served by avoiding the long summer holiday and restructuring the school, college and University years around more regular terms and less long vacations.BenefitsThe retention benefit works like compound interest as you’re building on previous learning, deepening the processing and consolidating long-term memory. It is, in my opinion, the single most effective strategic change we could make to our learning interventions.
● theC ognit i ve domain – processing information, knowledge and mental skills ● theAf f e c ti ve domain – Attitudes and feelings ● thePsychom ot or domain – manipulative, manual or physical skills
Supporting Student Learning Through The Use Of Technology Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Bill Steele
Please select a Team. Business Engineering Health Humanities Science Other
“A teacher that can be replaced by a computer, deserves to be” - David Thornburg Many teachers say active learning would be great ‘if they had the time’. But the research shows that if you make the time for effective active learning by doing less didactic teaching, then your students will do better. It may seem strange not to be able to say everything you know about the topic you are teaching, but it won’t help if you do. You know too much! - Geoff Petty
Chickering and GamsonWhat are the seven principles of good practice in teaching in HE? 1 Encourage Student-Staff Contact In and out of the classroom, frequent student-faculty contact is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. 2 Encourage Cooperation Among Students Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. 3 Encourage Active Learning Learning is not a spectator sport. 4 Give Prompt Feedback to students on assignments Students need appropriate feedback on performance to benefit from courses. 5 Emphasise “Time on Task” Learning to use one's time well is critical for students and professionals alike. 6 Communicate High Expectations Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations. 7 Respect Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Students need the opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be motivated to learn in new ways that do not come so easily.
Self- rehearsal - hour/day/week/month model Supplement handouts by taking notes to summarise lesson – concept map Blogging - summarise lesson and respond to questions Repetition - end and beginning of each session Delayed assessment Record - podcasts, vodcasts Games pedagogy - perseverance and repetition Spaced e-learning - short topics over longer period Mobile technology - Push out small chunks or banks of questions Less long holidays 10 techniques to massively increase retention - Donald Clark Plan B Double Memory Retention
Bloom’s taxonomy for ordering thinking skills and learning objectives has become a key tool in structuring and understanding the learning process. Deals with the cognitive domain Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Bloom’s Taxonomy
Revised by Lorin Anderson with David Krathwohl Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing Evaluating (Revised position) Creating (Revised position) Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Revised Bloom’s
Andrew Churches attempts to attach potential tools to the thinking skills and learning objectives Blooms Digital Taxonomy V3.1 Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy
Open Culture Free Video Lectures Open Educational Resources Khan Academy TeacherTube YouTube Open Learn Resources
Voicethread Education Wallwisher Blogs Wikis Podcasts Games First Aid Nobel Prize Games Web 2.0 Examples
Is the use of someone else’s work or substantial and unacknowledged use of published material presented as the student’s own work. It includes the following:
the extensive use of another person’s material without reference or acknowledgement;
the summarising of another person’s material by changing a few words or altering the order of presentation without reference or acknowledgement;
the substantial and unauthorised use of the ideas of another person without acknowledgement;
copying the work of another student with or without the student’s knowledge or agreement;
deliberate use of commissioned material, which is presented as one’s own;
unacknowledged quotation of phrases from another’s work.
Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either “1" or “2," that you think has not been plagiarized.Original Source Material: A naïve mental model in the context of computer programming is that a computer is an intelligent system, and that giving directions to a computer is like giving directions to a human being.Source: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. One kind of mental model for the computer is the naïve model. A naïve mental model in the context of computer programming is that a computer is an intelligent system. This model is naïve because giving directions to a computer is like giving directions to a human being. References: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. One kind of mental model for the computer is the naïve model. According to van Merriënboer (1997), "A naïve mental model in the context of computer programming is that a computer is an intelligent system, and that giving directions to a computer is like giving directions to a human being" (p. 145). References: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate button. Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarism 10
In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate button. Word-for-Word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism This is not plagiarism
Turnitin Copy and matching software Provides an Originality Report to assist: Students improve academic writing Tutors identify students attempting to obtain an unfair advantage Accessed from within VLE Support materials in Bb module Blended Learning – Bronze Level
Student producing pages on drivers needs to ensure that the courses they won on, the cars they drove, who sponsored them are included on the other relevant students pages to allow links to be made
Finished results greater than the sum of the individual pages but each students contribution can be marked separately
I know what a blog is Yes No Abstain
Blogs 3 general types Private – student controls who has access – typically a private web diary for critical incidents Module type typically used to allow students to provide entries and the staff member to provide comments – “you said – we did” Journal type – tutor has access – typically a placement diary that allows tutor to provide feedback
My Personal Learning Space Blogs, wikis, podcasts, portlets Personalise to suit the individual Intention to provide a one stop shop to all required services Link the academic, the personal and the career without combining them An ePortfolio
Assessment21 Paperless examination system Students sit exam at computer Papers provided to markers anonymously Selection of tools to speed the marking process External can be provided with access immediately papers marked No physical papers so no posting
Wimba Create make website from a Word document XERTE create eLearning objects from a set of templates Camtasia relay Recording live lectures, presentations, meetings