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  • Approaches to Teaching in Higher Education (HE)This resource has been used to provide an introduction for new staff wishing some initial guidance and for more experienced staff who have come to realise that that the student mix has altered to the extent that traditional delivery and support approaches are increasingly unsuitable if retention and progression figures are to be maintained. What are the principles of good practice in teaching in HE?In 1987, authors Chickering and Gamson published "Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" (AAHE Bulletin). These principles can be modified and applied to today's universities as well:1 Encourage Student-Staff ContactIn and out of the classroom, frequent student-faculty contact is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. 2 Encourage Cooperation Among StudentsGood learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. 3 Encourage Active Learning Learning is not a spectator sport. 4 Give Prompt Feedback to students on assignmentsStudents need appropriate feedback on performance to benefit from courses. 5 Emphasise “Time on Task”Learning to use one's time well is critical for students and professionals alike. 6 Communicate High ExpectationsExpecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations. 7 Respect Diverse Talents and Ways of LearningStudents need the opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be motivated to learn in new ways that do not come so easily.  In view of the above, how is the main delivery method in higher education, the lecture, viewed by researchers and scholars of HE pedagogy? Lectures as TeachingAre Lectures a suitable delivery method?Studies have shown that although lectures are the most widely used method of delivery in Universities many students in tertiary educational institutions have not yet developed the abstract reasoning that will allow them to learn new ideas simply by listening to lectures and reading text. Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience model (Dale, 1969) suggests that lecture and text are the least effective ways to introduce new concepts to students. So what course delivery methodology would appear to suit us?From the literature it would appear that an active learning approach is most likely to result in increased student motivation and retention. At the most basic and most effective level of instruction, students are introduced to new material through an actual hands-on experience or “doing the real thing”. Students see, do and talk about the concept.What is active learning?Basically it is ensuring that the students are actively involved with what they are learning. Learning is neither passive nor a spectator activity. To learn you must wish to learn and practice what you are attempting to learn. Students require regular instruction that either anchors the concepts directly into their previous experience or provides a concrete experience with data from which the concept may be inferred. (Blanc, et al., 1983; Karplus et al., 1976; Renner et al, 1976) What does this mean for lectures?It means that the use of passive lectures should be minimised – particularly for 1st year students. As a minimum lectures must be changed to introduce activities or micro breaks at planned regular intervals of around 20 minutes. I have to use a lecture so what do I do?As a minimum tell the students that you will stop lecturing after a predetermined time – it has been suggested that 20 minutes is a suitable break time or change of teaching method. At the end of this time you could allow the students to ask questions, you could ask the students questions, you could ask the students to review what has been covered and produce a Mind Map etc. Even a 30 second break is enough to improve memory. It has been found that we remember best what is taught at the beginning and the end of a fixed learning period. We also remember better if we are allowed a few minutes rest from the subject at the end of every learning period and if we review the material at an early stage. (Buzan, 1989). See the graph below:  References Blanc, R.A., DeBuhr, L., & Martin, D.C. "Breaking the attrition cycle: The effects of Supplemental Instruction on undergraduate performance and attrition", Journal of Higher Education, 1983, 54(1), 80-89. Buzan, T. Use Your Head (Revised Edition). London: BBC Books, 1989 Chickering, A.W., & Gamson, A.F., (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Racine, WI: The Johnson Foundation, Inc./Wingspread. [Available by contacting the Seven Principles Resources Center, P.O. Box 5838, Winona State University, Winona, MN 55987-5838; (507) 457-5020] Dale, E. Audiovisual methods in teaching. New York: Holt. Rinehard and Winston, Inc, 1969. Karplus, R., Lawson, A.E., Wollman, W., Appel, M., Bernoff, R., Howe, A., Rusch, J.J., & Sullivan, F. Science teaching and the development of reasoning: A workshop. Berkeley, CA: Regents of the University of California, 1976. Renner, J.W., Stafford, D.G., Lawson, A.W., McKinnon, J.W., Friot, F.E., & Kellogg, D.H. Research, teaching and learning with the Piaget model. Norman, OK: The University of Oklahoma Press, 1976. 
  • http://donaldclarkplanb.blogspot.com/2010/05/10-techniques-to-massively-increase.html10 techniques to massively increase retention This is the classic ‘forgetting curve’ by Ebbinghaus, a fundamental truth in memory theory, totally ignored by most educators and trainers. Most fixed ’courses’ or ‘lectures’ take no notice of the phenomenon, condemning much of their effort to the world of lost memories. Most educational and training pedagogies are hopelessly inefficient because they fail to recognise this basic truth. Smart learners get it. They revise over a period, with regular doses to consolidate their memories.Little and oftenThe real solution, to this massive problem of forgetfulness, is spaced practice, little and often, the regular rehearsal and practice of the knowledge/skill over a period of time to elaborate and allow deep processing to fix long-term memories. If we get this right, increases on the productivity of learning can be enormous. We are not talking small increase in knowledge and retention but increases of 200-700%. It has the potential to radically alter the attainment levels in schools, colleges, universities and organisations. OK, that’s the theory, what about the practice?What strategies enable spaced practice?I’ll start with a few ‘learner’ tips, then a few ‘teacher/trainer’ practices and end on some technical techniques.1. Self- rehearsal – This is very powerful, but needs self-discipline. You sit quietly, and recall the learning on a regular, spaced practice basis. The hour/day/week/month model is one, but a more regular pattern of reinforcement will be more successful. Research suggests that the spacing different for individuals and that it is good to rehearse when you have a quiet moment and feel you are in the mood to reflect. Recent research has shown that rehearsal just prior to sleep is a powerful technique. Another bizarre, but effective, model is to place the textbook/notes in your toilet. It’s something you do daily, and offers the perfect opportunity for repeated practice!2. Take notes – write up your learning experience, in your own words, diagrams, analogies. This can result in dramatic increases in learning (20-30%). Then re-read a few times afterwards or type up as a more coherent piece. It is important to summarise and re-read your notes as soon as possible after the learning experience.3. Blogging – if the learner blogs his/her learning experience after the course, then responds to the tutors’, and others’ comments for a few weeks afterwards, we have repeated consolidation, and the content has a much higher chance of being retained. 4. Repetition – within the course, but also at the start of every subsequent period, lesson or lecture, repeat (not in parrot fashion) the ground that was covered previously. Take five or ten minutes at the start to ask key questions about the previous content.5. Delayed assessment – give learners exercises to do after the course and explain that you will assess them a few weeks, months after the course has finished. This prevents reliance on short-term memory and gives them a chance to consolidate their knowledge/skills.6.Record – it is education and training’ great act of stupidity, not to record talks, lectures and presentations. They give the learner subsequent access to the content and therefore spaced practice. 7. Games pedagogy – Games have powerful pedagogies. They have to as they are hard. It works through repeated attempts and failure. You only progress as your acquired competence allows. Most games involve huge amounts of repetition and failure with levels of attainment that take days, weeks and months to complete.8. Spaced e-learning – schedule a pattern in your online learning, so that learners do less in one sitting and spread their learning over a longer period of time, with shorter episodes. Free your learners from the tyranny of time and location, allowing them to do little and often. In education this is homework and assignments, in training subsequent talks that need to be emailed back to the trainer/tutor.9. Mobile technology – the drip feed of assessment over a number of weeks after the course or redesign the whole course as a drip-feed experience. We have the ideal device in our pockets – mobiles. They’re powerful, portable and personal. Push out small chunks or banks of questions, structured so that repetition and consolidation happens. This usually involves the repeated testing of the individual until you feel that the learning has succeeded.10. Less long holidays – it terms of public policy, increasing school results would be betters served by avoiding the long summer holiday and restructuring the school, college and University years around more regular terms and less long vacations.BenefitsThe retention benefit works like compound interest as you’re building on previous learning, deepening the processing and consolidating long-term memory. It is, in my opinion, the single most effective strategic change we could make to our learning interventions.
  • ● theC ognit i ve domain – processing information, knowledge and mental skills ● theAf f e c ti ve domain – Attitudes and feelings ● thePsychom ot or domain – manipulative, manual or physical skills

Transcript

  • 1. Supporting Student Learning Through The Use Of Technology
    Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)
    Bill Steele
  • 2. Please select a Team.
    Business
    Engineering
    Health
    Humanities
    Science
    Other
  • 3. “A teacher that can be replaced by a computer, deserves to be” - David Thornburg
    Many teachers say active learning would be great ‘if they had the time’. But the research shows that if you make the time for effective active learning by doing less didactic teaching, then your students will do better. It may seem strange not to be able to say everything you know about the topic you are teaching, but it won’t help if you do. You know too much! - Geoff Petty
  • 4. Chickering and GamsonWhat are the seven principles of good practice in teaching in HE?
    1 Encourage Student-Staff Contact
    In and out of the classroom, frequent student-faculty contact is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement.
    2 Encourage Cooperation Among Students
    Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated.
    3 Encourage Active Learning
    Learning is not a spectator sport.
    4 Give Prompt Feedback to students on assignments
    Students need appropriate feedback on performance to benefit from courses.
    5 Emphasise “Time on Task”
    Learning to use one's time well is critical for students and professionals alike.
    6 Communicate High Expectations
    Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations.
    7 Respect Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning
    Students need the opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be motivated to learn in new ways that do not come so easily.
  • 5. Self- rehearsal - hour/day/week/month model
    Supplement handouts by taking notes to summarise lesson – concept map
    Blogging - summarise lesson and respond to questions
    Repetition - end and beginning of each session
    Delayed assessment
    Record - podcasts, vodcasts
    Games pedagogy - perseverance and repetition
    Spaced e-learning - short topics over longer period
    Mobile technology - Push out small chunks or banks of questions
    Less long holidays
    10 techniques to massively increase retention - Donald Clark Plan B
    Double Memory Retention
  • 6. Vision of Students Today
  • 7. In what ways is technology impacting on student learning?
  • 8. Death by Powerpoint
  • 9. Prezi – pptplex - Slideshare
  • 10. Bloom’s taxonomy for ordering thinking skills and learning objectives has become a key tool in structuring and understanding the learning process.
    Deals with the cognitive domain
    Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)
    Knowledge
    Comprehension
    Application
    Analysis
    Synthesis
    Evaluation
    Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
    Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • 11. Revised by Lorin Anderson with David Krathwohl
    Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)
    Remembering
    Understanding
    Applying
    Analysing
    Evaluating (Revised position)
    Creating (Revised position)
    Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
    Revised Bloom’s
  • 12. Andrew Churches attempts to attach potential tools to the thinking skills and learning objectives
    Blooms Digital Taxonomy V3.1
    Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy
  • 13. Open Culture
    Free Video Lectures
    Open Educational Resources
    Khan Academy
    TeacherTube
    YouTube
    Open Learn
    Resources
  • Personal Learning NetworksHow do you contribute to the changes, stay updated and welcome students to the learning community
    Twitter, Linkedin
    Tweetdeck
    Netvibes
    packrati
    Yammer
  • 17. Diigo
    Evernote
    Simplybox
    Endnote – Mendeley – Zotero
    And disseminate
    Posterous
    How do you keep track
  • 18.
    • Provide natural breaks – aids memory retention
    • 19. Adds interactivity
    • 20. Aids reflection and repetition
    • 21. Aids participation and collaboration
    • 22. Potential for prompt feedback
    • 23. Improves staff – student contact
    • 24. REAP results show a doubling in memory retention
    • 25. Easy to use – quick demo
    Clickers
  • 26. Clickers
    Good idea
    Bad idea
    Worth a look
    Bah humbug
  • 27. Twitterfall
    iTalc
    Classroom Presenter
    Onenote
    Other classroom interaction
  • 28. Quizzes
    Kleeman graphs
    PeerwiseEvidence
  • 29. Voicethread Education
    Wallwisher
    Blogs
    Wikis
    Podcasts
    Games
    First Aid
    Nobel Prize Games
    Web 2.0 Examples
  • 30. Is the use of someone else’s work or substantial and unacknowledged use of published material presented as the student’s own work. It includes the following:
    • the extensive use of another person’s material without reference or acknowledgement;
    • 31. the summarising of another person’s material by changing a few words or altering the order of presentation without reference or acknowledgement;
    • 32. the substantial and unauthorised use of the ideas of another person without acknowledgement;
    • 33. copying the work of another student with or without the student’s knowledge or agreement;
    • 34. deliberate use of commissioned material, which is presented as one’s own;
    • 35. unacknowledged quotation of phrases from another’s work.
    Plagiarism
  • 36. Please read the original source material carefully and then select the entry, either “1" or “2," that you think has not been plagiarized.Original Source Material:  A naïve mental model in the context of computer programming is that a computer is an intelligent system, and that giving directions to a computer is like giving directions to a human being.Source: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
    One kind of mental model for the computer is the naïve model. A naïve mental model in the context of computer programming is that a computer is an intelligent system. This model is naïve because giving directions to a computer is like giving directions to a human being. References: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
    One kind of mental model for the computer is the naïve model. According to van Merriënboer (1997), "A naïve mental model in the context of computer programming is that a computer is an intelligent system, and that giving directions to a computer is like giving directions to a human being" (p. 145). References: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
  • 37. In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate button.
    Word-for-Word plagiarism
    Paraphrasing plagiarism
    This is not plagiarism
    10
  • 38. In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate button.
    Word-for-Word plagiarism
    Paraphrasing plagiarism
    This is not plagiarism
  • 39. Turnitin
    Copy and matching software
    Provides an Originality Report to assist:
    Students improve academic writing
    Tutors identify students attempting to obtain an unfair advantage
    Accessed from within VLE
    Support materials in Bb module Blended Learning – Bronze Level
  • 40. Click coloured report percentages
  • 41.
  • 42. Clicking 1 brings up the instance
  • 43. I could use Turnitin in one of my modules
    Yes
    No
    Abstain
  • 44. Comments can be extensive
    Comments saved for later use and dragged onto student paper
  • 45. Or simply highlight and choose desired stored comment
  • 46. Students see the comment by mousing over callout box
  • 47. Rubrics can aid consistency
  • 48. Is your grade within acceptable range of calculated grade?
  • 49. I can see some value in using Grademark
    Yes
    No
    Abstain
  • 50. Peer and Self Assessment
    • The author himself is the best judge of his own performance; none has so deeply meditated on the subject; none is so sincerely interested in the event. - Edward Gibbon ‘Memoirs of my Life’ (1796)
    • 51. I never teach my pupils; I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn. - Albert Einstein
    • 52. The only kind of learning which significantly influences behavior is self-discovered or self-appropriated learning - truth that has been assimilated in experience. - Carl Rogers
    • 53. I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think - Socrates
    • 54. Personally, I am always ready to learn, although I do not always like being taught. - Winston Churchill
  • Peer and Self Assessment
    • 2 systems available – Blackboard – Turnitin
    • 55. Typically used at draft stage
    • 56. Students provided with the marking criteria
    • 57. Forced to provide feedback on set number of papers against the criteria
    • 58. May or may not include their own paper
    • 59. Given a mark for participating and/or quality of feedback
    • 60. Improves the markers final submission as the criteria against which they will be marked are embedded
  • I would like to know more about peer and self assessment
    Yes
    No
    Abstain
  • 61. I know what a wiki is
    Yes
    No
    Abstain
  • 62. Wikis
    • Group website
    • 63. 2 general types
    • 64. Single author
    • 65. ePortfolio – private – owner controls who has access
    • 66. Module – typically used by lecturer to supply notes to which students may be allowed to comment
    • 67. Group
    • 68. students work in group to produce a website on a set topic
    • 69. Each student’s input is recorded
  • Group
    • Students in group are typically allocated a given aspect of an overall topic
    • 70. They research their topic and produce one or more pages on the wiki
    • 71. Co-operation required to link to interelated topics on other students pages
    • 72. Co-operation and competetion arises as a student adds an image or video and other students attempt to emulate
  • Example
    • Automotive students undertaking a project on racing
    • 73. Students allocated individual topic area: drivers, courses, manufacturers, sponsors etc
    • 74. Student producing pages on drivers needs to ensure that the courses they won on, the cars they drove, who sponsored them are included on the other relevant students pages to allow links to be made
    • 75. Finished results greater than the sum of the individual pages but each students contribution can be marked separately
  • I know what a blog is
    Yes
    No
    Abstain
  • 76. Blogs
    3 general types
    Private – student controls who has access – typically a private web diary for critical incidents
    Module type typically used to allow students to provide entries and the staff member to provide comments – “you said – we did”
    Journal type – tutor has access – typically a placement diary that allows tutor to provide feedback
  • 77. My Personal Learning Space
    Blogs, wikis, podcasts, portlets
    Personalise to suit the individual
    Intention to provide a one stop shop to all required services
    Link the academic, the personal and the career without combining them
    An ePortfolio
  • 78. Assessment21
    Paperless examination system
    Students sit exam at computer
    Papers provided to markers anonymously
    Selection of tools to speed the marking process
    External can be provided with access immediately papers marked
    No physical papers so no posting
  • 79. Wimba Create
    make website from a Word document
    XERTE
    create eLearning objects from a set of templates
    Camtasia relay
    Recording live lectures, presentations, meetings
  • 80. Team Scores
  • 81. Natal - Kinect
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPIbGnBQcJY&feature=related
    http://www.xbox.com/en-GB/kinect
  • 82. Sixth Sense
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QOgi9N02Gcvideo
    Sixth Sense
  • 83. Improving student engagement: Ten proposals for action Active Learning in Higher Education Nick Zepke and Linda Leach