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7 Principles Of Good Practice


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Athletic Services Department Teaching and Learning Workshop, August 2009

Published in: Education

7 Principles Of Good Practice

  1. 1. Good Practice in Undergraduate Education: Supporting Effective Learning <ul><li>Biggio Center Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Auburn University </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Biggio Center for the Enhancement of Teaching & Learning
  2. 2. Presentation Goals <ul><li>To Provide an Overview to Effective Teaching & Learning </li></ul><ul><li>To Approach Teaching & Learning from a Research Based Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>To Suggest Teaching & Learning Strategies Based on Principles of Good Practice </li></ul>
  3. 3. Getting to know you… (1) <ul><li>My current role is: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Content Tutor (I am still in college myself) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Aide (I have a college degree) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Advisor </li></ul><ul><li>Other academic professional </li></ul><ul><li>Random visitor </li></ul>
  4. 4. Getting to know you… (2) <ul><li>How long have you been tutoring/advising etc.? </li></ul><ul><li>First year </li></ul><ul><li>One to three years </li></ul><ul><li>More than three years </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ Fish is Fish” by Leo Lionni A parable for how people learn
  6. 6. Fish & tadpole (who looks like fish) are friends
  7. 7. Tadpole Frog Cause for concern
  8. 8. “ Frog is Frog” and “Fish is Fish” and that is that!
  9. 9. the frog leaves the pond and is gone for a while…
  10. 10. Frog returns : “I have seen wonderful things!”
  11. 11. “ Birds – they have feathers, wings, they fly…”
  12. 12. “ Cows – black/white, chew cud, have horns…”
  13. 13. “ People – walk on 2 legs, wear clothes…”
  14. 14. View inside students’ mind <ul><li>Do you know what picture they are building from your teaching? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they learning what you are teaching ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively engage your students so you can also gauge how much they are retaining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How you present information & how your students assimilate that information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do these match? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you assess student learning? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Finally… <ul><li>One day, the fish was curious about life on the land </li></ul><ul><li>He jumped to the shore but then he could not breathe… </li></ul><ul><li>Luckily, his friend the frog came by and put him back in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Frog: “What are you doing? You will die on land - fish is fish and you must stay in the water!” </li></ul>- The End -
  16. 16. The Seven Principles Chickering, A.W., & Gamson, Z.F. 1987. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education . American Association of Higher Education Bulletin.
  17. 17. Basic Assumptions <ul><li>Faculty/Staff knowledge of learning is critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to understand how our students learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without this knowledge we run the risk of being inefficient, ineffective and possibly counterproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faculty/Staff knowledge of learners is critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to understand what our students bring to the learning situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research-based principles can be applied by ALL faculty/staff to improve teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>College teaching is complex and difficult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty/staff must figure out how these general principles apply to their own work, disciplines, courses, and students </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Good Practice In Undergraduate Education <ul><ul><li>Encourages Student - Instructor Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops and Encourages Cooperation Among Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Active Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives Prompt Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes Time on Task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates High Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. In your group, complete the following chart with your thoughts based on the titles of the Principles. Activity: Your Turn
  20. 22. Name of the Principle: _____________________________________ What does it mean? Why is it important? How would you apply this idea? What are 5 things you could do?
  21. 23. Good Practice In Undergraduate Education… <ul><ul><li>Encourages Student - Instructor Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops and Encourages Cooperation Among Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Active Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives Prompt Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes Time on Task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates High Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Principle 1: Good Practice Encourages Student-Instructor Contact <ul><li>“ Student-faculty interaction has significant positive correlation with every academic attainment outcome” </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Astin </li></ul>01:03 PM
  23. 25. Student-Instructor Contact <ul><li>Improves Student Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces Attrition and Improves Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances Intellectual Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks Cycle of Anonymity </li></ul>
  24. 26. Where should you sit in class? Professor A B C D E Whiteboard Front of class Rear of class
  25. 27. Applications to Teaching <ul><li>Provide students a workplace that encourages individual and group interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Attend student activities / Advise clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Be accessible: Utilize email, computer conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain office hours & campus presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evenings? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create undergraduate teaching & research experiences </li></ul>
  26. 28. Principle 2: Good Practice Encourages Cooperation Among Students <ul><li>“ All for one and one for all” </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandre Dumas </li></ul>01:03 PM
  27. 30. Directions <ul><li>Each person write down as many company logos as possible (30 seconds) </li></ul>
  28. 31. Directions <ul><li>Add up and record the number of logos you remembered individually </li></ul><ul><li>Form a team of __, integrate individual lists to come up with one team list </li></ul><ul><li>Count up the total number of logos for your team (this is your team score) </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the individual average </li></ul><ul><li>Compare individual average with team score </li></ul><ul><li>Which is greater and why? </li></ul>
  29. 32. Encourage Cooperation Among Students <ul><li>Good Learning is Collaborative and Social </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases Involvement in Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves Understanding and Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is More Effective than Individualistic or Competitive Learning </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>“ The best answer to the question, ‘What is the most effective method of teaching?’ is that it depends on the goal, the student, the content, and the teacher. The next best answer is, students teaching other students .” </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Wilbert McKeachie </li></ul>
  31. 34. Factual Question <ul><li>Traxoline is a new form of zionter. It is montillated in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristerlate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it to quasel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our most lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on this information, how is traxoline quaselled? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Via gristerlation </li></ul><ul><li>B. Via bracteration </li></ul><ul><li>C. Via lukization </li></ul><ul><li>D. Via montillation </li></ul><ul><li>(Duncan, 2005) </li></ul>
  32. 35. What Do Employers Want? <ul><li>Group Skills: Teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Computation Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability: Creative Thinking and Problem Solving Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Management Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Skills </li></ul>
  33. 36. Who would you want on your team? A B Teamwork
  34. 37. Who would you want on your team? A B Leadership Skills Tom Brady Vince Young
  35. 38. Applications to Teaching <ul><li>Encourage the use of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cooperative and collaborative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Based Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form study groups and learning teams </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize email, Web-meeting tools </li></ul><ul><li>Use “engaged” lecture format </li></ul><ul><li>Use “A-T-A” approach </li></ul>
  36. 40. Principle 3: Good Practice Encourages Active Learning <ul><li>“ What I hear, I forget; what I see, I remember; what I do, I understand” Chinese Proverb </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning is not a spectator sport” </li></ul><ul><li>Chickering & Gamson </li></ul>01:03 PM
  37. 41. “… it’s certainly great for our young guys to be able to get enough reps, not just watching the tempo, but doing the tempo. If you watch it, it’s one thing, if you do it, it’s another.” Coach Gene Chizik, August 2009
  38. 42. Encourage Active Learning <ul><li>Students Must Do Something to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Students Are Active Constructors, Transformers of Their Own Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Action Leads to Meaningfulness </li></ul>
  39. 43. If they walk it, and walk it, they will remember…
  40. 44. Eric Mazur Peer Instruction video <ul><li> </li></ul>
  41. 45. The American College Teacher: National Norms (HERI, 2009)
  42. 46. Applications to Teaching <ul><li>Incorporate discussion, experiments, problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize aspects of Groups, Projects, Case Studies, Problem Based Learning, Think-Pair-Share, Jigsaw </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize lecturing </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize email, clicker technologies, discussion boards, Web 2.0 (blogs, Facebook etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider computer simulation, virtual reality, games </li></ul><ul><li>Provide incomplete lecture notes </li></ul><ul><li>Require, collect, grade, return homework </li></ul><ul><li>Require note taking, journaling </li></ul>
  43. 47. Principle 4: Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback <ul><li>“ Supposing is good, but finding out is better” </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Twain </li></ul>01:03 PM
  44. 49. Give ( and Get ) Prompt Feedback <ul><li>Helps Students Assess Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Frequent Opportunities to Perform </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses Learning Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Also Helps Improve Teaching </li></ul>
  45. 50. Survey the class <ul><li>How is this workshop going so far? </li></ul><ul><li>Pretty well – I am learning new things </li></ul><ul><li>Its fine – I am just here to fulfill an obligation </li></ul><ul><li>I am a little confused – have questions </li></ul><ul><li>I am so confused I don’t even have questions </li></ul><ul><li>I am asleep and not answering…zzzz </li></ul>
  46. 51. Feedback is crucial to success
  47. 52. Effectiveness of Feedback <ul><li>Synthesis of over 500 meta-analyses found that of the 100+ factors influencing educational achievement feedback fell in the top 5 to 10 highest influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hattie (1999) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 53. Applications to Teaching <ul><li>Don’t assume students understand </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback early and often </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Frequently </li></ul>
  49. 54. “ Jim’s Ideal” Testing Plan <ul><ul><li>1 Course Intro (Quiz on Syllabus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Comprehensive Exam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Comprehensive Exam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 Quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 Comprehensive Exam </li></ul></ul>
  50. 55. Applications to Teaching <ul><li>Utilize email (Blackboard) to send grades, comments, feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Have students assess own progress and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the use of reflective techniques (i.e., learning journals, self-assessment inventories, critical incident reports) </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate peer feedback mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Use “Classroom Assessment Techniques” (i.e., One-Minute Paper, Brookfield’s Critical Incident Questionnaire) </li></ul><ul><li>Use rubrics </li></ul><ul><li>Use mid-semester feedback (SGIF) </li></ul>
  51. 56. Feedback on Teaching: Mid-Semester Feedback <ul><li>Small Group Instructional Feedback ( SGIF ) is one form of mid-semester feedback that is designed to channel student perceptions into opportunities for instructional improvement </li></ul>
  52. 57. True Learning? I TAUGHT STRIPE HOW TO WHISTLE
  54. 59. From Checking for Understanding, King Features Syndicate. I SAID I TAUGHT HIM. I DIDN’T SAY HE LEARNED IT
  55. 60. Mid-Semester Feedback <ul><li>SGIF asks 3 questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is going well in this class so far to assist your learning? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What suggestions do you have to improve your learning? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What other comments do you have? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 61. Feedback on Teaching Most Effective When… <ul><li>Information is gathered from multiple sources (including self) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of feedback are credible, knowledgeable and well intended </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated by a consultant </li></ul>
  57. 62. Feedback Is Most Effective When… <ul><li>The person delivering the feedback exhibits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specificity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genuineness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-disclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confrontation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concreteness </li></ul></ul>
  58. 63. Principle 5: Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task <ul><li>“ Time is something we never seem to have enough of; but when you think about it, we have all there is” </li></ul><ul><li>James Groccia </li></ul>01:03 PM
  59. 65. Emphasize Time on Task <ul><li>Time + Effort = Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Organize Course and Plan Efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Clear and Realistic Course Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Help Students Develop Good Time Management Skills </li></ul><ul><li> (Time Management Fairy) </li></ul>
  60. 66. Key Research Findings <ul><li>Learning increases when teachers focus their questions on content that is most important, not what they think will be most interesting to students. (Alexander, Kulikowich, & Schulze, 1994; Risner, Nicholson, & Webb, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Advance organizers , including graphic ones, help students learn new concepts and vocabulary (Stone, 1983). Presenting information graphically as well as symbolically in an advance organizer reinforces vocabulary learning and supports reading skills. (Brookbank Grover, Kullberg, & Strawser, 1999; Moore & Readence 1984). </li></ul>
  61. 67. <ul><li>Justin: When I’m learning concepts for a test, I like to put things in my own words, so that they make sense to me. </li></ul><ul><li>Dave: But putting things in your own words doesn't help you learn. The textbook was written by people who know the stuff really well. You should learn things the way the textbook presents them. </li></ul><ul><li>I agree almost entirely with Justin. </li></ul><ul><li>Although I agree more with Justin, I think Dave makes some good points. </li></ul><ul><li>I agree (or disagree) equally with Justin and Dave. </li></ul><ul><li>Although I agree more with Dave, I think Justin makes some good points. </li></ul><ul><li>I agree almost entirely with Dave. </li></ul>
  62. 68. Applications to Teaching <ul><li>Provide time management & lecture note taking tips </li></ul><ul><li>Provide outline of activities at beginning of each class (“ Advance Organizers ”) </li></ul><ul><li>Build in preview and review time into class (Knowledge that is applied immediately is better learned) </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students to make use of teams to divide up work </li></ul><ul><li>Learning does not occur by surprise! </li></ul>
  63. 69. 50 = 60 (5+50+5) <ul><li>Allocate 5 minutes BEFORE class to mentally prepare – review notes, check the syllabus, locate the chapter in the textbook, review graded hw </li></ul><ul><li>50 minute lecture/class </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate 5 minutes AFTER class to summarize the experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure your notes are complete (work w/group?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill out an index card: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One thing I learned today was: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One thing I am still unclear about is: </li></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 71. Activity : Your Turn <ul><li>Based on what you have learned so far create a Graphic Organizer for the (first 5) “Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education.” </li></ul>
  65. 72. Principle 6: Good Practice Communicates High Expectations <ul><li>“ People tend to perform to the level expected of them” </li></ul>01:03 PM
  66. 73. Teacher expectations and Student Performance
  67. 74. Communicate High Expectations <ul><li>Expect More and You Will Likely Get It </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes Self-Fulfilling Prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage Extra Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Set High, Yet Reachable Standards </li></ul>
  68. 75. Academic Motivation via Athletic Terminology <ul><li>“ Yes, I Can” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If I have the will to do it, I can do it” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you don’t have high hopes, you will be average” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t tell me how rough the waters are; just bring in the ship” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t give up, keep pushing” </li></ul><ul><li>Doug Collins, Professor of Psychology and Academic Counselor for Student Athletes, University of Findlay (Ohio) </li></ul>
  69. 77. Applications to Teaching <ul><li>Communicate your expectations early and often </li></ul><ul><li>Assess what students expect of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Tell students what they can expect from you </li></ul><ul><li>Successful academic experiences early to build confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Have successful former students talk to new students </li></ul><ul><li>Provide success role models and mentors </li></ul>
  70. 78. Principle 7: Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning <ul><li>“ Difference is not a qualitative variable” </li></ul><ul><li>James Groccia </li></ul>01:03 PM
  71. 80. Respect Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning <ul><li>There Are Many Paths to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Students have Different Talents and Experiences </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> (British suit-guy) </li></ul>
  72. 81. Applications to Teaching <ul><li>Use varied teaching methods (visual, auditory, sensory, examples, diagrams, small groups, electronic) </li></ul><ul><li>Assess your learning style—we teach according to how we , not our students, learn best </li></ul><ul><li>Expect conflict in group problem solving due to cognitive diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage formation of support groups </li></ul>
  73. 82. <ul><li>Jess and Mia are working on a physics homework assignment together... </li></ul><ul><li>Jess : O.K., we just got problem #1. I think we should go on to problem #2. </li></ul><ul><li>Mia : No, wait. I think we should try to figure out why the thing takes so long to reach the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Jess : Mia, we know it’s the right answer from the back of the book, so what are you worried about? If we didn’t understand it, we wouldn’t have gotten the right answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Mia : No, I think it’s possible to get the right answer without really understanding what it means. </li></ul><ul><li>I agree almost entirely with Jess. </li></ul><ul><li>I agree more with Jess, but I think Mia makes some good points. </li></ul><ul><li>I agree (or disagree) equally with Mia and Jess. </li></ul><ul><li>I agree more with Mia, but I think Jess makes some good points. </li></ul><ul><li>I agree almost entirely with Mia. </li></ul>
  74. 83. The Millennial Student Exposed to a world of instantaneous communication with no boundaries of distance or time
  75. 84. Millennials Heavily programmed activities by parents, guardians, teachers, coaches, organizations
  76. 86. A Student Athlete’s Schedule <ul><li>Fall semester, 13 credit hours </li></ul><ul><li>6:00 AM start time </li></ul><ul><li>Workout </li></ul><ul><li>Morning classes </li></ul><ul><li>Afternoon practice </li></ul><ul><li>Watching video of track meets </li></ul><ul><li>Weight room </li></ul><ul><li>Training room </li></ul><ul><li>Evening Study (9pm until falling asleep) </li></ul><ul><li>Jessica Gall, Indiana University, Track & Field </li></ul>Eating, Resting, Socializing?
  77. 87. Helping Students: From Failure to Recovery <ul><li>Help them accept it </li></ul><ul><li>Help them see failure as a learning opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Explain “failure” as a transition stage </li></ul><ul><li>Failure is what you cannot do yet </li></ul><ul><li>Getting it wrong is an effective step to “get it right” </li></ul><ul><li>Those who fail work together to figure out how to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>You are not a failure, you failed to perform a task Race, Phil and Sally Brown. 500 Tips for Tutors </li></ul>
  78. 88. Summary: Good Practice In Undergraduate Education <ul><ul><li>Encourages Student - Instructor Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Cooperation Among Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Active Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives Prompt Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes Time on Task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates High Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning </li></ul></ul>
  79. 90. James Groccia: [email_address] S. Raj Chaudhury: [email_address] Stacey Nickson: [email_address]