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M.Swathi M.Swathi Presentation Transcript

  • welcome
  • PowerPoint Presentation By M.SWATHI marakalaswathi@rocketmail.com Department of computer science St.Ann’s P.G. college for women mallapur
    • Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture and application.
    • Robotics requires a working knowledge of electronics, mechanics, and software.
    • The word robotics was first used in print by Issac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Runaround" (1941).
    • Autism -
    • is a Sevier developmental disorder that is characterized by social and communicative impairments. Social robots recognize and respond to human social cues with appropriate behaviors.
    • For past three years, robotics group has been immersed in one of the premiere clinical research groups studying autism, led by Ami Klin and Fred Volkmar at the Yale child center .
    • Humanoid robots help autistic children
  • Outline
    • Motivation of the creators
    • Autistic disorders
    • A survey of the research
      • Why robots might help
    • Conclusions
    • The field of research
  • Motivation
    • Research in Human-Robot Interaction
    • Looking for a killer application
      • advertisement, receptionists, multi-media kiosks,
      • theatre and installations,
      • help elderly and disabled adults,
      • normal child supervision
      • toys
    • Better – How can we use robots to help people?
  • Autistic Disorders: What are their Characteristics ?
    • Inability to relate to other people
    • Little use of eye contact with other people
    • Difficulty understanding gestures and facial expressions
    • Difficulties with verbal & non-verbal communication
    • Difficulty understanding other’s intentions, feelings, and mental states
    • 1 of 300 children diagnosed with autism with rates rising.
  • Why Use Robots for children with autism?
    • Most children, including children with autism , are attracted to robots.
    • This natural affinity is exploited, and the robot is used as an interactive toy .
    • Robots may provide a less threatening environment than interacting with people.
      • Robots can provide a repetitive and more predictable environment.
      • This “safe” environment can gently push a child with autism towards human interaction.
  • Development of “Robota” robots for autistic children A six-year old autistic boy playing with Robota . He seemed curious about Robota's head movements and so he touches the doll. 1. Research from Switzerland, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
  • Imitation Using Robota
    • “ Robota … allows the child to understand that the doll’s movement originates from his own movement ( sense of agency )
    • It helps to understand that the doll’s movement is limited to a restricted category of movement ( enhances intentional action )”
  • The prototype of arm
    • The current prototype of arm is a 6 DOFs arm with a 1 DOF gripper . It is 26 centimeter long for 700gr.
    • The different DOFs were designed to be reversible
    • The first three degrees of freedom are placed in the shoulder.
    • This implies that the elbow moves on a sphere one DOF in the elbow and two DOFs in the wrist .
    • The gripper is composed of 3 fingers actuated by one single DOF.
    • To have an absolute measure of the position of each joint, we have placed potentiometers on each axis to send the motors to reset position.
    • This ensures minimal risks when the robot interacts with children, by preventing any involuntary motion if the robot should reset itself.
  • The prototype of eyes
    • A prototype of a 3 DOFs pair of eyes has been developed.
    • One DOF drives the horizontal rotation of the two eyes and the two other DOFs drive the vertical rotation of each eye.
    • Thus, the robot can wink but not squint!
    • In each eye, we have placed one ''mobile phone'' CMOS camera .
    • We use then real doll eyes that we modify to insert the cameras, by drilling a tiny hole through the pupil, making sure that the it remains intact.
    • The volume of the eyes is, however, too small to contain the electronic board (that proceeds to the digital conversion of the image).
    • Thus, the sensor must be connected to the board through a flex cable in such a way that the cable is not impeding the movement of the eyes.
  • Autism Diagnosis Methods
    • 1. Reaction to the ESRA robot with and without the face configuration
    Can generate facial expressions using 5 servo motors Two motors added for horizontal eye movement
  • Autism Diagnosis Methods
    • 2. Measure listening preferences to speech sounds
    At the press of a button, an audio clip is played. The interaction of a child with the robot is logged in non-volatile memory .
  • Enabling Interaction Joint attention: Sharing the perceptual information Eye-contact : Referring to each other's mental states Enables people to exchange intention and emotion toward a target.
  • Autism Diagnosis Methods
    • 3. Position tracking relative to another person
  • Autism Diagnosis Methods
    • 4. Gaze direction and focus of attention
    Red – adolescents with autism Blue – typical adolescents
  • Conclusions
    • The use of robots for autism therapy and diagnosis is just beginning.
    • There is anecdotal evidence that robot therapy can help children with autism
    • Robots are capable of recognizing user, gesture ,gaze ,speech and text commands.
  • The Field of Researchers
    • Francois Michaud
      • University of Sherbrooke, Canada
    • Hideki Kozima
      • National Institute of ICT, Japan
    • Brian Scassellati and Bob Schultz
      • Yale University
    • Aude Billard
      • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
    • Jacqueline Nadel
      • French National Centre of Scientific Research