95 plenary 1_j-neal


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95 plenary 1_j-neal

  1. 1. SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING 25 YEARS FROM NOW A LIBRARIAN’S PERSPECTIVE James G. Neal Society for Scholarly Publishing 29 May 2003 1
  2. 2. Scholarly Activity• Creation of knowledge and evaluation of its validity• Preservation of information• Transmission of information to others • Technologies • Economics • Institutions 2
  3. 3. The Urge To Publish• Communication• Academic Culture• Preservation of Ideas• Prestige and Recognition• Profit 3
  4. 4. Expectations For Technology • Content • Access • Convenience • New Capabilities • Cost Reduction • Productivity 4
  5. 5. Individual’s Relationship To The Medium • Physicality • Geography • Psychology • Sociology • Cognition 5
  6. 6. Norms of Scholarly Work at the Research University• Open and Free Exchange of Ideas• Publication in Scholarly and Scientific Journals• Meritocracy• Organized Skepticism• Common Ownership of Goods 6
  7. 7. Scholarly Communication Functions• Information Generation and Creation• Authoring• Informal Peer Communication• Editorial and Validation• Ownership, Privacy, and Security• Distribution• Acquisition and Access 7
  8. 8. Scholarly Communication Functions • Storage • Preservation and Archiving • Information Management • Location and Delivery • Recognition • Diffusion • Utilization of Information 8
  9. 9. Electronic Scholarly Publishing Some Models• Commercial Publishing Model• Academic Server Model• Prestigious Publishing Model• University Publishing Cooperative• Public Domain Model• Government Server Model 9
  10. 10. Electronic Scholarly Publishing Some Models• Digital Library Model• Electronic Book Model• Electronic Collection Model• Retrospective Model• Preprint Server Model• Peer Review Lite Model 10
  11. 11. Advantages of Digital Information • Accessibility • Availability • Searchability • Currency • Researchability 11
  12. 12. Advantages of Digital Information • Dynamism/Fluidity • Interdisciplinarity • Collaborative Nature • Multimedia Aspects • Linkability 12
  13. 13. Advantages of Digital Information • Interactivity • Procedural Qualities • Spatial Capabilities • Encyclopedic Potential 13
  14. 14. Advantages of Print • Portability • Durability • Markupability • Readability 14
  15. 15. Advantage of Print • Archivability • Ownability • Affordability • Aesthetic Quality 15
  16. 16. Electronic Scholarly Publishing Cronin Observations • Discipline Diversity • Importance of Trust • Importance of Credibility • Velocity of Communication • Expanded Readership 16
  17. 17. Electronic Scholarly Publishing Cronin Observations • New Economics • Vertical Integration • New Modes of Discourse • Democratization 17
  18. 18. Electronic Scholarly Publishing Some Issues • Current and Historical Coverage • Affordability • Interactive Development/Usability Assessment • Author Use of Medium • Shifting Technology 18
  19. 19. Electronic Scholarly Publishing Some Issues• Cross Publisher Integration• Researcher Understanding and Support• New Packaging/Integrity of the Work• Research and Development 19
  20. 20. Scholarly Communication Concerns• Choking on the Proliferation• Location of Quality Marking• Corporate Economy Overtakes Guild Economy• Dysfunctional Market• Intellectual Property Ownership• Darwinian/Capitalistic/Socialist Solutions• New Models of Digital Scholarship 20
  21. 21. Digital Book Futures Lessons From American History• Land Rush/E-Book Rush• Economics of Railroad/Electronic Book Publishing• Utility Industry Fragmentation and Consolidation/E-Book Entrepreneurs 21
  22. 22. Electronic Books Random Future Issues• Purchase vs. Lease• Free vs. Sold• Self Published vs. Commercially Published• Retrospective Works vs. New Works• Text vs. Multimedia• Proprietary vs. Open Formats/Readers 22
  23. 23. Electronic Books Random Future Issues• Offline vs. Online Access• Offline vs. Online Use• Individual Works vs. Searchable Database• Print vs. Non-Print• Consultation vs. Circulation• Archived vs. Fluid Content 23
  24. 24. Research Community Strategies• Market Conforming• Market Distorting• System Transforming• System Busting 24
  25. 25. SPARC Messages• Barrier-Free Access to Research• Risks of Industry Consolidation• Protect/Expand Author Rights• Community Control of Scholarly Communication• Incubation of Alternative Channels• Hope/Power/Action through Collaboration 25
  26. 26. SPARC Programs Publishing Partnerships  Gaining Independence Create Change  Consulting Group/ Leading Edge Legal Services Scientific Communities  Institutional Repository Declaring Independence  Open Access  Next Step 26
  27. 27. Lessig Constraints On Open Access To Information MarketTechnology INFORMATION Law Norms 27
  28. 28. ARL Open Access AgendaOpen Access: works created with no expectation of financial remuneration and made available at no cost to reader on the public Internet for purposes of education and research.Readers of open access works could read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link for any lawful purpose, without financial, legal or technical barriers.Budapest Open Access InitiativeOpen Archives InitiativeKeystone and Tempe PrinciplesPublic Library of Science 28
  29. 29. ARL Open Access Agenda• Society benefits from the open exchange of ideas.• Limitations on access to copyrighted materials negatively impact the creation, dissemination and use of intellectual property.• Copyright exists for the public good.• Federal investment in R&D is leveraged by access to research results. 29
  30. 30. Knowledge Conservancy• Property in Trust for Public Purpose• Easements Restricting Future Uses of Private Property• Public Benefit within System of Private Property Ownership• Application to Intellectual Property 30
  31. 31. Knowledge Conservancy• Content Donations• Financial Contributions• Usable Digital Assets• Metadata to Support Discovery, Rights Management, Preservation• Access Provisions for Global Readership• Long-Term/Perpetual Persistence 31
  32. 32. Repository Movement Discipline Repositories Institutional Repositories Consortium Repositories Departmental/School Repositories Individual Repositories Referatories/Virtual Repositories 32
  33. 33. Institutional Repository• a set of services offered to a community for the organization, dissemination, and preservation of digital materials created by the members of the community• digital archives of intellectual products created by members of a community and accessible to both users within and without with few if any barriers to access system of: architecture policy tools standards 33 content
  34. 34. Core Library Services to Users• Information Acquisition• Information Synthesis• Information Navigation• Information Dissemination• Information Interpretation• Information Understanding• Information Archiving 34
  35. 35. Core Interests Of Libraries• Competitive Market• Easy Distribution and Reuse• Innovative Applications of Technology• Quality Assurance• Permanent Archiving 35
  36. 36. Open Virtual Electronic Library• Shared Content, Tools and Services• Collaboration Among Stakeholders• Extensible Architecture• Test Bed for Assessment and Innovation• New Digital Content Rights 36
  37. 37. Advancing Publisher/Library RelationshipThrough Electronic Scholarly Communication • Regular consultation to develop priorities and strategies for collaboration. • Joint innovative electronic publishing projects. • Shared information policy agenda/advocacy strategy. • Forums for communication with researchers and authors. • Shared continuing professional development and training programs for staff. • Agreement on principles for licensing/model contract. 37
  38. 38. Advancing Publisher/Library RelationshipThrough Electronic Scholarly Communication • Identification, development, adoption of standards. • Usability research and testing. • Research and development agenda/Impact assessment. • Venture capital for joint activities. • Integrate and share expertise. • Joint programs for preservation and archiving of digital content. 38
  39. 39. Advancing Publisher/Library RelationshipThrough Electronic Scholarly Communication • Content and information services for distance learning community. • Focus on new scholarly work: courseware, software, datafiles and simulations. • National document delivery program. • Print on demand service. • PDA delivery service • Development and implementation of scholars portal. 39
  40. 40. Scholarly Publishing The Past Look Forward• Technology Impact on Business Areas (production, editing, marketing)• Quantitative and Qualitative Change (1979 National Enquiry)• Small Computer Networks Replace Journal Functions• Expanding Audiences• Discourse Model of Communication• Publishing on Demand• New Business Models• New Intellectual Property Environment 40
  41. 41. SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING 2028• Chaos Breeds Life• Information Anarchy• Information Fascism• Information Utopia• Information Theology 41