Two or Three Authors
• Give the last names of every author in the same order that
they appear in the works-cited section. (Correct order is
found on title page of the book)
– According to Carlson, Eisenstat, and Ziporyn, a frequent cause
of depression in middle-age women is the care of elderly
parents with failing health (198).
– Samuel Moore Walton, founder of Wal-Mart, owed much of his
ambition for success to the fact that he grew up during the
Depression (Vance and Scott 1).
More Than Three Authors
• Give the author’s last name as it appears in the workscited section followed by et al. or and others with no
punctuation in between.
– Methane gas trapped in ice crystals on the seafloor may be an
important source of fuel in the future (Suess et al. 80).
An Anonymous Book or
Work with No Author Listed
• When there is no author listed, give the title or a shortened
version of the title as it appears in the works-cited section. If
it’s a book, underline or italicize title; if it’s an article, place
quotation marks around the title.
– The Information Please Almanac states that drinking water can
make up 20 percent or more of a person’s total exposure to lead
– The use of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems has
grown substantially over the past five years as companies attempt to
adapt to customer needs and to improve their profitability ("Making
CRM Work“ 3).
Two or More Works by the Same Author
• If the works-cited page lists two or more works by the
same author, you’ll need more than just the author’s last
name in your parenthetical citation. Give the author’s last
name (unless it appears in the text, the title or a shortened
version of the title, and the page reference. Place a
comma between the author’s last name and title.
– The German foxholes dug during World War II were almost
always deeper than the American foxholes (Ambrose, Citizen
• Place a citation as close to the quoted or
paraphrased material as possible without disrupting
• When material from one source and the same page
numbers is used throughout a paragraph, use one
citation at the end of the paragraph rather than a
citation at the end of each sentence.
• Sign off of each source before moving on to another
Parenthetical citations usually appear after the final
quotation mark and before the period. An exception
occurs, however, in quotes of four or more lines
since these quotes are presented as block quotes:
that is, they are indented and use no quotation
marks. In such cases, the parenthetical citation goes
after the period, as the following example shows:
Bolles argues that the most effective job hunting
method is what he calls the creative job hunting
figuring out your best skills, and favorite
knowledges, and then researching any
employer that interests you, before
approaching that organization and
arranging, through your contacts, to see
the person there who has the power to
hire you for the position you are interested
in. This method, faithfully followed, leads
to a job for 86 out of every 100 job-hunters
who try it. (57)