Horticulture study in tribal south Gujarat region
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  • 1. “Study On Horticulture Intervention of AKRSP (I) in Netrang, Tribal South Gujarat Region” Author Biradar Shivshankar Vijaykumar Host Organization Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India)Faculty Guide Reporting OfficerProf. Ashok Gupta Mr. Sukumar R.“A REPORT SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THEREQUIREMENTS FOR MASTERS IN RURAL MANAGEMENT” School of Rural Management Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) University Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India Management Traineeship Segment (MTS) I 1
  • 2. Approval PageSCHOOL OF RURAL MANAGEMENT, KIIT UNIVERSITY Bhubaneswar The MTS Report of Biradar Shivshankar Vijaykumar Candidates for the degree of MBA Rural Management Are hereby APPROVED Prof. Ashok Gupta 2
  • 3. AcknowledgmentIn preparing this report a considerable amount of thinking and informationalinputs from various sources were involved. I express our sincere gratitude toeveryone who contributed towards making this report possible.First of all I would like to thank dignitaries of AKRSP (I), Mr. Sukumar R. forgiving me the guidelines for the successful completion of this report. I wouldlike to thank all cluster officer of AKRSP(I) for his valuable support andfeedback. I would also like to thank all our respondents for their responsewithout which this study couldn’t be possible.I also take a special mention of faculty of KSRM, Prof. Ashok Gupta for hisvaluable inputs.At last, I extend my special thanks to my dear friends who actually made myreport on horticulture intervention a success.Biradar Shivshankar VijaykumarDate –Bhubaneswar 3
  • 4. Executive SummaryTitle of Project: “Study on Horticulture Intervention of AKRSP (I) in Netrang, Tribal SouthGujarat Region”Host Organization: - Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India)Author: - Biradar Shivshankar VijaykumarObjective of the project:- 1. To understand the benefits made through horticulture crops supplements agriculture livelihood among the tribal farmers of TSG region of AKRSP (I). 2. To analyze the financial and social changes on tribal community through horticulture programme. 3. To analyze cost benefit and calculate breakeven point from the horticulture intervention.I have conducted case study of 20 beneficiaries who are involved in Mango wadi.In the beginning Farmer didn’t show their Interest for mango-wadi but after 2-3 year gettingmango yield they got shown interest in mango-wadi and they have stated generating profit.Many farmers got support of drip irrigation from AKRSP (I) but they didn’t use thesetechnologies in horticulture. There are 9 farmers who have doing cultivation of mango wadiin 0.25 acre to 0.85 acre of land. While 10 farmers taken only for 0.85 to 1.75 acre of land formango wadi. Before horticulture intervention they used to follow traditional farming andwere getting low yields. But now condition of beneficiaries has changed, they are usingintercropping in mango-wadi. And they grow vegetables and cash crops and have irrigationfacility in their lands. Also, farmers are now showing interest in Mango-marketing soAKRSP (I) is forming a federation for mango marketing in this area.A storage facility should be made in this region for storage of fruits as the perishable &getting good price fruits. Provide training programme & exposure visit on post harvestmanagement as especially on farm value addition. Provide suitable market for mango yield,that they have to sell in the market and get good value for their producing yield. 4
  • 5. Table of contentChapter 1: Introduction ....................................................................................................... 10 1.1 Mango ....................................................................................................................... 14 1.1.1 Indian Varieties .................................................................................................. 14 1.2 Organizational Overview: .......................................................................................... 15 1.2.1 Organization Structure: ........................................................................................... 16Chapter: 2 Literature Review............................................................................................... 17Chapter 3: Methodology...................................................................................................... 20 3.1 Research Design ........................................................................................................ 20 3.2.1. Selection of area: ............................................................................................... 20 3.2.2. Identification of project elements: ...................................................................... 21 3.2.3. Collection of primary data: ................................................................................ 21 3.2.4. Collection of Secondary Data: ........................................................................... 21 3.3 Methods of Data Analysis: ..................................................................................... 21 3.4. Limitations of the assignment: .............................................................................. 21Chapter: 4 Findings & Analysis: ......................................................................................... 22 4.1 Land Holding pattern: ................................................................................................ 22 4.1.1 Area Utilized For Wadi:...................................................................................... 23 4.2 Mango Survival Trees: .............................................................................................. 24 4.3 Average per Tree production of mango-wadi: ............................................................ 24 4.4 Mango-wadi average net returns: ............................................................................... 26 4.5 Breakeven point: ....................................................................................................... 27 4.6 Post Harvest Management ......................................................................................... 27 4.7 Changes in Income: ................................................................................................... 27 4.8 Migration Status: ....................................................................................................... 28Chapter: 5 Conclusion & Recommendations: ...................................................................... 29 5.1 Conclusion: ............................................................................................................... 29 5.2 Recommendations: .................................................................................................... 30Chapter: 6 Case Studies ....................................................................................................... 31 Case -6.1 Ajaybhai Hursimbhai ................................................................................... 31 Case-6.2 Balwant Umaid Vasava ................................................................................ 37 Case- 6.3: Bachubhai Gimia ........................................................................................ 41 Case- 6.4 Bhikubhai Varanashibhai Tadvi ................................................................... 46 5
  • 6. Case - 6. 5 Dhana bhai Dunger singh ........................................................................... 51 Case- 6.6 Dhanji bhai Kotania ..................................................................................... 56 Case-6.7 Dinesh bhai Navalbhai .................................................................................. 60 Case – 6. 8 Karansingh Damniya ................................................................................. 65 Case- 6.9 Dhanji bhai bhai Bondabhai ......................................................................... 69 Case-6.10 Kiranbhai Ganpatbhai Vasava ..................................................................... 73 Case -6.11 Lalubhai Jaisinghbhai Tade ........................................................................ 78 Case -6.12 Laxman Padvi ............................................................................................ 83 Graph: 6.12.2 Mango-wade Net Returns ...................................................................... 85 Case - 6.13 Murji Kathodia.......................................................................................... 87 Case- 6.14 Rajesh Murji Vasava .................................................................................. 92 Case: 6. 15 Govind Surajibhai .................................................................................... 97 Case – 6. 16 Ramsingh Bablia ................................................................................... 103 Case- 6.17 Sakaram bhai Ganpatbhai Tadve .............................................................. 108 Case -6.18 Santu Shipa Choudhary ............................................................................ 112 Case- 6.19 Shiva Nuraji Vasava................................................................................ 117 Case- 6.20 Ukadia Jataria .......................................................................................... 121Chapter: 7. References: ..................................................................................................... 126Chapter: 8. ANNEXTURE ................................................................................................ 127List of TablesTable: 1.1 Annual Horticulture Development Rate in Gujarat .............................................. 12Table: 1.2 Gujarat Position in some of the fruit and vegetable crops in all India productivityrank. .................................................................................................................................... 12Table 1.3 District wise Estimated Area and Production of Mango Year 2010-11 in Gujarat . 13Chart: 4.2.1 Mango Tree Survival ....................................................................................... 24Table 5.1.1 Income through animal Husbandry: .................................................................. 33Table 5.1.2. Intercropping cost & benefits analysis of mango-wadi: .................................... 33Table: 5.2.1 Animal Husbandry:.......................................................................................... 39Table: 5.2.2 intercropping of mango wadi ........................................................................... 39Table: 5.3.1 Mango- Cost benefits analysis: ........................................................................ 44Table: 5.4.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis ............................................................... 49Table: 5.5.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis ............................................................... 54 6
  • 7. Table 5.6.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis: ............................................................... 58Table: 5.7.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .............................................................. 63Table: 5.8.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis:............................................................. 68Table:5.9.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysis: ............................................................. 71Table : 5.10.1 Animal Husbandry: ....................................................................................... 75Table: 5.10.2 intercropping cost & benefits analysis: ........................................................... 76Table: 5.11.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis ............................................................ 80Table: 5.12.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis ............................................................ 85Table: 5.13.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis ............................................................ 89Table: 5.14.1 Animal Husbandry: ........................................................................................ 93Table: 5.14.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis ............................................................ 95Table: 5.15.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .......................................................... 101Table: 5.16.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysis.......................................................... 106Table: 5.17.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .......................................................... 110Table: 5.18.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .......................................................... 115Table: 5.19.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysis.......................................................... 119Table: 5.20.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .......................................................... 123List of GraphsGraph: 4.1.1 Land Holding Pattern ...................................................................................... 23Graph: 4.3.1 Average per tree production in TSG ................................................................ 26Graph: 4.4.1 Average Net Returns:...................................................................................... 26Graph: 4.7.1 Migration Status ............................................................................................. 28Graph: 5.1.1 Mango Production ......................................................................................... 32Graph: 5.1.2 Wadi Net Returns: .......................................................................................... 36Graph 5.2.1 Average per Tree production of mango ............................................................ 38Graph: 5.2.2 Mango-wadi net returns .................................................................................. 39Graph: 5.3.1 Average per Tree production........................................................................... 43Graph: 5.4.1 Average per graph production ......................................................................... 48Graph: 5.4.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 49Graph : 5.5.1 Average per graph production ........................................................................ 52Graph : 5.5.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 53 7
  • 8. Graph: 5.6.1 Mango-wadi per Tree production: ................................................................... 57Graph 5.6.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: ................................................................................ 58Graph: 5.7.1 Average per Tree production........................................................................... 61Graph: 5.7.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 62Graph: 5.8.1 Mango-wadi Net Income: ............................................................................... 67Graph: 5.9.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 71Graph: 5.10 average per tree production .............................................................................. 75Graph: 5.10.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: ............................................................................. 76Graph: 5.11.1 Mango-wadi Production chart: ...................................................................... 80Graph: 5.11.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns Table: ................................................................... 82Graph: 5.12.1 mango production average ............................................................................ 84Graph: 5.12.2 Mango-wade Net Returns: ............................................................................ 85Graph: 5.13.1 Mango-wadi Net Returns: ............................................................................. 89Graph: 5.14.2 Average per Tree production ......................................................................... 94Graph 5.14.1 Mango-wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 95Graph: 5.15.1 Average per Tree production ......................................................................... 99Graph 5.15.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 99Graph: 5.16.1 Average per Tree production ....................................................................... 104Graph: 5.16.2 Mango-wadi Net-Returns Charts: ................................................................ 105Graph: 5.17.1 Mango-wadi production table: .................................................................... 109Graph: 5.17.2 Mango-wadi net retuns................................................................................ 110Graph: 5.18.1 Mango Production: ..................................................................................... 113Graph: 5.18.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: ........................................................................... 114Graph: 5.19.1 mango production ....................................................................................... 118Graph: 5.19.2 Mango-wadi net returns: ............................................................................. 119Graph: 5.20.1 Mango average per Tree production ............................................................ 122Graph: 5.20.2 Wadi net returns .......................................................................................... 125List of Chart:Chart: 4.1.2 Area Utilize for wadi ....................................................................................... 23Chart: 4.5.1 breakeven point................................................................................................ 27Chart : 5.15.1 Mango-wadi paid out cost: ............................................................................ 98 8
  • 9. ABBREVIATIONSAKRSP (I): Aga Khan Rural Support Programme IndiaGJ: GujaratBCR: Benefit cost ratioC: CostTC: Total CostTVC: Total Variable CostGR: Gross ReturnBEP: Break even pointTSG: Tribal South GujaratNABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentAPMC: Agriculture Produce Market Committees 9
  • 10. Chapter 1: IntroductionGujarat has about 94.99 lakh Ha1 (as per 2010 data) of the total area of the state undercultivation. The area under irrigation is about 33% of the net area sown, while rest of area iscultivated under rain fed conditions. Thus, there is large area dependence on rain in theGujarat. Horticulture is a priority sector in Agriculture by virtue of its vast potential inimproving the Socio – economic conditions of the farmers.The horticulture sector is supplier for large number of agro 2based industries which has highavenues for generation of skill full employment and self employment opportunities both inrural and urban areas. Gujarat has a wide variety of soil, rainfall pattern, temperature regimesand irrigation availability.“Presently, India is the 2nd largest producer of fruits & vegetables in the world3.”Gujarat has achieved considerable growth rate in horticulture during last five years becauseof serious efforts made by the Gujarat Govt. The area & production of horticulture crop was5.89 lakh ha (5 %of total cropped area) & 59.49 lakh tons in 1998-1999 which increased upto 13.54 lakh ha. and 173.00 lakh tons respectively in 2010-11. Gujarat has strongcooperative credit & marketing structure, along with 265 cold storages having 12.50 lakh mt.storage capacities. About 42 fruit & vegetable co-operative marketing societies and 197Agriculture Produce Market Committees (APMCs) dealing with selling & buying ofhorticulture produce in the Gujarat. These have been mandate to maintain utmosttransparency for dealing to ensure farmers against exploitation by middlemen.Agriculture Export Zone for dehydrated onion & zone for fruits - vegetables has beenestablished, which will be the back bone to boost horticultural development in the Gujarat.Gujarat having ample potential to export various horticultural produce. The main produce arefresh fruits which includes mangoes (Kesar and Alphonso), Chiku, Aonla and Dates (khalal).The vegetables viz. okra, beans, bitter gourd, onion fresh as well as flacks and powder, garlicpowder and gourds.. The spices viz. cumin, fennel and garlic are also potential for export.1 http://agri.gujarat.gov.in/department/overview151.html2 url://www.agri.gujarat.gov.in3 www.nhm.nic.in 10
  • 11. In floriculture, major flowers grown in the state are Roses (Deshi & Hybrid), Lily, Marigold,Jasmine & Tuberose. As far as area under floriculture is concerned about 15000 ha area iscovered under these crops in the Gujarat. Flowers like carnation, gerbera & rose are alsocultivated by using Hi-tech Green house technology in some of the districts. Isabgol,Aloevera, Senna, Gugal, Safed musali, Ashvagandha, Kadu-kariyatu, Kaucha, and kalmeghetc. are being mainly cultivated in the different parts of the Gujarat. But the assure market isthe major constraints for the development of these crops, however, Isabgul has find the wayto the world market.Dehydrated vegetables, canned vegetables, Mango Pulp, Juices, Pickles - chuteny (Sauce) &ketchup are the important processed products of the Gujarat. Onion dehydration industry ofthe state is biggest in the country & it comprises 80% of total onion dehydration units, whichprocess nearly one lakh ton onion and one lakh ton fruits and vegetables annually. Nearly halfof the produce is being exported. Approximately 0.10 lakh ton of Isubgul husk is processedand 0.06 lakh ton of husk is exported to various countries. Mango, Banana, Guava, Chikoo,Papaya, Potato, Onion, Garlic, Cumin, Fennel, & Isabgul are the focused crops for the valueaddition.Grapes, cashew, medicinal & aromatic crops like aloevera, palmarosa are emerging as apotential- new crops in suitable areas of the Gujarat. Investment in Greenhouses, floriculture& medicinal plant projects, tissue culture units, fruit & vegetable processing units areinitiated in the Gujarat which show shining future of horticulture in the Gujarat. 11
  • 12. Table: 1.1 Annual Horticulture Development Rate in Gujarat Year Production (Lakh M. Tan) Annual Development Rate 1993-94 42.5 - 1994-95 44.3 4.2 1995-96 46.8 5.6 1996-97 42.7 -8.8 1997-98 47.8 11.9 1998-99 59.0 23.4 1999-2000 52.8 -10.5 2000-01 55.6 5.3 2001-02 61.0 9.7 2002-03 66.9 9.7 2003-04 85.1 27.2 2004-05 93.5 9.9 2005-06 115.46 23.5 2006-07 121.04 4.8 2007-08 144.74 16.3 2007-08 138.03 -4.63 Average 8.72 (Source NHB Data base 2008)Table: 1.2 Gujarat Position in some of the fruit and vegetable crops in all Indiaproductivity rank. Crop Productivity (t / ha) Rank Gujarat India Onion 26.6 15.1 1 Potato 22.9 19.3 2 Banana 54.8 35.9 2 Mango 24.0 17.9 2 Pomegranate 8.5 6.3 3 Tomato 10.2 7.0 3 Guava 15.2 11.1 3 Lime 10.42 8.5 3 Papaya 43.7 33.4 4 (Source NHB Data base 2009) 12
  • 13. Table 1.3 District wise Estimated Area and Production of Mango Year 2010-11 inGujaratS.No. Name of Area in Hect. Prod (In M.T.) District1 Ahmadabad 240 7232 Amreli 6480 405003 Banaskantha 510 14794 Bharuch 2866 241325 Narmada 3150 141756 Bhavnagar 6080 427427 Dang 3300 198008 Gandhinagar 1018 87559 Jamnagar 451 423910 Junagadh 19784 15770011 Porbandar 225 211512 Kutch 8020 5782413 Kheda 922 922014 Anand 2390 956015 Mehsana 934 569716 Patan 80 20017 Panchmahal 2300 1380018 Dahod 2580 1315819 Rajkot 366 128120 Sabarkantha 3224 2588921 Surat 7512 6009622 Surendranagar 690 310523 Baroda 5675 3405024 Valsad 26250 15487525 Navsari 20922 17783726 Tapi 4050 28350 TOTAL 130019 911302 (Source: url://www.agri.gujarat.gov.in) 13
  • 14. 1.1 MangoMango is the most important fruit covering about 35 per cent of area and accounting of 22 percent total production of total fruits in the country, which is highest in the world with Indias shareof about 54%. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars. Major mango growing Statesare Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat,Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The main varieties of mango grown in the country areAlphanso, Dashehari, Langra, Fajli, Chausa, Totapuri, Neelum etc1.1.1 Indian VarietiesThere are nearly 1000 mango varieties in India. Only about 20 varieties are growncommercially. Most of the Indian mango varieties have specific ecogeographicalrequirements for optimum growth and fruiting.Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green and Fazri in north India; Banganapalli, Totapuri,Neelum, Pairi, Suvarnarekha, Mulgoa, Kalapadi and Rumani in south India; Alphonso,Kesar, Mankurad, Fernandin’ and ‘Vanraj’ in western India and ‘Langra’, ‘Fazri; ‘Chausa’,‘Zardalu’, ‘Himsagar’ and ‘Malda’ in eastern India are grown commercially. 14
  • 15. 1.2 Organizational Overview:The Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India) is a non-profit, Non-GovernmentalOrganization (NGO) and established in 1983 under the section 25 of Companies RegistrationAct. AKRSP (I) began its field operation in 1985 and has since become one of the largergrassroots NGOs in India. The organization is working with economically vulnerable andenvironmentally fragile people of the Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. It has innovatedand pioneered several efforts in areas such as participatory irrigation management (PIM),integrated wadi development (IWADP), system of rice intensification (SRI), joint forestmanagement (JFM), rain roof water harvesting structure (RRWHS), watershed development,preventing salinity ingress, Jeevika, forest right act (FRA), alternative energy and many moreto empower rural women and marginalized communities.AKRSP (I) follows a participatory approach of development. As per the organization’smission, rural people are involved in every stage of a project, from identification of theproblem to project formulation, implementation and management. AKRSP (I) works toinvolve villagers in the project through Village institutions, Participatory Rural Appraisal(PRA), village development assistants who are selected by the village institution, training andmobilizing people to contribute towards their village development.AKRSP (I) programmes are divided into two interrelated stream, Natural ResourceManagement (NRM) and Human Resource Management (HRM). The objective of the NRMprogramme is to increase rural income by providing access to knowledge and input materialfor the cost effective and environmental friendlily ways to improve their output from land,water and forest resource. It is interesting that all the NRM programmes are implementedthrough Village institution and the people participation with proper transparency andmonitoring. NRM programmes mainly consist of Agriculture, Forestry, Water ResourceDevelopment, Soil and Water Conservation and Biogas.The objective of the HRM programme is to help rural people to develop organizational skillslike systems and structure to manage their resources in an equitable and sustainable manner.Under HRM the major programmes are formation of various Village institutions (e.g. MahilaMunch, Mahila Vikash Mandal, Gram Vikash Mandal, Farmers Club, Farmers Cooperativeand Producer Company), gender development, computer and craft making skills etc. 15
  • 16. 1.2.1 Organization Structure:Organization structure of the AKRSP (I) is professionally well defined. AKRSP (I) isworking on three hierarchy level namely it is called Central Office, Spear Head Team (SHT)and Cluster Office. The Central office (headed by CEO) is located in Ahmadabad which has ateam of senior specialists of various programmes i.e. community mobilizing, agriculture,forestry, soil & water conservation, water resource development, biogas, microfinance andmicro-enterprise development etc. along with accounts, administration, monitoring andhuman resource development, which are further supported by secretarial and other staffs.AKRSP (I) is mainly working in seven districts of Gujarat i.e. Bharuch, Surat, Narmada,Surendranager, Dang, Jamnagar and Junagadh, apart from these it also has outreach in andKhandwa, Barwani, Burhanpur and Khargone districts of MP further in Samastipur andMuzaffarpur districts of Bihar also. AKRSP (I) is operating in these districts through fieldteams called Spear Head Team (SHT) and it is headed by Area manager (AM) andProgramme Specialists of various discipline which is further supported by accounts,administration and other staffs.AKRSP (I) believes in decentralize way of work and decision making, hence the field teamhave further been decentralized into small groups comprising experts of different disciplesand called Cluster Office (CO) which is headed by Cluster Manager (CM). The teamstructure at the field offices is similar to the central office but there are differences in thelevel of experiences and qualification. 16
  • 17. Chapter: 2 Literature ReviewThe implementation of comprehensive Tribal Development Programmes in Gujarat since1995 and in Maharashtra since 2000 had provided several insights for NABARD in framingstrategies for holistic development of tribal regions. The Tribal Development Programmeswere externally supported by German bank, KfW (Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau) whohave chosen NABARD as Indian partner and project implementation at ground level wastaken up by BAIF, one of the renowned nongovernmental organizations in natural resourcemanagement sector.The central focus of the ADPs is “wadi” (small orchard) together with suitable soilconservation, water resource development measures and other measures for improving thequality of tribal life such as community health & sanitation, women development,institutional development, etc. The wadi model has been acclaimed worldwide as asustainable and replicable model for poverty alleviation. The project was presented as asuccessful replicable model for poverty alleviation in the developing countries at the UNDPForum of Ministers for Poverty and Environment in New York, USA in 1999 as well as at theGlobal Dialogue in Hanover, Germany. This project was also exhibited in the “Basic NeedsPavilion” at the Expo-2000, GmbH, Hanover.The "Wadi" programme sponsored by Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau (KfW), Germany isunder implementation in two states: Gujarat since 1995: Valsad (Dharampur & Kapradablocks) and Dangs Maharashtra since 2000: Nasik (Peint, Triambak & Surgana blocks) andThane (Mokhada block). Since 2007 another Wadi Programme has been launched in Dangsand Valsad districts of Gujarat named as ADPG - Phase 2 with the financial assistance fromKFW Germany.Dr. Manibhai Desai, the Founder of BAIF came across the tribals of Vansda block in southGujarat in the mid 70‟s and realized that inspite of receiving relief from time to time fromvarious donor agencies, their quality of life has sharply declined. He also observed that in theprocess of harnessing the benefit of relief measures, the tribal families had lost confidence inthem and were suffering from a dependency syndrome. He also noticed that most of thetribal’s, both – men as well as women had turned to alcohol mostly brewed from local mahuaflowers to drown their miseries and to overcome starvation. Illiteracy, starvation and ill-health became a way of life for these unfortunate tribals. To reverse this process, he launcheda programme to rehabilitate these tribal families on their own lands through reforestation. 17
  • 18. This ambitious project was sanctioned by the Ministry of Environment and Forests,Government of India with the objective of establishing fuel wood plantations on the degradedprivate lands owned by the tribal’s. However, the response from the target families was verylukewarm. They were also doubtful about the viability of the programme to generate income.Hence, extensive dialogues were carried out between the BAIF field staff and tribal familiesto identify their needs. The tribal’s expressed their preference for fruit trees instead offorestry species. Thus, a new model was developed to combine fruit trees as the main cropand forestry species on bunds and borders. As BAIF had put a condition that only thosewilling to give up alcohol could participate in the programme, the initial response was poorand the programme was started with only 42 families. Food security during the gestationperiod was posing a major concern and hence inter-cropping was introduced. Some wagesupport was also provided even for working on their own fields as they had no surplus moneyeven to buy their ration.A multi-disciplinary project was launched with the support of CAPART in 1988. This projectmade a significant impact in the surrounding villages. The programme did bring a significantimprovement in the quality of life. As anticipated, women played a leading role whichcontributed to the success. Extension Officers visited the field regularly not only to adviseand ensure better growth of the plants but also to motivate them to sustain their hard work.Formation of Self Help Groups of women and men, establishing village level planningcommittees to organize essential support services and linkages of these groups with financialinstitutions were the other components to implement the programme more efficiently.Finally, it was felt necessary to find a reliable market for the produce once the trees startedbearing after 4-5 years.The Hunger Project (USA) provided finance to support 1000 families in the adjoiningvillages in Vansda block. German Development Bank (KfW) provided a major support underbilateral assistance through NABARD for replicating the programme in 150 villages inVansda, Dharampur and Dangs. Suitability of different fruit crops were studied throughaction-research. Initially, the tribal’s preferred mango. Subsequently, after seeing the fielddemonstration, they accepted other fruit crops such as cashew, Indian gooseberry, custardapple, tamarind, jujube (ber), depending on the soil productivity and availability of moisture.Over the last two decades, the wadi has been transformed into a multidisciplinary programmefor rehabilitation. The essence is to provide sustainable livelihood from an acre (0.4 ha) ofland for the participating poor family. Each wadi owner can earn Rs 20,000-25,000 annuallyfrom this small plot of land, once the trees start bearing fruits. There are further opportunities 18
  • 19. to enhance the income through other supplementary activities. Initially, motivation, impartingskills and providing critical inputs were the key components. Providing means of livelihoodduring the gestation period was very critical. This is being organized through promotion ofagriculture in the inter-space, introduction of short gestation cash crops, processing of foodand herbal medicines, livestock and poultry husbandry are some of the opportunities whichhelped the participating families to generate income till the orchards started bearing fruits.Micro-credit is being organized through SHGs and their linkage with financial institutions totake up these activities. During this process, local organizations are also strengthened andlinked with the external world, particularly the Government development agencies, financialinstitutions, market outlets and Panchayati Raj instituitons. Thus they will be able to continuetheir responsibilities even after completion of the project.Presently, wadi is a major programme of socio-economic rehabilitation of the tribal’s andother backward sections of the society. The programme has relevance for all sections of thesociety and is replicable throughout the country. Wadi is not only a programme for providingfood security and ecological restoration, but it is also a strong foundation to build the localcapabilities to initiate other community development programmes for socio-economicdevelopment. It is a programme demonstrating the feasibility of ecological restoration withpoverty eradication. Naturally, the impact of this programme can be measured in terms ofadditional employment generation, increase in the family income, and reduction in migration,food security, good health, improved literacy, greater awareness and high moral values. Manywomen and men have occupied important positions in Panchayati Raj Institutions and localcooperatives. The programme addresses the problems of the poor which can be replicatedthroughout the country. It provides sustainable income, clean environment and better qualityof life. 19
  • 20. Chapter 3: MethodologyThe study entailed a detailed review of literature together with collection and analysis ofprimary and secondary data. Sample design acknowledges sample collection, both primaryand secondary data and deciding tools for data collection to identify cost benefit and breakeven Points. Field work includes survey through structured questionnaire with personalinterview and general discussion.3.1 Research DesignSouth Gujarat region was selected for the research on horticulture crops specifically mangogrown in that area. The reason for the selection is that, AKRSP (I) has works last 10 years onwadi project in this region. And this project timeline will be complete end of this year.3.2.1. Selection of area:The project implementation area is tribal South Gujarat Region, but selected area for makingcase study in Surat dist. Block Mandvi and Umarpada, in Bharuch dist. Valia block and inNarmada dist. Dediapada and Sagbara block. 20
  • 21. Above map shows that working area of wadi-project. Project needed to visit all highlightedarea in map especially mango-wadi covered from these areas.3.2.2. Identification of project elements:Primary research is done on the basis of the project elements; the institutional linkages of theproject such as Seedlings, planting material, fertilizers, and pesticides and for availability ofinput supplier, and then AKRSP (I) officials for find out the procedural plans for monitoringand EC funding of project.3.2.3. Collection of primary data:Primary data are collected through structured questionnaire with personal interview. Thequestionnaire was checked beforehand and necessary corrections were made. The revisedquestionnaire was finalized for survey. Interviews and general discussions were conductedabout some facts, issues before and present situation of the Mango-wadi.3.2.4. Collection of Secondary Data:The most valuable secondary sources of information collected from AKRSP (I) office,website of Horticulture, ministry of Horticulture, department of Horticulture, wadi and StateHorticulture Board. A detailed personal interview conducted in three dist. of Surat, Narmada,Bharuch.3.3 Methods of Data Analysis:Excel is used as a major tool for analysis of primary data. The other tools like averages,percentage, profit and loss account, Gross Return, Return Over paid out cost, total variablecost, benefit cost ratio, internal rate of return, net present value by different financial ratioanalysis and sensitivity analysis for risk.3.4. Limitations of the assignment: 1. Reach to the tribal areas of the project where transportation is difficult. Due to lack of transportation facility. 2. At length interviews of the mango-wadi owners were not possible due to time constraint on the part of the interviewee. 3. Gap of communication 21
  • 22. Chapter: 4 Findings & Analysis:In 1997, boundary plantation of mango trees was started in Netrang cluster of Gujarat state.Then the wadi project came in existence by AKRSP (I) in 2002 in following cluster.Following table shows all the beneficiaries covered under wadi project in different cluster ofGujarat state and area covered in each cluster, provided saplings and their survival rate.Table 4.1: Horticulture beneficiaries of TSG Total Provided Saplings Survival Cluster Name Area (In Hect.) Beneficiaries Saplings (%) Dediyapada 4430 332.21 94080 78.42 Mandvi 1710 235.24 26962 85.60 Netrang 2549 220.36 67854 60.42 Sagbara 4524 757.98 99896 89.32 Umarpada 1289 66.6 4404 96.84 Grand Total 14502 1612.39 293196 82.54 (Source: AKRSP (I) data base 2010)4.1 Land Holding pattern:Cropping pattern of these clusters is more dependent upon rain water than irrigation sourceslike open well, canal and tube well. In irrigated land, near about sixty percent of land is usedfor agriculture and remaining for horticulture. Where farming is totally based on rain water,people do only agriculture and no one does horticulture in rain fed, they want irrigationsource for doing horticulture. 22
  • 23. Graph: 4.1.1 Land Holding Pattern (Source: Survey)4.1.1 Area Utilized For Wadi:Wadi project is the new intervention come in picture for development in horticulture. Farmershave taken wadi of 0.5-2.5 acre and they are doing intercropping in between mango-wadi. Itwas found that near about fifty percent people is doing wadi in 0.85 to 1.75 acre of land.After that 45% of are doing in 0.1 to 0.84 acre of land. And only one person is found that hedoing wadi in more than 1.76 acre of land. In that, farmers take intercrops like paddy,vegetables, red gram, maize, Soybean, wheat, cotton etc so this becomes their additionalincome. In first year AKRSP (I) give input cost for making mango-wadi, also farmers usedfirm yard manure to in it .Chart: 4.1.2 Area Utilize for wadi (Source: Survey) 23
  • 24. 4.2 Mango Survival Trees:Mango-wadi project started in 2002 but some people got mango boundary plantation in 1997as well as in 2002. AKRSP (I) has given mango inputs like Seedlings, Fertilizer, Equipments,Pesticides, Drip irrigation and more. Some seedlings died within 2-3 years and AKRSP (I)provided new seedlings to maintain wadi.Data collection five cluster was done of Netrang, Dediyapada, Sagbara, Mandvi, Umarpadabased on personal interview of 20 beneficiaries of mango wadi. Mango survival rate is 91%and it is good survival rate due support of AKRSP (I) to farmers like replantation.Chart: 4.2.1 Mango Tree Survival (Source: Survey)4.3 Average per Tree production of mango-wadi:Last eight year(2004-2012) data shows that, production per tree started as below:In Dediyapada cluster production started from 2007 and of mango production was very lessin the first three years and every year slightly increasing but later in the fifth year, productionincreased up to thrice than the third year. The highest production of the Dediyapada clusterwas 14 kg per Tree.In Sagbara cluster the production started from 2007 and in first year farmers got 10 Kg pertree production but next year the production reduced and then every year productionincreased. Last year 17 KG was the average per tree productionIn Mandvi cluster production started from 2008, productivity here was better compared toother clusters. In first year they got five KG average production tree. In second yearproduction increased to the triple of the previous year. In the last year production was around 24
  • 25. 30 Kg per Tree. In this cluster many people have irrigation source that AKRSP (I) hasprovided group wells and canal irrigation facility. Also they got support from organizationabout infestation and diseases. Mandvi is largest producer of average per Tree in TSG.In Umarpada cluster production was started in 2009 and first year they got 10 KG per Treeproduction and then after every year production increased. Highest production of mangos inthis cluster is 15 KG per Tree. One of the major problems of Umarpada cluster isunavailability of water. Due to lack of irrigation production didn’t increase. Some farmershave Drip irrigation source but many of them are not using drip. In Umarpada cluster manyfarmers have not shown interest for making & caring wadi. They just have taken wadi butthey didn’t do any special operation like, cutting, post harvest management, on farm valueaddition and more. But still they are getting good production.In Netrang, Wadi project was started in 2002. Those who planted in 2002, they were startgetting the production in 2007. And those who planted in 1998 they got production in 2004. Itwas to be found that overall production of mango is good in Netrang cluster among the entirecluster. Following diagram shows that the production of mango was fluctuating year by year.And in 2006 production was highest in Netrang. But in 2011 it was found that the productiondecreased to the lowest level due to infestation. Except last year the production in all theyears was good.In the year when Mango wadi was cultivated, AKRSPI had provided inputs like fertilizersand pesticides, but later on except first year (when AKRSPI had provided fertilizers andpesticides) farmers did not applied any fertilizer and pesticide in all successive years, so itaffected on healthy growth of the Wadi and ultimately on production or yield, farmers couldnot met the production level which a ideal Mango Wadi has. 25
  • 26. Graph: 4.3.1 Average per tree production in TSGINKG (Source: Survey) 4.4 Mango-wadi average net returns: The following graph shows the net return of farmers from year 2002-2010. In first year, net return observes to be negative. Thereafter production goes on increasing successively from 2003 to 2009 but in last year due to some pest attack and insect attack production goes down than previous year. Graph: 4.4.1 Average Net Returns: (Source: Survey) Net return calculated as: Net return= Gross return- Total variable cost (expenses) 26
  • 27. 4.5 Breakeven point:Following table shows the number of farmers and their initial money invested recovery yearsin mango wadi project. As per table, 6 farmers get back his initial money investment inmango wadi project in first year likewise 3 farmers gets in third year and so on as per belowtable.Chart: 4.5.1 breakeven point Year No. of Farmers st 1 6 3rd 3 4th 3 5th 2 th 6 2 7th 1 8th 1 (Source: Survey)4.6 Post Harvest ManagementAfter production of mango, farmers didn’t go for sorting, grading and cleaning the produce indifferent category, because lack of awareness about grading and sorting and benefits afterthese process. They stored the mangos in home, due to unavailability of warehouse facility inthe region. Some farmers are selling the produce in the nearest market of Shelamba, Mandvi,Dediyapada, Jankhavav, etc. some farmers are using Mango federation for selling themangos, which was formed by AKRSPI in Gandevi. Also as per the convince some of themsale the Mangos in Surat, Ankaleshwar market.4.7 Changes in Income:Before the wadi intervention, people were migrated to other places for work like agri labor,construction field. And they were growing only in tradition way of farming. Afterintervention of wadi, people were practicing new intervention like intercropping, SRI,WADI, for taking cash crops it may includes vegetables like parwal, Brinjal, Tomato, Samebeans, Onion, Ladies finger. Due to all these new intervention their income pattern alsochanged. Following two bars shows that how much of income has been increased afterintervention. Almost 130% income increased as compared with 10 years ago. It was theincredible change due accepting new intervention. 27
  • 28. Graph: 4.7.1 Change in Income (Source: Survey)4.8 Migration Status:As the income increases after intervention, the people stopped migrating. They used tomigrate for more income but after intervention of wadi and all allied intervention to wadi,they are getting more money than they earned when they migrated.Following bar diagram shows, how much of migration is being reduced due to allintervention. More or less hundred percent of migration has been reduced.Graph: 4.8.1 Migration Status (Source: Survey) 28
  • 29. Chapter: 5 Conclusion & Recommendations:5.1 Conclusion:The Wadi programme is implemented in the area where the rainfall is above 1000 mm or inother areas having reliable source of water. A family with less than 1 ha land with reliablemarket outlet will earn Rs.10000-15000 per annum, after 4-5 years when the tree start to giveyield. The gestation period is very critical. During this period, the participating families needsome support in the form of employment to sustain their basic needs. However, activitiessuch as vegetable cultivation and intensive use of the inter space for production of food,vegetables and cash crops are essential. With the establishment of wadi, the beneficiaries feelsecure and do not migrate to urban areas with all the members of the families. Thus, theydevelop an inclination to maintain various species of livestock. This is an additional source ofincome for the family. Thus, by participating in tree-based farming with 0.2 to 1 ha land, afamily is able to come out of poverty.At first beneficiaries did not show interest in making wadi but after 4-5 year gettinghorticulture yield they have shown interest in wadi. And many farmers got support for dripirrigation from AKRSP (I) but they don’t use these technologies in horticulture. Manyfarmers have gone for only 0.5 & 1 acre wadi due to lack of irrigation facilities. Beforehorticulture intervention they used to follow traditional farming and were getting feweryields. But now the condition of beneficiaries has changed and they grow vegetables and cashcrops and have irrigation facility in their lands. Also, farmers are now showing interest inhorti-marketing and AKRSP (I) is forming a federation for mango marketing in this area.Farmers’ income has also risen with this intervention.As it is the holistic approach of development it includes all the factors with an approach tosustainable livelihood and better quality of life.Wadi beneficiaries used inputs only when AKRSP (I) provided them in the initial period.Later they never used fertilisers and pesticides until the production started. Hence the yield is40% lesser than the expected yield. 29
  • 30. 5.2 Recommendations: 1. A storage facility should be made in this region for storage of fruits as the perishable & getting good price fruits. 2. Provide training programme & exposure visit on post harvest management as especially on farm value addition. 3. Provide suitable market for mango yield, that they have to sell in the market and get good value for their producing yield. 4. As the farmers do not prefer to use fertilisers and pesticides unless any external support is provided, monitoring of the beneficiaries and constant guidance and support is necessary so that the objective of the intervention is fulfilled. 30
  • 31. Chapter: 6 Case StudiesCase -6.1 Ajaybhai HursimbhaiVillage: KambodiaBlock: NetrangDist.: Bharuch (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 10 acreIrrigated Land: 3 acreAge: 28 yearsMob No. +91-9909238716Education: 12th std.Background:Ajaybhai has two sons, one is in primary school and another is in KG school. Ajay’s fatherdied five year ago. His father was a Doctor. After his father death, he has to own theresponsibility of his family.He has 10 acre of land in that 3 acre land is irrigated and 7 acre land is on rain fed. Forirrigation source he have one open well as well as one bore well but both of them are notworking throughout the year. He uses the electric motor for lifting water from well for that hepays 200-250 Rs monthly.Before, Wadi he was growing only paddy. That time he took single crop through the year.Also he dint get not much of yield from single crop. Then he thought we can change ourcropping pattern and make some cash crops like, Soyabean, Red gram, Ground nut and somevegetable crops that he growing in this year.Support:In 2003, AKRSP (I) has conducted meeting in his village. He attended that meeting then hethought that “can I take one acre wadi?” He discussed with his family members but somepeople were not ready to take. Then he explained all benefits of mango wadi and finely hetook wadi in his one acre land. First he did land leveling and then he dig open well and got anirrigation facility then he took wadi, he got 20 Keshar and 30 Rajapuri seedlings.He got interest to dig a well for making mango-wadi for better irrigation. Then he thoughtthat “I should go for organic farming in this wadi.” first year he took Soyabean & Red gram 31
  • 32. for intercropping in this wadi. He used to give a two trolley F.Y.M. fertilizer for every year inone acre wadi land; still his dint used any chemical fertilizer but his use chemical pesticidesfor mango and other crops.Also, in Kamodia village there is 15 farmers’s got mango-wadi in 2003, people are showingtheir interest for mango-wadi and they conducted every meeting for every month and discusssome agriculture problems they are facing. Also previous year they sold mango to Gandevimarket through AKRSP (I).They form one group for mango marketing. Before two year they sold mango to villagemarket or Netrang local market but they didn’t get that much of price, but now they formedgroup and sold mango to juice making factory.Graph: 6.1.1 Mango ProductionAbove table shows the increase in production of mango – wadi production how to increaseper plant production in year by year, last year he got 15 quintals production of wadi.Changes:When he has done H.S.C. that time he wanted to do agriculture and wants to work in his ownfarm but he didn’t have that much of knowledge at that time. Then he did in tradition way ofagriculture that time he grows only on rain fed agriculture.Then sometimes he used to think that I should do something for irrigation source? Then hetook bore well & Open well and he got water in open well this time to still he growing twotimes crop in a year.After some days he got AKSRP(I) training in Netrnag, Dediapada and some village exposurevisit, in this exposure visit, he have seen SRI method, mango-wadi and Bio-Gas plant innearby places he had visited in last 10 years. 32
  • 33. Table 6.1.1 Income through animal Husbandry: Animal Husbandry 2008 2009 2010 2011 Month in year 10 9 10 10 Lit./Rs. 18 21 23 26 Per day milk in Lit. 5 5 6 6 Total gives milk in year 1500 1350 1800 1800 Total amount in year 27000 28350 41400 46800Also, he has one cow, four buffalo. He sells 7 lit/day milk to dairy. He is getting moresupport for his sustainable livelihood. AKRSP (I) has been provided finance for buying cowin 2010. Actually before giving loan he had buffalo but he didn’t sold milk. Since from lasttwo year he sold 7 lit. / Milk in a day. Also he is constructing a new home in his village. Thisyear he planned to sell mango to Gandevi market that will give more profit and more prices.Also, he wants a fruits and vegetable “COLD STORAGE” facility, because AKRSP (I) givesin this area some vegetable mandap (stacking for creeper vegetable) and mango wadi butpeople not get that time price on right time when you provide us cold storage facility thenthat gives us much more profit.Table 6.1.2. Intercropping cost & benefits analysis of mango-wadi: 33
  • 34. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 Soyabea Red Mang Mang Ground Mang Sorgh maka Mang Red Ground MangCrop n gram o Bajari Makai o nut Maize o um i o gram nut oYield(Qt/Acre) 8 1 0 2 0.8 3 1 5 1 2.5 2 2Value of (Rs./Qt.) 1409 1288 0 571 590 1624 599 901 879 2423 1670 1500Gross Return 11272 1288 0 1142 472 4872 599 4505 879 6057 3340 3000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 2000Equipments 1150Seeds 450 100 200 100 1000 100 150 100 200 1200Fertilizer (F.Y.M.) 600 1500 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400Pesticide 300 200 800 500 600 500 500 300 600 500Water Charges 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600labor cost 500 300 900 300 240 300 1600 400 300 480 400 300 320 1200 600Total paid out cost (TVC)(C) 2450 1200 6950 1500 1340 1800 4200 1500 1800 1630 1500 1800 1820 4000 2100Net return (gross return-TC) 8822 88 -6950 -358 -868 -1800 672 -901 -1800 2875 -621 -1800 4237 -660 900BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 4.60 1.07 0.00 0.76 0.35 0.00 1.16 0.40 0.00 2.76 0.59 0.00 3.33 0.84 1.43Total exp. 2003 10600 4640 7500 4930 7920Total Income 12560 1614 5471 5384 12397 34
  • 35. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 Red Red Same Red Same Red SameCrop Sorghum gram Mango gram beans Mango gram beans Mango gram beans MangoYield(Kg/Acre) 4 1 9 2 8 11 2 10 13 2 5 15value of (Rs./Kg) 692 2115 1500 2191 900 1800 2165 1000 2500 3211 1200 2000Gross Return(A+B) 2768 2115 13500 4382 7200 19800 4330 10000 32500 6422 6000 30000Paid out cost of productionSeeds 200 200 200 300 200 300 200 300Fertilizer (F.Y.M.) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400Pesticide 300 500 300 600 500 300 1000 500 300 1000 1000Transportation 200 200Water Charges 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600labor cost 400 400 1000 500 2500 1250 500 2500 1250 500 1500 1250Total paid out cost (TVC)(C) 1600 1900 2500 2000 4400 2950 2000 4800 2950 2000 3800 3250Net return (gross return-TC) 1168 215 11000 2382 2800 16850 2330 5200 29550 4422 2200 26750BCR - TVC basis (grossreturn/TVC) 1.73 1.11 5.40 2.19 1.64 6.71 2.17 2.08 11.02 3.21 1.58 9.23Total exp. 6000 9350 9750 9050Total Income 18383 31382 46830 42422Net Returns 12383 22032 37080 33372 35
  • 36. Graph: 6.1.2 Wadi Net Returns:Initial four years, there has been no notable income through agriculture. Initially in first yearthe farmer started growing cash crop but there as not so good production. In second yearframer has tried to grow fodder for animals. Then farmer has made comparison between thesecrops seeing which one gives more net return. From fifth year onwards, when horticulturecrops started producing income, gave considerable change in income through the agriculturalpractices and has supplemented overall income through agriculture. Even after gettingincome through horticulture, there has been good progress in income through other crops likesame beans (Dolichas lablab), as the horticulture crops provides secured income and hasgiven confidence for change over the corps.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table 1.7 36
  • 37. Case-6.2 Balwant Umaid VasavaVillage: KalijamanBlock: UmarpadaDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 7 acreIrrigated Land: 2 acreAge: 40 yearsMob No. +91-9925089914Education: 7th std.Balawant has two sons named as Pradip studying in 10th and Prakash studied in 12th std. alltogether there are seven members in the family. Agriculture is the main source of his family.Also, he has three sisters they all are married.He has 7 acre land; out of only two acre land is under irrigation, remaining 5 acre is rain fed.As irrigation source, he has one open well and it is working out for 10 month in a year. Heuses the diesel engine for lifting the water from well.Also, before intervention the land was sloppy due to which water could not stay in his field.So it was hard to grow any crops. But later on in 1995, Dinesh Patel AKRSP (I) employeecame to his village and conducted meeting about land leveling also he got support and landwas well leveled up and now he can do cultivation in better way. And also, he has donebanding to his farm.Balawant is well known person in his village, in his village he is president of “GRAMVIKAS MANDALI” there is 11 committee members. And this committee is formed before15 year.Kalijaman is 3 km far from kevdi local market, 16 km far from jankhavav local market and90 km farm from Surat city market.In Kalijaman, AKRSP (I) has done lot of work and people got benefited to services like, Bio-gas 12 plant, vermicompost, Bugger pata, Animal Husbandry-45, group open well, mobileengine, Gabion, Equipment, Hybrid seeds, SRI, Wadi, Banding, Land leveling, Ground nutharvester machine and some other. Kalijaman is comes under hilly area there is lot of wasteland available in before intervention. Now many people have grown minimum on time in ayear due to land leveling and banding has been done. 37
  • 38. From 1995, to till now AKRSP (I) working in this village but in 2003, they came on themango-wadi project. And they conducted meeting that time he has attended this meeting.Then 14 people have agreed to take mango-wadi in own land.In his village main problem is irrigation facility is not well because people think no water.Because they can grow only in rainy season they think after December water level to goes tolow level and where to get water to mango plant.In 2003, he took half acre wadi in his own farm that time he got 11 keshar and 11 Rajapuriseedlings but after some time 1 Keshar plants are dead. Now he has 21 mango plants in hismango wadi. He also got some fertilizer, equipments & pesticides i.e. (Vermicompost, LimPowder, pesticides, spade, hoe and sickle) and he has done all work of wadi from labor. Hegives some F.Y.M. and pesticides. Before one year he buys one spay for pest attack onmango.In intercropping he took first year paddy and Red gram he get good yield and next four yearhe grow only fodder then from 2008 he grows only paddy and pearl millet that is last fiveyear taken this crops.Mango-wadi production chart:Last 3 year he gives mango production every year his production has been increase and he getmoney. In first year he give only 50KG production from some plant then production wasincrease he got 2, 5 quintal respectively production, last year he got more production becausehe has done on pest attack practices.Graph 6.2.1 Average per Tree production of mango 38
  • 39. Table: 6.2.1 Animal Husbandry:Animal Husbandry 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Month in year 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7Average Lit./Rs. 15 15 18 20 22 25 28 32Per day milk in Lit. 5 5 6 6 6 7 5 7Total milk in year 1050 1050 1260 1260 1260 1470 1050 1470Total amount inyear 15750 15750 22680 25200 27720 36750 29400 47040He has 1 cow and 1 buffalo that is support to his livelihood and he sustain in his life. Thatevery day he sell 6 lit/day milk and he got average price 30-35 Rs. /lit.Mango-wadi Net Returns:In year 2003, Paddy and Red gram was cultivated as intercrops, applied fertilizers andpesticides and provided other inputs. But did not even get amount he spent for growing thesecrops, for next four year he focused on fodder crops only for livestock that he had. From fifthyear onwards, when horticulture crops started producing income, shown considerable changein income level through the agricultural practices and has supplemented overall incomethrough agriculture. Even after getting income through horticulture, there has been goodprogress in income through other crops like Paddy and Water melon, as the horticulture cropsprovides secured income and has given confidence for change over the corps. Now there lifehas been improved then before.Breakeven point in 7th year see annexure table 1.7Graph: 6.2.2 Mango-wadi net returnsTable: 6.2.2 intercropping of mango wadi 39
  • 40. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2003 2003 2003 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011Crop Paddy Red gram Mango pearl millet Mango pearl millet Mango pearl millet Mango Paddy MangoYield(Kg/Acre) 4 1 0 7 0 4 0.5 6 2 5 5value of (Rs./Kg) 624 1288 0 976 1222 1800 1287 2000 943 2000Value of Crop (A) 2496 1288 0 6832 0 4888 900 7722 4000 4715 10000Gross Return(A+B) 2496 1288 0 6832 0 4888 900 7722 4000 4715 10000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 880Equipments 750 1200Seeds 200 100 200 200 200 240Fertilizer (F.Y.M.) 240 240 3600 400 3000 400 400 450Pesticide 200 300 900 1200Water Charges 90 90 180 180 180 225labor cost 450 240 1550 800 400 800 320 1000 750 1000 750Total paid out cost (TVC) ( C ) 980 870 7080 1580 3400 1580 320 1780 2850 1915 1950Net return (gross return-TC) 1516 418 -7080 5252 -3400 3308 580 5942 1150 2800 8050BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 2.546 1.480 0 4.32 0 3.093 2.81 4.33 1.403 2.46 5.12Total exp. 8930 4980 1900 4630 3865Total Income 3784 6832 5788 11722 14715Net Returns -5146 1852 3888 7092 10850BCR 0.423 1.37 3.04 2.53 3.80 40
  • 41. Case- 6.3: Bachubhai GimiaVillage: GhanekutBlock: NetrangDist.: Bharuch (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 1 acreIrrigated Land: 0.75 AcreAge: 45 yearsMob No. +91-9586645116Education: 4th std.Background:Bachubhai has two son, both are working in the hotel (Ankleshwar). He is not well ineducated. He didn’t study only because of lack of money and support. Further same thingshappened with his children’s Ajay and Chickpea, both of them studied only 7th standard.Before wadi he had migrated to other place and generated income for livelihood. He gotmarried at the age of 21. He have 1 acre land in 3differents parts, out of that only 0.75acreland is under irrigated by canal water. Ghanekhut is 12km from Dediapada and 13 kmfrom Netrang local market. Mohan bhai is a head of village Ghanekhut, when he went toKarjan in 1994; he saw mandli of canal irrigation. Then he thought this type of mandali weformed in our village that gives more sustainable livelihood for village community. He met tocollector and discussed all these issues and collector had visited his village and saw what typeof condition is going on in his village. Collector gave this project of making mandali to Agakhan foundation. That time villagers came to know to Aga khan, which made 52 members ina piyat mandali (water user association).Bachubhai have seven brothers, three of them have wadi and two are doing Agri-labor inMovi village and rest of them are doing agriculture. In Ghanekhut there is a Dam forirrigation. In Ghanekhut, there is check dam named as Karajan check dam having 52 memberof his village. In 1994, these 52 members had collected 500 Rs. each for making Karjancheck dam. There were two installed of this collected amount, 15H.P. motor which provideirrigation water to whole area. Name of this committee is “SHIV PIYAT MANDALI (wateruser association) ” and there are nine committee members of this project. He and his threesons have 1.5 acres of land each. Before Wadi he went to other villages for income that he 41
  • 42. can repay the loan. Before the wadi project he was growing cotton, Sorghum, kang (localname) in his field. Due to wadi project he was able to grow vegetables for his daily foodconsumption, he said that “hame pahle khane me Javari, kang khate the aur aab rice, wheat,baingan, brinjal, some vegetables milte hai.” He complained about, that he was not gettinggood price for cotton and the yield was also less, about 1 Quintal per acre. As the incomefrom cotton was less, he had to take loan and then had to migrate in search of work forrepaying the loan.Support:In 1995 Aga khan has conducted meeting for making piyat mandali (water user association)(Water User Association), that time he has attended this meeting and he got more interest inmaking piyat mandali (water user association) (Water User Association) in that year. Whenmandali was formed in his village then water gets available to people for irrigation. After oneyear Aga khan has sell mango seedlings, that time he had buy 3 seedlings in 45 Rs. That timethis was too much amount, and then he planted these seedlings in waste land border. (Merepass uss time pe paise the aur aam ke poudhe mil raha tha isse liye lagaya). Then he tookcare of these three plants. And after some years in 2004 he got mango production 30kg thenhe realize we have to plant more seedlings in our farm. In 2004 he realize from mango plant,he thought that, I can make one wadi in 0.25 acre in our waste land there is sloppy land whichwas pasture land then he received one wadi, that year he got 20 seedlings of mango and nowthat survival Trees are only 14 (keshar is 8 and Rajapuri is 6) mango trees Actually he hasdone digging for mango plant at own and till now he gives on half trolley F.Y.M. fertilizers tomango trees. He spend 250 Rs. for pesticide in last 4 years and also he irrigate these plants 8months in a year and every 15 days gives to tree .Also he get hybrid seeds to growing onother land and he gets more production from these hybrid seeds also. 42
  • 43. Graph: 6.3.1 Average per Tree productionAs shown in above graph, in year 2004-08 he got production of only three Trees and in 2009he got production from 14 Trees of mango plants. As he took wadi he gets benefited inproduction as well as in his income. Again in year 2009 production reduces to some extentbecause more Trees give production. But again his average Trees production is good and lastyear his production is decrease due pest attack.Changes:He share his experienced of 2007, he said “aam kaise pakate hai pata nahi tha isse liye meranear about 3 quintal waste ho gaye.” after the loss in income. He came to know about ‘mangowadi exposure’ and he visited to Junagadh, Bhopal and Nearby places, in 2011 he gottraining in Bhopal for after caring of mango, Also he get SRI exposure visit Because ofkarjan dam and wadi our village people are satisfied and more happy now. He said that” Isskepahle goan ke bahot sare log majuri karne ke liye bahar jate the abhi bahot kam log jate hai.”He has take lease land on paying money to these farmers and generate livelihood.Also he grow in farm Maize, cotton, Sorghum and other that gives more production and highprice in market. Also he grows paddy in leased land and he used SRI method to grow Paddy.He grows fodder for animal I Mango wadi. He has 2 cows and gets 8 months milk in everyyear from 2008 to till. When he buys this cows and 1st year his sell 10 lit. Milk/day and then2nd year 6 lit. /day then 3rd year he sell 9 lit./day. That’s why he got more sustainablelivelihood. Now mango-wadi as my summer business for me because his sells mango in hisvillage and in nearby villages & on highway road. 43
  • 44. Table: 6.3.1 Mango- Cost benefits analysis:Village Ghanekhut Waste LandYear of Wadi 1997 three Trees in boundary 2004 0.25 Survival Trees isArea of Wadi acre 34.78 % Variet y Keshar 2 0.25 8Seedlings Rajapuri 1 0.25 6 Average Per Tree Production in KGYield(Quintal/Acre) 1st Year-2004 0.3 10 2nd Year- 2005 0.8 26.66 3 rd Year- 2006 1.5 50 4th Year- 2007 4 133.33 5th Year- 2008 5 166.67 6th Year-2009 6 42.86 7th Year-2010 8 57.14Pest attack 8th Year- 2011 2 14.28Total Production (Quintal) 27.6 Price in KGValue of mango 2004 8 240 2005 10 800 2006 15 2250Break Even Point 2007 15 6000 2008 17 8500 2009 20 12000 2010 20 16000 2011 25 5000Gross Return (In RS.) 50790Paid out cost of productionEquipment (pawed, Kodaly, Parlay, Talcum, water tank) 2200 44
  • 45. Seedlings 825Fertilizer 300Pesticides 1000Labor cost (Own) 1500Transportation (use Bicycle) 0Water charges 2400Total paid out cost (A) (TVC) 8225Return over paid out cost (gross return-A) 42565BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 6.17 45
  • 46. Case- 6.4 Bhikubhai Varanashibhai TadviHe is living in Shimamli Village. In block Sagbara, Dist. Narmada (GJ). His Occupation isAgriculture Own Land 1.5 acre, Irrigated Land 1.5 acre. Bhikubhai Age 85 years. MobileNo. is 7878748210 and Education is 2nd STD.Background-Bhikubhai has 4 children, 3 boys & a girl who all are married. He stays with his youngestson. He and his three sons own 1.5 acres of land each. Shimamli is 5 km from sagbara and 10km from shelamba local market.In Shimamli there is a canal for irrigation 600 users of the canal have formed an associationand Bhikubhai is a committee member of this association before Wadi .His son used tomigrate for his livelihood & reply loan before intervention he was growing cotton, Javari,kang (local name) in his farmAlso, his daily (hame pahle khane me, Javari, kang khate the aur aab rice, wheat, baingan,brinjal, some vegetables milte hai). He complains that he was not getting good price forcotton and the yield was also less, about 1 Quintal per acre. As the income from cotton wasless, he had to take loan and then had to migrate in search of work for replying the loan. 46
  • 47. Support:In 2003-04 Ajaybhai & Naval singh were visiting Shimamli village and organizing meeting,regarding wadi and new interventions implemented like SRI. Bhikubhai got good support inthis operation, and he was also a leader in his own village .In the meetings they gave moreinformation about this project and in shimamli 30 farmers got ready to take wadi in their ownfarm.Also, Bhukubhai decided to take mango-wadi in his farm and then they formed wadi vikaszut for wadi project and Bhikubhai is a member of this zut, meeting is conducted twice ayear. First, they arranged training in Sagbara, Netrang, Rajpipala, Navsari and some exposurevisits on wadi farm. Bhikubhai got more practical knowledge about mango-wadi in his wadiproject. He was in regular touch with AKRSP (I) Para workers and Sagbara office, heattended monthly meetings too.Also, he got timely operation information from the Sagbara office (Which fertilizer to beused? Where to buy in cheap price and good quality? Pest attack etc) .When he got canalwater in his farm, he made some changes in agriculture pattern which results in less inputcost and more yield.Impact and process:In 2003, he undertook 1 acre land, which he took another 2 acre and later handed over the 2acre land to his son. When he undertook wadi project, he received 40 mango seedlings fromAKRSP (I) and also some equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, training and agriculturalinformation. He carried out the whole process mango plantation in his farm.Also, he had provided with F.Y.M. (farm yard manure) 10 tractor because to grow moremango production. According to him he gets more of rainfall in his area annually. For heavyrainfall, farmers don’t give more water to field.Also, he has undertaken cultivation of paddy and Red gram in an intercropping pattern andgets 15 quintal paddy and 5 quintal tuber and it regarded as a good production in 1 acre land.He told (abhi tak mere jindgi me itna jyada production kabhi nahi mila tha).In this year hegives to water to plant on his hard work and without hiring labor. Then next three year hecultivates chili, Brinjal and tomato had a good production.Then last five year he did only fodder making for his animal husbandry that gives moremoney. He get 6 lit milk in 10 month in one year from buffalo and sell to village dairy andget 23-27 Rs. /lit. Price and that gives more support to his livelihood. He takes more care ofmango-wadi like mulching, regular cutting and other related activity. In 2007 receives mangobut this year he was not so much satisfied with the production. 47
  • 48. Graph: 6.4.1 Average per graph productionHe takes production in 2008 1 quintal for HH utility. Then next three year he take 4, 5, 7quintal respectively. He didn’t hire labor for any operation of mango till now and take careown. He harvest 3-4 times in mango plantation and store in his home, his sell agricultureyield in Shelamba local market 10 km far from his village. He sell own in shelamba it giveshim more money and good price for mango which reflects in his satisfaction.Many people buy for pickle preparation and some people are also booked to prepare pickle.Mango production finally profiteer the farmer in month of June that help in kharif in thatmoney they can buy seeds, fertilizers, herbicides. Main thing is agricultural productionprovides financial support to them because previous they cultivate cotton and Javari, kangthis crop cannot generate more income for the family and cotton benefits a lot but not up tothe mark. Mr. suresh bhai went 3 days tour to in Maharashtra as (Shirdi sai baba, Ralegand,Ridhi Sidhi, Nashik and some other places) in this period he get exposure visit to goodintervention applied in Ralegand .Now he is satisfied with his production. He has bankbalance and he can suffer one year. And he stored food grain for 1 yr to get food sufficient.Also he visited some places of AKRSP (I) and gets much more of experience of mango wadi. 48
  • 49. Graph: 6.4.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns:In above graph, first year gives lots of input cost like, fertilizer, pesticides that it get goodreturns and after three year he took some vegetable like, chili, Brinjal and Tomato but inreturn he couldn’t get any profit. So in 2008 he changed the crop and started growing fodderfor animals as well as he adopted mango wadi. Started to mango yield but first year he hasnot recover input cost and after three year his income increase every year. Now he growsonly fodder for his animal husbandry in intercropping and his life to become change in tosustainable livelihood.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.4.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis 49
  • 50. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Paddy Red Mang Brinja Mang Tomat Mang Mang Mang MangCrop (SRI) gram Mango Chili o l o o o o o o MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 8 2.5 0.65 10 9 0.5 3.5 4.5 6.5value of (Rs./Qt) 700 200 500 525 500 1800 1800 2000 2000Gross Return(A+B) 5600 5000 3250 5250 4500 900 6300 9000 13000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1560Equipments 1000Seeds 400 100 200 300 600Fertilizer 430 300 2050 437 800 950 1200 1200 1200 1200Pesticide 300 600 400 1150 500 200Water Charges 100 200 400 600 400Transportation 100 100 180labor cost 450 150 360 900 100 1500 100 1200 100 250 250 280 260Total paid out cost (TVC) 1380 1050 5570 2337 100 4350 100 3650 100 1450 1550 1580 1840Return over paid out cost (grossreturn-C) 4220 3950 -5570 913 -100 900 -100 850 -100 -550 4750 7420 11160BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 4.05 4.76 1.39 1.20 1.23 0.62 4.06 5.69 7.06Total Exp in a year 8000 2437 4450 3750 1450 1550 1580 1840Total Income 10600 3250 5250 4500 900 6300 9000 13000Recover amount 2600 813 800 750 -550 4750 7420 11160 50
  • 51. Case - 6. 5 Dhana bhai Dunger singhVillage: KavangaiBlock: umarpadaDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 3 acreIrrigated Land: 3 acreAge: 42 yearsMob No. +91-999752657Education: 6th std.Background:Dhana has one son he is in 10th std in Chokhwada village. It is 3 km away from his village.And he has two daughter both are married. Also, he has two brothers both are working inagriculture sector, but his family divided before 8 year ago and he stays with father.Agriculture is the main source of the family. But due to lack of land and less yield from thathis whole family used to migrate for labor work in nearby places.He has three acre of land that is divided in three different places, and all three acre is irrigatedland. For irrigation source he has one open well but it’s not working throughout the year. Heuses the Diesel engine for lifting water from well to farm. And before intervention he growspaddy, Red gram, Sorghum, pearl millet, Chickpea and some other crops due tounavailability of hybrid seeds. But till now he grow paddy in kharif season and in Rabiseason he takes vegetables and Ground Nut in his farm to generate income.In 1998 he dig open well and got an irrigation facility to his farm but he didn’t have sufficientbalance to buy diesel engine then he migrated every year and saved some money to buy onemobile engine. In 2001, he buys one mobile engine and that year he gives water to his farm.From 2001, he has growing crops in two times in year. Before that he was taking only onecrop by using rain fed. Now he takes took some vegetable and cash crops like Cotton,Soybean, Red gram, Paddy, Tomato, Brinjal, onion and others.In 2005, AKRSP (I) comes in Mango-wadi project in this area. Ram bhai and Sumitra bahenwent to his village and conducted meetings but people were not ready to take wadi then theygave some examples of wadi project. And also they conducted 4-5 times meetings then 51
  • 52. finally only four people were ready to take wadi. He is one of them. These guys haveexplained all benefit of mango-wade and how to change our agriculture pattern? Becausepeople are not ready to change agriculture pattern.He got 40 mango seedlings (37 keshar and 3 Rajapuri seedlings) after getting wadi heprepared the land for wadi. He got the supports of equipments, fertilizers and pesticides (hoe,sickle, spade, vermin compost, pesticides and Drip irrigation) from the organization. Plantspacing in between each tree is 10X10 meter; finally he saw the benefits of wadi project.Since from three year he is getting yield from mango-wadi, and he is selling these mangos inUmarpada market & Jankhava Local market. Also, his mango yield increase by every year.He gives some fertilizers and pesticides for increase in yield.Before some year ago he got AKRSP (I) training in Pathadi, Kabri Pathar and Netrang andalso he got exposure visit in these places he got Jut Training, SRI Training and visit exposureof mango-wadi in nearby places.Graph : 6.5.1 Average per graph productionIn above graph he horticulture yield has increase every year and he gives water to this landand gets production increase. And he got 4 kg per Tree production in first year and next twoyear he got 7, 9 kg respectively per Tree in two year.He said that, “first I didn’t take interest to making-wadi but when he got some productionfrom this wadi then he realized that because of wadi his life become more sustainable.”Also, he got Bio-Gas plant and sanitation from AKRSP (I) that is helping him for cookingfood. And he has one cow that he is doing milk business. Every day he sell 10 litter milk. Hesells milk to dairy. 52
  • 53. Graph : 6.5.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns:In year 2005 he grown Wadi and implemented drip irrigation system and given other inputsand cultivated Ground nut and Paddy as inter crops, But did not earn even the input cost. Innext three year he started growing vegetable crops in rotation with Paddy and Ground nut,onion, tomato and brinjal etc. so his per annum income was fluctuating in all these three year.In 2009 he started getting yield and thereby returns from Wadi so his income per year startedincreasing every year.Breakeven point in 4 th year see annexure table:1.7 53
  • 54. Table: 6.5.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysisyear of sowing 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 GroundCrop Paddy Nut Mango Paddy Ground Nut Paddy Onion Paddy Tomato BrinjalYield(Qt./Acre) 5 1 6 1 6 8 5 2 2Value of (Rs./Qt.) 587 1624 610 2155 681 520 921 700 900Gross Return 2935 1624 0 3660 2155 4086 4160 4605 1400 1800Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1600Equipments 8750Seeds 100 500 100 500 100 20 150 20 20Fertilizer 600 600 600 600 700Pesticide 300 0 200 0 100 100Water Charges 240 240 240 120 120labor cost 900 450 600 900 450 900 600 1200 400 400cost of production (C ) 1600 1190 11850 1600 1190 1600 1060 2050 640 640Return over paid out cost (gross return-C) 1335 434 -11850 2060 965 2486 3100 2555 760 1160BCR - TC basis (gross return/TC) 1.83 1.36 0.00 2.29 1.81 2.55 3.92 2.25 2.19 2.81total cost 14640 2790 2660 3330total income 4559 5815 8246 7805recover income -10081 3025 5586 4475 54
  • 55. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011Crop Paddy Tomato Onion Mango Paddy Brinjal Tomato onion Mango Paddy MangoYield(Qt./Acre) 5 1 5 4 7 1 1 3 7 7 9Value of (Rs./Qt.) 1001 1000 1306 2000 920 800 500 639 2000 943 2000Gross Return 5005 1000 6530 8000 6440 800 500 1917 14000 6601 18000Paid out cost of productionSeedlingsEquipmentsSeeds 240 200 20 240 20 20 20 240Fertilizer 700 850 1000Pesticide 100 100 0 100 100 100 300 300Transportation 150 150Water Charges 200 200 200 200 200labor cost 1200 400 400 400 1500 500 500 500 500 1500 500cost of production (C ) 2140 900 720 400 2590 820 820 820 950 2740 950Return over paid out cost (grossreturn-C) 2865 100 5810 7600 3850 -20 -320 1097 13050 3861 17050BCR - TC basis (gross return/TC) 2.34 1.11 9.07 20.00 2.49 0.98 0.61 2.34 14.74 2.41 18.95total cost 4160 6000 3690total income 20535 23657 24601recover income 16375 17657 20911 55
  • 56. Case- 6.6 Dhanji bhai KotaniaVillage: BoridabraBlock: DediapadaDist.: Narmada (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 6.5 acreIrrigated Land: 5.5 acreAge: 54 yearsMob No. +91-9586915846Education: 4 rd std.Background:Dhanji is a small farmer living in Boridabra village in state of Gujarat. He has one son isdoing in agriculture, two grandsons and two granddaughters living together. All of them arestudding in primary school. His main occupation is agriculture.Dhanji has 6.5 acre land and all are irrigated land. Before intervention land was sloppy andundulating land run of water occurs in that land. So it was hard to grow any crops. But latersupport provided by AKRSP (I) land was leveled up. And now Dhanji can do cultivation inhis land. Now his life has become much better than before.Also, he has one dig a well but this was damaged and not working. But at the same time oneproject was running for repairing well. This gave him a hope to get repaired his well. And inthe year, 2007 he joined a group of farmers and dig a big well which could give himsufficient water for irrigation. In 1995, AKRSP (I) employee Thakur has came to my villageand conducted meeting for watershed management work for Pathadi and Boridabra villagesbut this was the NABARD project. Also, AKRSP (I) has done work for land leveling part inthis area that people got benefits from this service.Before intervention he grows like, Sorghumi, kang, kadra, Banti and more (Local names)every year he has growing these crops. This crop does not provide any income becauseproduction was not much. And whatever is being produced was used for householdconsumption, where mango-wadi could give more output with less input cost.Now, Dhanji is a well known person in this area because he has done some new interventionin the process in his farm and knowing this other people visited to see that intervention like, 56
  • 57. SRI farming procedure. Also, asked people of SRI to adopt this method that could get morebenefit in less input.Boridabra is 15 km away from Dediapada local market. People used auto rickshaw and jeepfor transportation purpose.In 2004, again AKRSP (I) brought up new project that is Mango-Wadi project; first theyconducted meetings and explain them what are the benefit from this project. Only threefarmers were ready to take mango-wadi. He bought 40 seedlings of mango (Keshar is 37 andRajapuri is 3). He has planted in only 0.75 acre land. Plant spacing in between each tree is6X6 meter, due to less availability of land. He did cutting for every three year in mango-wadi. For adopting this method Dhanji did not bearded any expenses only he did labor work inwadi. All the input cost was given by AKRSP (I). And since, from last four year he is gettingyield from mango-wadi. Last three year he sold mango to trader in farm.The plan of wadi was becoming fruitful, seeing this progress he thought to take one more in2008. In this wadi he could adopt 96 Trees. And this way he continued and today he is verywell known person in his village.Graph: 6.6.1 Mango-wadi per Tree production:In above table, he getting mango production from 2008 and every year his averageproduction of per Tree has been increased. And last three year he got 2.5, 10, 15 quintalsrespectively.Dhanji has got some training programme in Netrang, Dediapada and some field visit ofmango-wadi in nearby his village. 57
  • 58. Also, he is doing intercropping in this wadi he took only same beans and Red gram this is tosupport to income generation and mango-wadi give him to water in this plant.Now he has one buffalo that support to his livelihood and he can sustain in his life. Every dayhe sells 4 lit/day milk and he got average price 25-28 Rs.Graph 6.6.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns:As per the above graph, the farmer had got low net return from wadi as he preferred to takeintercrop as Red gram up to the year 2006; this shows that he couldn’t recover his initialinvestment in mango wadi. Year 2006 onward up to 2008 he changed the intercrop asvegetables because he received irrigation water from AKRSP (I) source group well and thisresulted in considerable high net return from mango wadi. In year 2009, production frommango wadi gets started and net return from wadi gets increased as he takes again Red gramas intercrop.Breakeven point in 4th year see annexure table 1.7Table 6.6.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis: 58
  • 59. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2004 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 Red Red Red Same Same Red RedCrop gram Mango gram gram beans beans Mango gram Mango gram Mango Red gram MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 0.4 0.5 0.4 8 9 0.5 0.8 1 1 4 1 6value of (Rs./Qt) 1520 1776 2875 1500 1400 1500 1752 1800 2165 2000 3211 2000Gross Return 608 0 888 1150 12000 12600 750 1401.6 1800 2165 8000 3211 12000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1600Equipments 750Seeds 50 50 50 100 100 100 100 100Fertilizer 120 1000 120 120 200 200 170 170 170Pesticide 100 200 100 100 500 500 200 200 200Transportation 1200 1200Water Charges 560 560 140 140 220labor cost 450 600 450 450 1050 1400 320 600 320 750 400 750 400cost of production (C ) 720 4150 720 720 3610 3960 320 1210 320 1360 400 1440 400Return over paid out cost -112 -4150 168 430 8390 8640 430 191.6 1480 805 7600 1771 11600BCR - TC basis 0.844 0 1.233 1.597 3.3241 3.1818 2.3437 1.1583 5.625 1.591 20 2.229861 30total cost 4870 720 720 3610 4280 1530 1760 1840total income 608 888 1150 12000 13350 3201.6 10165 15211recover income -4262 168 430 8390 9070 1671.6 8405 13371 59
  • 60. Case-6.7 Dinesh bhai NavalbhaiVillage: Motakakadi AmbaBlock: SagbaraDist.: Narmada (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 0.85 AcreLeased land: 10 acreIrrigated Land: 2.5 acreAge: 38 yearD.O.B. 6th April, 1974.Education: B.A.Contact no. 9099821135Background:Dinesh bhai got married in 1998, he has two sons and one daughter, one is in primary schooland other is in 6 th class. Dinesh bhai stays with his mother, he has 0.85 acre of land but hetook 10 acre land on lease for generate sustainable livelihood. In 1996, he did B.A. inRajpipala village. It is 80 km away from his village. He well is educated person in his village.His wife is working for a KG school as helper (making some foods in KG school). That givessupport to her family. Also he has one brother; sometimes his brother helped to in agriculture.After completing his of graduation he worked for 5 year in Oklas luggage making companyBhoisor (MH). He did hard work in that five years. Also, he got married in those days. Butthe salary he got over there was not sufficient for his family and his needs. Then he returnedto his village. He didn’t have any option to generate income for his livelihood. Then hedecided to do work in agriculture while he is well educated.Also he got well respect in village due he is well educated. After sometimes his wife got jobin KG school as a helper in same village, he got 500 p.m. salary.First year he has taken only four acre land on lease, after getting some benefit from that.Again he took more land on leaseAnd side by side he is working as post of EV in AKRSP (I). He gives information aboutGovt. schemes & what type of work AKRSP (I) doing these villages for people. 60
  • 61. Support:In 2003, Naina bahen and Ghanshyam bhai has conducted meeting in his village. That timeonly five people were ready to take wadi. And he is one of them. He took wadi in his land.He got 60 seedlings of mango (Keshar is 35 and Rajapuri is 25) but after sometime he facedthe shortage of water for wadi. Out off total seedling he could survive only keshar 35 and 15Rajapuri till today. Plant spacing in between each tree is 5X5 meter, due to less availability ofland. He did cutting for every three year in mango-wadi.Still yet he didn’t invest any money for wadi. All the input cost is given by AKRSP (I). paidof labor work done in wadi. And since, from last four year he is getting yield from mango-wadi. From last two year he is selling mangos in Surat market, but there only problem he isfacing selling of mangos in surat market is “he have to sell his mangos through traders” forthat he should give the commission to traders.Changes:Dineshbahai has got some training programme in Netrang, Sagbara and some field visit ofmango-wadi in nearby his village.Graph: 6.7.1 Average per Tree productionIn above graph, last 4 year he gives mango production every year his production has beenincrease and he got money. In first year he gives only 4 KG per Trees production from plantthen production was increase he got 5, 10, 14 per Tree production respectively, last year hegot more production because he has done on pest attack practices. Last two year he sells toSurat market and gets more rates of yield mango.Also, he is doing intercropping in this wadi. He grows paddy, onion and chili. That he cansell in nearest market. Chili and onion are the vegetable are being used in KG school. 61
  • 62. Still now he stays in Kuccha house now he makes a plan of making pucca house. Last year hegot 18000 Rs. from mango-wadi. He said that “mango wadi is like a Pension Plan for me.”Graph: 5.7.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns:As per above graph, farmer gets considerable fluctuate net return from mango wadi from2003-2007 period as he took intercrop as vegetables due to availability of water. He gotmango production in 2008 and this resulted in increase in net return three to four times morethan previous year net return. But in year 2011, due to loss in production from intercrop hisnet return from wadi gets reduced.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table:1.7 62
  • 63. Table: 6.7.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysisyear of sowing 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Crop Paddy Onion Mango Paddy Onion Paddy Onion Paddy Onion Mango Paddy Onion Paddy Onion Chili MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 7 8 0 6 8 6 9 7 8 0 6 8 7 5 1 2value of (Rs./Qt) 624 699 0 501 338 587 584 610 604 0 681 520 921 1094 4500 1500Gross Return 4368 5592 0 3006 2704 3522 5256 4270 4832 0 4086 4160 6447 5470 4500 3000Paid out cost ofproductionSeedlings 240Equipments 750Seeds 150 20 150 20 150 20 150 20 180 20 180 20 20Fertilizer (F.Y.M.) 600 100 800 600 100 600 100 600 100 750 140 750 70 70Pesticide 300 75 75TransportationWater Charges 100 640 100 640 100 640 100 640 150 960 150 800 800labor cost 600 600 450 600 600 600 600 600 600 120 800 800 800 400 400 320Total paid out cost(TVC) ( C ) 1450 1360 2540 1450 1360 1450 1360 1450 1360 120 1880 1920 1880 1365 1365 320Net return (grossreturn-TC) 2918 4232 -2540 1556 1344 2072 3896 2820 3472 -120 2206 2240 4567 4105 3135 2680BCR - TVC basis(gross return/TVC) 3.01 4.11 0.00 2.07 1.99 2.43 3.86 2.94 3.55 0.00 2.17 2.17 3.43 4.01 3.30 9.38Total exp. 2003 5350 2810 2810 2930 3800 4930Total Income 9960 5710 8778 9102 8246 19417Net Returns 4610 2900 5968 6172 4446 14487 63
  • 64. Intercropping Cost &Benefityear of sowing 2009 2010 2011Crop Paddy Onion Chili Mango Paddy Onion Chili Mango Paddy Onion Chili MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 7 4 1 2.5 7 5 0.8 5 8 0 0 7value of (Rs./Qt) 1001 1306 5000 1800 920 2337 5000 2000 943 0 0 2000Gross Return(A+B) 7007 5224 5000 4500 6440 11685 4000 10000 7544 0 0 14000Paid out cost ofproductionSeeds 180 20 20 240 20 20 240 20 20Fertilizer (F.Y.M.) 800 100 100 900 100 100 1000 100 100Pesticide 100 100 100 100 100 100 450Transportation 250 300Water Charges 250 800 800 250 800 800 250 800 800labor cost 800 400 400 320 1000 400 400 400 1000 500 500 500Total paid out cost (TVC) (C) 2030 1420 1420 320 2390 1420 1420 650 2490 1520 1520 1250Net return (gross return- -TC) 4977 3804 3580 4180 4050 10265 2580 9350 5054 -1520 1520 12750BCR - TVC basis (grossreturn/TVC) 3.45 3.68 3.52 14.06 2.69 8.23 2.82 15.38 3.03 0.00 0.00 11.20Total exp. 5190 5880 6780Total Income 21731 32125 21544Net Returns 16541 26245 14764 64
  • 65. Case – 6. 8 Karansingh DamniyaVillage: ChimipatalBlock: umarpadaDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 14 acreIrrigated Land: 4 acreAge: 40 yearsMob No. +91-9925670521Education: 7th std.Background:Karan singh has four sons, Nilesh is doing working in Daga Line Company in Wapi, Rahulhas completed 12th std and now he is working in diamond store in Surat, Nipin and chetan arestudying in school. Also, he has two brother and they are doing agriculture.He has 14 acre land. Out of that 4 acre land is under irrigation, remaining 10 acre is dependsupon rain. As irrigation source he has one open well and it work only six month throughoutthe year. He uses the diesel engine for lifting the water from well. Due to less wateravailability he grow only one time crop in a year, before intervention he grow only paddy,Red gram, pearl millet cotton, Kang and some other crop. In his village irrigation is mainproblem and people grow only one time crop in a year. They are not satisfied doing inagriculture.Karan singh is a well known person in his village; in 2002-07 he was a Gram PanchayatMember. Then he switched there and he joins in watershed project in Taluka Panchayatprojects, also he is SHG group head in his village. Also, his social work has to do in village,when they face any problem about institutional, Government, and more when they need?Support:In 2005, AKRSP (I) came in this village to help people, Members of AKRSP (I) brought newconcept to develop the village and to improve the living condition of the villager’s. when theycomes in wadi project, AKRSP (I) employee Paras and Ramsingh has conducted meeting inhis village, and also karan has attended this meeting he get information about wadi project.Then Karan singh thought of trying this new concept in 1one acre wadi. As all source ofirrigation is available. In this meeting many people were present but many of them told I 65
  • 66. don’t have water source. How to get water to mango plant? Then only ten people are ready totake wadi in own farm.In 2005, he took one acre wadi in his own farm that time he got 38 keshar and 2 Rajapuriseedlings but after some time 14 Keshar plants were dead due to less availability of water.Now he has 26 mango plants in his mango wadi. He also got some fertilizer, equipments &pesticides i.e. (Vermicompost, Lim Powder, pesticides, spade, hoe and sickle) and he gotDrip irrigation but he don’t sufficient water to gives drip to mango. And he didn’t take laborfor mango till now for any operation he cares himself. In 2009 he has done pest attack butthat year he is not getting mango then next two year he got flowering but there was noproduction till now every year he has suffer from various problems like pest attack, didn’tmake boundary to wadi that why people goes in wadi and do something wrong?Changes:Now Karan singh grows ground nut, Red gram, Maize and some other crops in intercroppingpattern. Before wadi he didn’t take any crop in this farm he just use for animal fodder thenafter he took wadi and he grow something and he get yield from this intercropping pattern.He has 1 cow and 1 buffalo that is support to his livelihood and he sustain in his life. Thatevery day he sells 6 lit/day milk and he got average price 20-25 Rs.Before intervention he grows something like, paddy, Sorghum, Red gram and cotton but hedidn’t get that much yield but now he do SRI Farming procedure and he use Hybrid seedsthat gives more yield.Before some years ago he got AKSRP (I) training in Chatpada in Dang and got an exposureto visit the palaces like mango-wadi and Bio-Gas plant in Gangapur in mandvi. In thistraining he got much more knowledge that he want. 66
  • 67. Graph: 6.8.1 Mango-wadi Net Income:As per the above graph, till now from year 2005, farmer hasn’t get production of mango fromwadi. He made investment in drip irrigation in year 2005 resulted in more expenses thanincome and net return got decreased in that year. Then onward his net return came down innegative side as he took this wadi in waste land where there is no more water for irrigation. Inyear 2008, 2009 and 2011, net return comes in positive side because there considerable returnfrom intercrop that he has taken in wadi. 67
  • 68. Table: 6.8.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis:year of sowing 2005 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 Ground Red Red RedCrop Nut Mango gram gram Maize Maize Mango gram Mango MaizeYield(Qt./Acre) 2 0.8 0.6 3 4 0.8 3Value of (Rs./Qt.) 1624 610 681 921 1001 920 943Gross Return 3248 0 488 408.6 2763 4004 0 736 0 2829Paid out cost ofproductionSeedlings 1600Equipments 8750Seeds 750 150 150 100 100 200 100Fertilizer 500Pesticide 300 150 200 0 300 200Water Charges 300 150 150 225 225 200 250labor cost 600 450 240 240 400 400 240 320 250 500cost of production (C ) 1650 11600 690 740 725 725 540 920 250 850Return over paidout cost (gross return-C) 1598 -11600 -202 -331.4 2038 3279 -540 -184 -250 1979BCR - TC basis (grossreturn/TC) 1.97 0.00 0.71 0.55 3.81 5.52 0.00 0.80 0.00 3.33total cost 13250 690 740 725 1265 1170 850total income 3248 488 408.6 2763 4004 736 2829recover income -10002 -202 -331.4 2038 2739 -434 1979 68
  • 69. Case- 6.9 Dhanji bhai bhai BondabhaiVillage: KhopiBlock: SagbaraDist.: Narmada (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 1 acreIrrigated Land: 1 acreAge: 38 yearsBackground:Dhanji bhai and his four brothers is a farmer. Five year ago his family has been divided andall of them used to stay separately in different houses. But they used to work together in samefield. Dhanji bhai is younger brother among his family. Dhanji bhai has one daughter. She isstudying in primary school. Dhanji bhai have 1 acre irrigated land. Source of irrigation isgroup well. But during summer season water level goes down. Well is constructed byAKRSP (I) for group of 8 farmers. And there are also group of 8 people for mobile engine.Dhanji bhai things due to more consumption of water lead to decrease in the level of waterduring summer. During summer season he can fetch water for 2hrs only in 2 days for eachperson.Before intervention he has migrated to other place Surat, Valsad and Bardoli for incomegeneration of livelihood. There he got work of sugar cutting in 6-8 months in every year andhe got only 20-30 Rs. /day. This amount is not sufficient for him to sustain livelihood. Aftersome time he came back to his village and started doing Agri-labor work because he haveonly one acre land that is not sufficient for him. During that time it was joint family, hiseldest brother manage all these things of livelihood.Khopi is 20 km far from Shelamba local market. Five year ago there was no transportationfacility are available, people used bullock cart for transportation purpose.Also, due to sloppy and undulating land run of water occurs in that land before intervention.So it was hard to grow any crops. But later support provided by AKRSP (I) land was leveledup. And now Dhanji bhai can do cultivation on his own land. Now his life has changed thenbefore. 69
  • 70. Support:When AKRSP (I) come in this village, they conducted meeting and provided us informationabout what they won’t to do for us? At that time people was not having faith on those guys.Only six people have supported them. Taking those six people AKRSP (I) started to work onmango-wadi of those farmers.During that time people says (“Ye Aga khan wale bad me apane upper karja dalenge mat jaounke sath” then “fir bhi humne wadi liya aaj vo wahi ke wahi hai hum unse age nikal Gaye”)that’s why I took border plantation in my farm.In 2005, Dhanji bhai took border plantation of mango-wadi in his one acre farm and he got15 keshar and 20 Rajapuri seedlings but after some time 5 Rajapuri plants are dead. Now hehas 30 mango plants in his mango wadi. He also got some fertilizer, equipments & pesticidesi.e. (Vermicompost, pesticides, spade, hoe and ticum) and he didn’t take labor for mango tillnow for any operation he cares his own family.Last 3 year he is getting yield of mango. Also, he grows cash crop, fodder and vegetablecrops in his wadi. In border plantation of wadi he gives water from his group well.In intercropping he took vegetables like Brinjal and Ladies finger also he grows Bajari, paddyand fodder that is useful for his animal husbandry. Actually he took all these cash crops whenhe got group well water. Before group well he do only paddy in this farm.Changes:Before wadi, Dhanji bhai has done land leveling part and then he took only paddy on thatfarm land but could not get much more yield. Then he got group well in eight people that arehelps to farm. He grown some vegetables and sold to village market and nearby villages.Graph : 6.9.1 Average per Tree production 70
  • 71. In above graph, last 3 year he is getting good production of mango every year his productionhas been increase and he get money. In first year he give only 50KG production from someplant then production was increase he got 0.5, 3, 4 quintal respectively production, last twoyear has sell in Shelamba market.Now he has 2 buffalo that support to his livelihood and he can sustain in his life. Every dayhe sells 10 lit/day milk and he got average price 20-24 Rs.Before intervention he had done much more hard work, because he is uneducated person.Also, he does only traditional way of farming, now he has changes his thoughts and tookwadi and also he doing SRI Farming procedure in paddy.Also, he says, “Hamare liye Aga Khan Bhagwan hai (AKRSP (I) is god for us)”Graph: 6.9.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns:As per above graph, due to intensive investment and low production in year 2005, the netreturn came down. Then onward his net return gets increased from year 2006-2011 from wadibecause intercrop supports more in net return and in 2009 he got production of mango fromwadi. This resulted in more net return from wadi then onwards.Breakeven point in 3rd year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.9.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysis: 71
  • 72. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 Brinja Ladies Man pearl Man pearl Man Padd Man Padd Man Padd MangCrop l finger go mille go mille go y go y go y o Paddy MangoYield(Qt./Acre) 2 1 5 6 7 5 1 7 3 7 4Value of (Rs./Qt.) 500 800 902 733 921 1001 1800 920 1500 943 1500Gross Return(A) 1000 800 0 4510 0 4398 0 6447 0 5005 1800 6440 4500 6601 6000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1100Equipments 750Seeds 200 200 100 100 240 200 240 240Fertilizer 375 375 1200 500 700 850 900 1000 1050Pesticide 200 200 600 500 500Water Charges 150 150 300 300 150 150 156 156Transportation 150 200labor cost 300 300 600 450 240 450 240 1000 320 1000 320 1250 400 1250 400cost of production (C ) 1225 1225 4250 1350 240 1550 240 2240 320 2250 320 2646 1050 2696 1100Return over paid out cost (gross -return-C) -225 -425 4250 3160 -240 2848 -240 4207 -320 2755 1480 3794 3450 3905 4900BCR - TC basis 0.81 0.65 0 3.34 0 2.83 0 2.87 0 2.2 5.6 2.4 4.28 2.44 5.45Total cost in a year 6700 1590 1790 2560 2570 3696 3796Total income in year 1800 4510 4398 6447 6805 10940 12601Recover Income -4900 2920 2608 3887 4235 7244 8805 72
  • 73. Case-6.10 Kiranbhai Ganpatbhai VasavaVillage: ChandravanBlock: ValiaDist.: Bharuch (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 9 acreIrrigated Land: 3 acreAge: 38 yearsMob No. +91-9979043837Education: B.A.sy.Background:Kiran bhai has 3 children, 2 boys & a girl who all are going to school, and also he has threesisters they all are married. Now he stays with his father, he have 9 acre of land. In 1994 hedone B.A.sy in Rajpipala village, he has educated person in his village. In this time his fatheris cultivating all own agriculture work and he make marriage in 26th year.Also, he have work in local NGO’s & Govt. projects like first he works in “MANAV JIVANVIKAS” for one year he works on vermin compost then he thought can I work for childreneducation? Then he join in “SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN” for three year and he got someexperience and when he works that time he got knowledge about new agriculture interventionthat was helps to his own farm and last 5 year he spends all time in his own farm.Actually, he has 9 acre land in he gives to water only 3 acre of land. For irrigation source hehas one open well that works in only June to till December in every year and one bore wellworks in whole year but in summer he gives less quantity of water.Kiran bhai is well known person in his village, in his village one Piyat mandali (Water UserAssociation) has formed by AKRSP (I) named as “DI JAI ADIWASHI PIYAT SAHKARIMANDALI” In this piyat mandali (Water User Association) there is 13 farmers. Also hissocial work has to do in village something helps to people, when they face any problem aboutinstitutional, Government and more when they need?Support:When AKRSP (I) comes in this area they work do well, and when they comes in wadi projectthat time they conducted meeting in my village and also I’m attended that meeting and thatpeople told, what is this? Only 3 farmers got ready to take wadi in their own land. 73
  • 74. In his village main problem is irrigation facility is not well because people think no water nospecial. Because they on grow on in rainy season they think after December where to getwater to mango plant.In 2002, he took half acre wadi in his own farm that time he got 18 keshar and 7 Rajapuriseedlings but after some time 2 Rajapuri plants are dead. Now he has 23 mango plants in hismango wadi. He also got some fertilizer, equipments & pesticides i.e. (Vermicompost, LimPowder, pesticides, spade, hoe and sickle) and after 1 year he got Drip irrigation in only 1500Rs. Cost. And he didn’t take labor for mango till now for any operation he cares his ownfamily.After some days he is getting yield of mango then in AKRSP (I) still there running thisproject then he thought also I can take half acre wadi then he took in 2008 half acre wadi nowhe have total 1 acre wadi. He do intercropping in wadi because that’s why also water gives tomango plant he only 2 year use drip irrigation system. In wadi he gives water from his borewell and every month he got 200-250 electricity bills.In intercropping he took first year Brinjal he get 15 quintal yield and every year he tookPaddy, fodder, water melon, chili that is first five year taken this crops then Till now everyyear he took paddy in this intercropping pattern. Actually he got much more yield in first 5year then after 5 year he taken only paddy.Changes:Before wadi he took only paddy on that farm and don’t get much more yield. In 2002 he digbore well and that time he took some vegetables and sell to local market Netrang is 4 kmfrom Chandravan village, also his sell on highway road. 74
  • 75. Graph: 6.10 average per tree productionLast 4 year he gives mango production every year his production has been increase and he getmoney. In first year he give only 50KG production from some plant then production wasincrease he got 1.7, 5.5, 39 quintal respectively production, last year he got more productionbecause he has done on pest attack practices. Last year he sell to Ganadevi market by AKRSP(I) support and get more rates of yield mango.Also, he has mandi member of “FRUIT & VEGETABLE HARIT SANG VICHAN”. Now hewants’ to fruits and vegetables “COLD STORAGE” facility, because AKRSP (I) gives in thisarea some vegetable mandap (stacking for creeper vegetable) and mango wadi but people notget that time price on right time when you provide us cold storage facility then that gives usmuch more profit.Table : 6.10.1 Animal Husbandry:Animal Husbandry 2004 2009 2010 2011Month in year 7 12 12 12Lit./Rs. 15 20 22 24Per day milk in Lit. 4 6 6 6Total gives milk in 840 2160 2160 2160yearTotal amount in year 12600 43200 47520 51840He has 3 cows and 1 buffalo that is support to his livelihood and he sustain in his life. Thatevery day he sell 6 lit/day milk and he got average price 22-27 Rs. in 2004, he buy one cowand that he grow only fodder in wadi area it useful for his cow. 75
  • 76. Graph: 6.10.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns:In above chart, as the farmer changes intercrop year to year, net return also gets varies. Inyear 2002 he took brinjal as intercrop so that he could possible to overcome investment andgot good net return. In year 2005,as he took watermelon as intercrop, net return roseconsiderably. Then onward net return gets fluctuated on negative as well as positive side.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.10.2 intercropping cost & benefits analysis: 76
  • 77. Intercropping cost & Benefityear of sowing 2002 2002 2003 2003 2004 2004 2005 2006 2006 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 Mang Mang Fodde Water Mang Padd Man Padd Man Padd Mang Padd MangCrop Brinjal o Paddy o r Mango melon Chili o Paddy y go y go y o y oYield(Qt./Acre) 15.5 4 31.5 6.6 3 3 50 3 1.7 2 7.5 2 5.7value of (Rs./Qt) 1000 624 1500 1000 681 921 20 1001 700 920 2000 943 1750Gross Return 15500 0 2496 0 0 0 47250 6600 0 2043 2763 1000 3003 1190 1840 15000 1886 9975Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 980Equipments 2250 500Seeds 300 500 200 1000 500 200 200 250 250 250Fertilizer 240 2700 250 100 1000 750 300 1000 300 300 1000 480 1000 500 1000 520 1000Pesticide 400 700 500 300 600Water Charges 1000 1500 250 1500 500 1500 900 750 500 500 500 500 500Transportationlabor cost 1250 450 300 240 200 120 600 800 160 1200 1200 400 1200 400 1500 500 1500 500cost of production (C ) 3190 8580 1300 1740 1000 2620 3750 2650 1160 2200 2200 1400 2430 1400 2750 2000 2770 2100Return over paid out cost(gross return-C) 12310 -8580 1196 -1740 -1000 -2620 43500 3950 -1160 -157 563 -400 573 -210 -910 13000 -884 7875BCR - TC basis 4.85 0 1.92 0 0 0 12.6 2.49 0 0.92 1.2 0.71 1.23 0.85 0.66 7.5 0.68 4.75total cost 11770 3040 3620 3750 3810 2200 3600 3830 4750 4870total income 15500 2496 0 47250 6600 2043 3763 4193 16840 11861recover income 3730 -544 0 -3620 43500 2790 -157 163 363 12090 6991 77
  • 78. Case -6.11 Lalubhai Jaisinghbhai TadeVillage: GhondadeviBlock: SagbaraDist.: Narmada (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 1 acreIrrigated Land: 1 acreAge: 50 yearsMob No. +91-9426771633Education: 3 rd std.Background:Lalu bhai has 2 sons. Both sons are well settling in their life. Elder son is working underbuilding construction work and younger one is doing the work of lapidary (person who cutsgemstones) in Gujarat. Within a couple of days they will be back to Ghondadevi foragriculture purpose. Grandson and daughter of Lalu bhai are still studying in school.Lalu bhai has 1.5 acre of land and all are irrigated land, he is a farmer. Before mango- wadiintervention he had been migrated to other places like, Ankleshwar, Surat and nearby places.Lalu bhai use to migrate for to sustain livelihood for four month during dry season. While hemigrates he used to work as a labor in construction of building.In 2002, Dam was constructed for source of irrigation. After construction of this Dam waterwas available till 6 months. And other 6 months was dry land. Being this facility availablevery few farmers were benefitted through this source of irrigation. Also, he have one openwell which is used for horticulture.As Lalu is a laborious person. After long journey of hard work, now he has own wadi(agricultural Land). Both the sons are also self dependent i.e. now they do not take moneyfrom his father. Lalu and his family are now living happily.Ghondadevi is 7 km away from Shelamba local market and 2 km far from Sagbara market.He goes nearby market to sell all agriculture yield vegetable and fruits. 78
  • 79. Support:During the time of construction of Dam (2002), AKRSP (I) also provided full support inconstructing of Dam. In 2002, Jairam bhai, Manisha bahen and Sursh patel these AKRSP (I)employees come to my village and conducted a meeting about mango-wadi which canprovide sustainable life. Villagers attended this meeting and some farmers liked it the planmango (wadi) and willing to adopt this plan on their farm. But Lalu bhai is not ready to takewadi in his farm then Manisha bahen had told him why can’t you adopt wadi in your kitchengarden? Use kitchen garden for the purpose of wadi.Lalu bhai agree to use his kitchen garden. And in first year he bought 10 mango seedlings andplanted it. After one year he got 15 kg mangos from this plant. Then he came to know thebenefit he may get from mango-wadi. And then in 2003, he was ready to use his 1 acre ofland and 70 mangos seeds he bought it (30 keshar and 40 Rajapuri seedlings) after some timedue to irrigation problem occurred. Now Lalu bhai is left with only 51 (18 keshar and 31Rajapuri Trees).When Lalu took wadi during that time he had done all work in wadi alone, and didn’t hireany labor for operation of mango- wadi. Even AKRSP (I) has also given all input likeseedlings, some equipments, fertilizers and pesticides. Still he gives only 2 trolleys F.Y.M.And 1 lit. Pesticides in his own cost. And any other support required AKRP (I) provide him.Impact:Also, he does intercropping in paddy crops i.e. wheat, maize, same beans which he got moreyield, now he is doing SRI Farming procedure in paddy and wheat that he got more yield inless input. Before intervention he does only traditional way of farming in his land. Last fouryears he got yield of mango. For two year he has been sold mangoes in Surat market. He gotmore prices but he has pay commission to trader in Surat. 79
  • 80. Graph: 6.11.1 Mango-wadi Production chart:Last four he got mango yield and first three year his production has been increased last yearproduction has decrease by 4 kg per Tree because he has not done any pest attack. That’s whymango yield has reduces.He have two cows and one buffalo that give 5 lit./day milk, 7 month in a year, that will helpus for sustainable livelihood. Also he made pucca house last year. Every year he thinks I willbuy new asset from mango-wadi. Also, he got training in Netrang, Junagadh and he visit inAga Khan University. He got exposure visit in nearby places. He got training on SRI Farmingprocedure, Mango-wadi & some other interventions based on agriculture.Table: 6.11.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis 80
  • 81. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 Padd Mang Whea SameCrop y Wheat o Paddy t Paddy Maize Paddy beans Mango Paddy Mango Paddy Mango Paddy MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 4 7 0 3 3 7 10 6 10 2 4 7.5 3 10 3 8Value of (Rs./Qt.) 501 706 587 828 610 879 681 1000 1500 1001 1800 920 2040 934 2000Gross Return 2004 4942 0 1761 2484 4270 8790 4086 10000 3000 4004 13500 2760 20400 2802 16000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 2800Equipment 1000Seeds 560 1200 0 600 1200 600 400 650 250 900 900 900Fertilizer 850 600 3600 850 600 1000 600 1000 950 1250 1300 1450Pesticide 0 300 600 300 0 2000Transportation 350 300Water Charges 100 400 0 100 400 100 200 150 750 150 250 250labor cost 750 600 600 750 600 750 300 1000 1600 320 1000 320 1250 400 1250 400cost of production (C ) 2260 3100 8600 2300 3100 2450 1500 2800 5550 320 3300 320 3700 750 3850 700Return over paid out cost(gross return-C) -256 1842 -8600 -539 -616 1820 7290 1286 4450 2680 704 13180 -940 19650 -1048 15300BCR - TC basis (grossreturn/TC) 0.88 1.59 0 0.76 0.80 1.74 5.86 1.45 1.80 9.37 1.21 42.18 0.74 27.2 0.72 22.85total cost 13960 5400 3950 2800 5870 3620 4450 4550total Income 6946 4245 13060 4086 13000 17504 23160 18802Recover amount -7014 -1155 9110 1286 7130 13884 18710 14252 81
  • 82. Graph: 6.11.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns Table:The input cost in the first year (2004) was high which included cost of drip set, pesticides,fertilizers etc. In the second year (2005) he also cultivated paddy and wheat in kharif and rabiseasons respectively as intercrops. In 2006 he cultivated maize for cattle along with paddywhereas in 2007 he grew only paddy. But due to scarcity of irrigation water, the yield ofpaddy was less. From 2008 he started harvesting mangoes and the yield has been increasingsince then except in 2011 due to pest attack.Breakeven point in 3rd year see annexure table:1.7 82
  • 83. Case -6.12 Laxman PadviVillage: UmardaBlock: umarpadaDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 3 acreIrrigated Land: 3 acreAge: 31 yearsMob No. +91-9537457757Education: 10th std.Background :( Background)Laxman has one son and two daughters. His father has three brothers, they all doingagriculture. He has two sisters both are married. Laxman is doing agriculture with his father.Agriculture is main occupation of his family. He studied up to 10th std. then he has done ITIin electrician in 1998, but he could not get job, because he was not having interest instudying. Then he wanted to help his father in his occupation of agriculture, but his fathertold him we don’t have that much land why you want to do agriculture? Then he decides tomigrate in Ankleswar and got job in packaging company. He works five year in thiscompany. And he did hard work in that five years. Also, he got married in those days. But thesalary he got over there was not sufficient for his family and his needs. Then he returned tohis village. He didn’t have any option to generate income for his livelihood. Then he decidedto do work in agricultureHe has 3 acre land all are irrigated land. For irrigation source he has one open well that worksthroughout the year in summer water level goes down. In Umarda there is only six people hasbore well facility and eight people have open well. In this area water facility is too low.He is member of SMC committee member it works in improve child education (Literacy). In2005 he is married and he joins in agriculture.In 2005, AKRSP (I) working in this area on wadi project and they also came to my villageand conducted meeting. That time only eight people were ready to take wadi plan. Andamong those members he is one of them. He took wadi in his land. He got 50 seedlings ofmango (Keshar is 35 and Rajapuri is 15) and all Trees has survivals, Plant spacing in betweeneach tree is 10X10 meter. He did digging for planting mango, as well as he got equipments, 83
  • 84. fertilizers and pesticides (Ticum, Pavda, parayi, vermicompost, pesticides) from AKRSPI.And last two year he did pest attack.Graph: 6.12.1 mango production averageIn above graph, from last two year he is getting yield from mango-wadi. but in first year hegot on average 3 KG production of per Tree then next year he has done some pest attack andgives two trolley F.Y.M. that gives support to plant operation and next year his productionwas increased then he got 17 KG per Tree production. From last year he is selling mangosin own village. Because in his village people are mango booked for making pickle.Before wadi he took only paddy on that farm and don’t get much more yield. In 2005 he tookwadi in this land and he grows some vegetables and getting good yield he sell to local marketBedwan is 1 km from Umarda village, and transportation purpose he use Bullock cart andCycle.He has 2 cows and 1 buffalo that is support to his livelihood and he sustain in his life. Thatevery day he sell 4 lit/day milk and he got average price 25-30 Rs. / lit. Still now he stays incache home, now he makes a plan of making puce house. Last year he got 20000 Rs. frommango-wade. He said that “mango wade is like a Pension Plan for me.” 84
  • 85. Graph: 6.12.2 Mango-wade Net Returns:In year 2005, due to intensive investment and low productivity, net return came down. Thenonwards due to intercropping he got some return from wadi and these results in positive netreturn. In year 2009, due to onion as intercrop he got good net return from wadi. As mangoproduction started from 2010, he makes considerable net return from wadi in year 2011.Breakeven point in 5th year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.12.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis 85
  • 86. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2005 2005 2006 2007 2007 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2011 Maiz MangCrop Paddy Mango Paddy Paddy e Paddy Paddy Onion Paddy Chili o Paddy Brinjal Onion MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 6 7 7 2 6 6 30 6 0.8 1.5 7 5 8 8.5value of (Rs./Qt) 587 610 681 666 921 1001 500 920 5000 2000 3211 1000 600 2000Gross Return 3522 0 4270 4767 1332 5526 6006 15000 5520 4000 3000 22477 5000 4800 17000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 2000Equipments 8750Seeds 200 200 200 100 200 240 20 240 20 240 20 20Fertilizer 1800 1500 600 600 250 1900 750 350 900 200 2500 500 200Pesticide 300 0 0 300 0 300 670 250 710Water Charges 100 100 100 200 150 150 600 180 600 180 250 300labor cost 750 600 750 750 300 1000 1000 800 1000 600 500 1250 750 500 500cost of production (C ) 2850 13150 1650 1650 850 3250 2140 2070 2320 1720 1170 4170 1520 1270 1210Return over paid out cost (grossreturn-C) 672 -13150 2620 3117 482 2276 3866 12930 3200 2280 1830 18307 3480 3530 15790BCR - TC basis (grossreturn/TC) 1.23 0 2.5 2.88 1.5 1.70 2.80 7.24 2.37 2.3 2.56 5.39 3.28 3.77 14.04total cost 16000 1650 2500 3250 4210 5210 8170total income 3522 4270 6099 5526 21006 12520 49277recover income -12478 2620 3599 2276 16796 7310 41107 86
  • 87. Case - 6.13 Murji KathodiaVillage: Satvan (Kavangai)Block: umarpadaDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 0.75 acreIrrigated Land: 0.75 acreAge: 61 yearsMob No. +91-9725576411Education: 8th std.Murji has two sons, they are doing agriculture and both are married. But before five year hisfamily was divided and he stays alone with his wife due to misunderstanding of familymembers. But he is happy now. He has one daughter, also he has one brother, he is doingagriculture and he has three sisters they all are married & they all are happy. His familyoccupation is agriculture. But he is not having sufficient land, when he started doingagriculture, he took land on leased for generate income for livelihood.He has two acre of land but now he has only 0.75 acre land. And they all have taken leasedland one son has taken 15 acre and other one 12 acre land and he took 10 acre land this year.Every year he does this way to generate income; by the time he did not migrated to otherplaces he was doing only agriculture. All his land is irrigated land. For irrigation source hehas one open well but it does not work throughout the year. He uses the Diesel engine forlifting water from well to farm. Before one year ago he digs one bore well and he could findwater below 264 ft. But now he has no electric connection and even he has no sufficientmoney to pick up water through diesel engine. Before intervention he grows only paddy inhis own land but later on he started getting irrigation source and he grow twice in a year.Now he took some vegetable in his farmAlso, before intervention of land leveling of land is too sloppy and undulating land whichleads to run of water. So it was hard to grow any crops. But later on land was leveled up andnow he can do cultivation in better way. He has done land leveling in his own budget.In 2005, AKRSP (I) comes in Mango-wadi project in this area. Member of AKRSP (I)named Ram bhai and Sumitra bahen came in my village and conducted meetings but peopleare not ready to take wadi. Then they give some examples of wadi project. Then finally only 87
  • 88. six people were ready to take wadi during that time, among them Satvan was one of them.These guys have explained all benefit of mango-wadi and how to change our agriculturepattern? Because they don’t have irrigation source, people think how to get water to mangoplant.Finally he is ready to take wadi in his farm. He got 25 mango seedlings (22 keshar and 3Rajapuri seedlings) after getting wadi he prepared the land for wadi. He got the supports ofequipments, fertilizers and pesticides (Ticum, Pavda, parayi, vermicompost, pesticides, Dripirrigation) from the organization. Plant spacing in between each tree is 10X10 meter; finallyhe saw the benefits of wadi project.Since from one year he is getting yield from mango-wadi, and he is selling these mangos inhis own village. Also, now he is satisfied for taking wadi in his farm. He gives somefertilizers for getting more income.Before few year ago he has got exposure visit in this places he got SHG Training, visit tomango-wadi in nearby places.Also, he told first I don’t has interest to making-wadi but when he got some production fromthis wadi then he changed his mind and he is sustain in his life because in wadi he does nothave to invest more money, he need to look every time and provide source of water regularly.And in return he gets sufficient output.He has 1 buffalo that support to his livelihood and he is able to sustain in his life. His sell 6lit/day milk and he got average price 23-25 Rs. /lit.Now he grows intercropping like some vegetables and sells in his village and generates someincome to sustain livelihood. Till he has done lots of hard work in his life but upcoming hislife is going on secure and sustainable. The wadi is pension plan for him today onwards don’thave to invest money and get some money from this. 88
  • 89. Graph: 6.13.1 Mango-wadi Net Returns:In above graph, farmer invested more amount of money in year 2005 resulted in low netreturn. After that his net return goes on increasing as he took intercrop paddy, onion, ladiesfinger in year 2006,2007,2008,2009.2010 respectively. Mango production started in year2011 and this also support him to gain more net return in year 2011.Breakeven point in 5th year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.13.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis 89
  • 90. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2005 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 LadiesCrop Paddy Mango Paddy Paddy Paddy Brinjal finger Tomato Paddy Onion BrinjalYield(Qt/Acre) 4 5 4 4 1 1 1 5 1 1.5value of (Rs./Qt) 587 610 681 921 1000 1000 1000 1001 1306 1200Gross Return 2348 0 3050 2724 3684 1000 1000 1000 5005 1306 1800Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1000Equipments 8750Seeds 180 180 180 180 20 20 20 240 20 20Fertilizer 300 600 300 300 325 60 60 60 350 75 75Pesticide 300 0 0Water Charges 180 180 180 180 120 120 120 180 180 180labor cost 900 750 900 900 900 450 400 400 1200 400 400cost of production (C ) 1560 11400 1560 1560 1585 650 600 600 1970 675 675Return over paid out cost (gross return-C) 788 -11400 1490 1164 2099 350 400 400 3035 631 1125BCR - TC basis (gross return/TC) 1.51 0.00 1.96 1.75 2.32 1.54 1.67 1.67 2.54 1.93 2.67total cost 12960 1560 1560 3435 3320total income 2348 3050 2724 6684 8111recover income -10612 1490 1164 3249 4791 90
  • 91. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2011 Ground GroundCrop Paddy Onion Nut Mango Paddy Onion Nut MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 4 2 0.6 6 2 0.6 1value of (Rs./Qt) 920 2337 3117 943 639 3684 3000Gross Return(A+B) 3680 4674 1870.2 0 5658 1278 2210.4 3000Paid out cost of productionSeedlingsEquipmentsSeeds 240 20 20 240 20 150Fertilizer 400 100 100 500 500 160Pesticide 0Water Charges 240 500 750 180 240 240labor cost 1200 500 750 400 1500 1500 750 500cost of production (C ) 2080 1120 1620 400 2420 2260 1300 500Return over paid out cost (grossreturn-C) 1600 3554 250.2 -400 3238 -982 910.4 2500BCR - TC basis (gross return/TC) 1.77 4.17 1.15 0.00 2.34 0.57 1.70 6.00total cost 5220 6480total income 10224.2 12146.4recover income 5004.2 5666.4 91
  • 92. Case- 6.14 Rajesh Murji VasavaVillage: AmaliBlock: MandviDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 3 acreIrrigated Land: 3 acreAge: 32 yearEducation: 12th std.Contact no. 09979648348Background:Rajesh has one son. He is studied in primary school. He has three brothers and all are doingin agriculture. He is an eldest brother in his family and he is responsible person, he gotmarried before seven year ago.Before intervention he migrates to other places like Surat, Bardoli due to lack of irrigationsources and also to generate more income for sustainable livelihood. He worked onconstruction sector.He has 3 acre of land and all the land is well irrigated. Before wadi intervention some part ofland was came under kind of pasture land and left over land used to grow paddy, Sorghum.He took single crop through the year.In 1992, AKRSP (I) came to village that time organization was working on water shedmanagement project and they created one piyat mandali (Water User Association) in 1993,they form group in village named as (DI AMLI SAHAKARI KHETI PIYAT MANDALI(WATER USER ASSOCIATION) LTD. AMLI) Also they have established committee of 11people for taking care of the project. That time 137 people were registered to this mandali.Then in 1994 the work has been started and it getting water from in 1997, the lifting wateravailed to entire village who wants water then now he has to pay 20 Rs. for 1/hr.Before intervention of land leveling his land was too sloppy and undulating land which leadsto run of water. So it was hard to grow any crops. But later on in 1998, AKRSP (I) provided asupport and land was leveled up and now he can do cultivation in better way.Again in 2003 organization came with MANGO WADI project.” For the mango wadi projectthey conducted meeting. That time near about 7 people were ready to take the project and he 92
  • 93. was one of them. In 2003, He took wadi, from AKRSP (I) in one acre land and he got 36mango seedlings (18 keshar and 18 Rajapuri seedlings) after getting wadi he prepared theland for wadi. He got the supports of equipments, fertilizers and pesticides (Ticum, Pavda,parayi, vermicompost, pesticides, Drip irrigation) from the organization. Plant spacing inbetween each tree is 8X8 meter; finally he saw the benefits of wadi project.He is doing intercropping in this wadi, in first five year he took only Ground Nut in that land.Now he is taking only fodder for animal husbandry that is giving him an additional incomefor sustainable livelihood.Table: 6.14.1 Animal Husbandry:Animal Husbandry 2008 2009 2010 2011Month in year 12 12 12 12Lit./Rs. 25 25 28 30Per day milk in Lit. 4 5 6 6Total gives milk in 1440 1800 2160 2160yearTotal amount in year 36000 45000 60480 64800Also, he has two cow and two buffaloes. He sells 6 lit. Milk per day to dairy. He is gettingmore support for his sustainable livelihood by selling milk. AKRSP (I) has been providedfinance for buying cow in 2008. 93
  • 94. Graph: 6.14.2 Average per Tree productionSince 3 year he is taking mango production. Production of wadi is increasing every year. Infirst year he got 4 Quintals production. Then production was increased in next year, he got 8and 11 quintal production respectively. He is selling these mangos in Surat market (Sardarpatel market). But he is not getting price in this market because he sells to trader and theygives less price for mangos.Before some years ago he got AKSRP (I) training in Netrnag, Mandvi and got an exposure tovisit the palaces like SRI Farming procedure, mango-wadi and Bio-Gas plant in nearby.This is my pension plan; he gives money in my whole life. And every year increase but notdecrease. 94
  • 95. Graph 6.14.1 Mango-wadi Net Returns:In above graph, in first five year he got good income, and he had recovered input cost ofmango wadi in first five year and he grow only ground nut in intercropping. From 2008 hegrows only fodder as intercrop in wadi. It support to his agriculture and to generate incomefrom animal husbandry. It changes in to sustainable livelihood.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.14.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis 95
  • 96. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2003 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 Ground Groun Ground Ground Ground Fodde Fodde Mang MangCrop Nut Mango d Nut Nut Nut Nut r r Mango Fodder o Fodder oYield(Qt./Acre) 4 5 4 4 4 0 0 4 0 8 0 11value of (Rs./Qt) 1550 1778 1624 2155 2423 1500 1800 1800Gross Return 6200 0 8890 6496 8620 9692 0 0 6000 0 14400 0 19800Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1480Equipments 1150Seeds 500 500 600 600 600Fertilizer 600 600 600 600 700 700 350 350 350 350Pesticide 300 0 200 0 100 0 300Transportation 300 500 700Water Charges 320 320 320 320 320 500 500 500 500labor cost 450 600 450 450 450 450 320 400 500cost of production (C ) 1870 4130 1870 1970 2270 2070 950 850 620 850 1200 850 1200Return over paid out cost(gross return-C) 4330 -4130 7020 4526 6350 7622 -950 -850 5380 -850 13200 -850 18600BCR - TC basis (grossreturn/TC) 3.31 0 4.754 3.29 3.79 4.68 0 0 9.67 0 12 0 16.5total cost 6000 1870 1970 2270 2070 950 1470 2050 2050total income 6200 8890 6496 8620 9692 0 6000 14400 19800recover income 200 7020 4526 6350 7622 -950 4530 12350 17750 96
  • 97. Case: 6. 15 Govind SurajibhaiVillage: AlmawadiBlock: DediapadaDist.: Narmada (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 4.5 acreIrrigated Land: 2.5 acreAge: 70 yearsEducation: 12th std.Service: Post MasterBackground:Govind has two daughters, Madhu is in 12th class and Nilu has done B.A. and they all arestaying in Bharuch. Govind died two year ago. He has done 35 year service of post master; heis a notorious person in his village. He has 7 brothers and 3 sisters they all are married, butone younger brother Ramesh has to see his agriculture last ten year. Suraji has two sons andone girl all is going to school. In 1994, he has done B.A. in economics then he has done 7year service in university of Gujarat as post on training department. Then he came to hisvillage and his family was divided that year and he is doing in agriculture now. Also, he hastaken leased land from his brother but Govind has paid him some money.In Almawadi, many people are well educated and people called as Almawadi educatedvillage. For education purpose students go outside the village.He has 4.5 acre of land, but only 2.5 acre land are irrigated and 2 acre land is on rain fed. Forirrigation source he has bore well it working throughout the year. He uses the electric motorfor lifting water from well for that he pays 200-250 Rs for 2-month.Before, Wadi he was growing paddy, Sorghum and some crops. During that time he tooksingle crop throughout the year. Also he didn’t get not much of yield from single crop. Thenhe thought we can change our cropping pattern and make some cash crops like, Cotton, Redgram and some vegetable crops that he growing in this year.AKRSP (I) support with irrigation facility to Almawadi village there is one open well whichis much more water available in that open well. From open well farmer use it as sourceirrigation. Because he has lifting water pipeline is available in whole village area. Those time 97
  • 98. farmers are satisfied from getting yield from his farm. Then after some time due to lack ofmaintenance by well committee well has been dry.Also in 2003, AKRSP (I) came with “Mango-Wadi Project”, for the mango-wadi project theyconducted meeting. At that time near about 15 people were ready to take the project and hewas one of them but he knows almost services of organization.In 2003, He took wadi, from AKRSP (I) in 2.5 acre land and he got 150 mango seedlings (75keshar and 75 Rajapuri seedlings) and his own contribution he bought 100 more mangoseedlings of Keshar. After getting wadi he prepared the land for wadi. He got the supports ofequipments, fertilizers and pesticides (Ticum, Pavda, parayi, vermicompost, pesticides, Dripirrigation) from the organization and also buy own contribution which he wants’ extra. Also,he gives F.Y.M. and last three year he has done pest attack. Plant spacing in between eachtree is 8X8 meter; he is cutting trees from last three year. Finally he saw the benefits of wadiproject.Chart : 6.15.1 Mango-wadi paid out cost:In above graph, he has 35% spent money on fertilizer and 21% labor cost is the secondhighest cost because he has done lot of work in wadi.He is doing intercropping in this wadi; he is taking paddy, cotton and Red gram in that land.Last three year he has not taken any crop he grows only fodder and gets some income fromthese. That is giving him an additional income for sustainable livelihood.In below graph, we have seen From Last 4 year mango production has been increasing and hegets money. In first year he give only 5 quintals production from some plant thenproduction was increase he got 10, 15, 22 quintal respectively production, last year he got 98
  • 99. more production because he has done on pest attack practices. Last year he sell to Ganadevimarket by AKRSP (I) support and get more rates of yield mango.Graph: 6.15.1 Average per Tree productionGraph 6.15.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns:In above graph, due to some intensive investment in wadi, he couldn’t possible to generatemore income in year 2003 and thus net return goes down. Then after, he took intercrop aspaddy, Red gram and this supported him to get good income and net return. Mangoproduction started in year 2009 and this helps him to increase his net return from year 2009 to 99
  • 100. 2011.Before some years ago he got AKSRP (I) training in Netrnag, Dediapada and got an exposureto visit the palaces like mango-wadi and SRI Farming procedure.Now he wants’ to have fruits and vegetables “COLD STORAGE” facility, because AKRSP(I) gives in this area some vegetable mandap (staking for creeper vegetable) and mango wadibut people not get that time price on right time when you provide us cold storage facility thenthat gives us much more profit.Breakeven point in 4th year see annexure table:1.7 100
  • 101. Table: 6.15.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysisIntercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 Red Red Red RedCrop Paddy gram Mango Paddy gram Mango Paddy gram Mango Cotton gram MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 20 3 0 18 3 20 2 8 2value of (Rs./Qt) 624 1288 0 501 1540 587 1776 1935 2875Gross Return(A+B) 12480 3864 0 9018 4620 11740 3552 15480 5750Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 10000Equipments 1500Seeds 1000 300 1000 300 1000 300 1000 300Fertilizer 850 425 19500 850 425 850 425 1000 450Pesticide 300 600 300 300 1000Water Charges 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250labor cost 2400 600 6400 2400 600 2400 600 3000 600Total paid out cost (TVC) ( C ) 4500 1875 38250 4500 1875 250 4500 1875 250 6250 1600 250Net return (gross return-TC) 7980 1989 -38250 4518 2745 -250 7240 1677 -250 9230 4150 -250BCR - TVC basis (grossreturn/TVC) 2.77 2.06 0.00 2.00 2.46 0.00 2.61 1.89 0.00 2.48 3.59 0.00Total exp. 44625 6625 6625 8100Total Income 16344 13638 15292 21230Net Returns -28281 7013 8667 13130 101
  • 102. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 Red RedCrop Cotton gram Mango Cotton gram Mango Fodder Mango Fodder Mango Fodder MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 10 2 2 10 3 5 1 10 1 15 1 22value of (Rs./Qt) 2281 1670 1500 2644 2115 1800 5000 1800 5000 2200 6000 2000Gross Return 22810 3340 3000 26440 6345 9000 5000 18000 5000 33000 6000 44000Paid out cost of productionSeeds 1000 500 200 500Fertilizer 1000 500 400 550Pesticide 1000 300 300 500 700 1000Transportation 1000 1200 1500Water Charges 250 250 250 250 250 250 1000 1000 1000labor cost 4000 800 4000 800 1200 1200 1500 1500Total paid out cost (TVC) ( C ) 7250 2350 250 4850 2400 2450 0 3900 0 4700 0 3500Net return (gross return-TC) 15560 990 2750 21590 3945 6550 5000 14100 5000 28300 6000 40500BCR - TVC basis (grossreturn/TVC) 3.15 1.42 12.00 5.45 2.64 3.67 4.62 7.02 12.57Total exp. 9850 9700 3900 4700 3500Total Income 29150 41785 23000 38000 50000Net Returns 19300 32085 19100 38000 46500 102
  • 103. Case – 6. 16 Ramsingh BabliaVillage: KalijamanBlock: UmarpadaDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 3.5 acreIrrigated Land: 2.5 acreAge: 60 yearEducation: 9th std.Ramsingh has 2 sons & 2 daughters they all are married. One is Mahesh who studied only 7 thclass and Bharatbhai is 10 th pass. Both are working in agriculture. He has three brothers, oneis died and two are doing agriculture.He have 3.5 acre of land. Out of that 2.5 acre land is irrigated and remaining one acre is onrain fed. Before wadi intervention, this land were comes in pasture land and left over land heused to grow like, Hukka, paddy, cotton and Sorghum. He took single crop through the year.Also, he has done some pre agriculture practices like, land leveling and bounding that hisland will be use full for taking wadi and growing cash crop in intercropping.Kalijaman is 3 km far from kevadi local market, all village people used to sell agricultureyield in kevadi local market.In 2000, he thought that he can dig open well in his farm? “Then that year he took first openwell in his farm and he hire diesel engine from his relatives then after some year in 2004 hebuy one mobile engine and in summer season he faced shortage of water due to low level ofwater. To resolve this problem he took another open well in 2006, second open well runningtrough out the year. From that year he is taking Kharip as well as Rabi seasonIn 1995, AKRSP (I) worked in nearby villages that’s comes in Bharuch district. And someemployees were came in village they conducted meeting that time he attended this meeting.At that time 12 people were ready to take wadi in their own farm. That time he got 20seedlings (Keshar 10 and 10 Rajapuri seedlings). Actually he has done digging for mangoplant at own hard work. All these input cost has been given by AKRSP (I). Till now he hasnot invest his money. Also he always tried to do something new in his farm like he uses theSRI farming procedure. Also he uses the ground nut drill machine for harvesting ground nut. 103
  • 104. Farmers from his region get inspired to do agriculture like he is doing. To his hard workingstrength he is popular in this area.Graph: 6.16.1 Average per Tree productionIn the above graph, his average Tree production is increase every year. In mango he got 2250,10800, 12000, 14000 Rs. respectively in last 4 year production of mango. It is supported toagriculture pattern. Last two year he has not invested money on wadi. Also, till now he hasnot done any pest attack in mango-wadi.He got some exposure visit to Netrang and nearby places of his village. Also he got sometraining programme on new intervention that works in his area. He got interest to learn newknowledge about cropping pattern. Also, he attended meeting and programme conducted innearby village on agriculture practices.Also, he got Bio-Gas plant from AKRSP (I) that is helping him for cooking food. He has onecow and 2 buffalo’s that he is doing milk business. Every day he sell 4 litter milk to Sumuldairy in his village. That gives more help for his sustainable livelihood. 104
  • 105. Graph: 6.16.2 Mango-wadi Net-Returns Charts:He was growing Paddy and ground nut as inter crop, from starting he got good return fromthese intercrops, as he has irrigation source as well as all inputs, he could met irrigationrequirement of the crops. Since 2007 Wadi started giving good yield and thereby good return,above graph shows how his income increased after 2007.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table:1.7 105
  • 106. Table: 6.16.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysisyear of sowing 2003 2004 2005 2006 Ground Ground Ground GroundCrop Paddy Nut Mango Paddy Nut Paddy Nut Paddy Nut MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 6 4 6.5 4 6.5 4.5 6 4.5value of (Rs./Qt) 624 1550 501 1778 587 1624 610 2155Gross Return 3744 6200 0 3256.5 7112 3815.5 7308 3660 9697.5 0Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 800Equipments 500Seeds 100 500 100 500 100 500 200 700Fertilizer (Urea, F.Y.M.) 400 400 900 100 100 120 120 490 490 350Water Charges 60 240 60 240 60 240 60 240labor cost 600 450 450 600 450 600 450 600 450 120Total paid out cost (TVC) ( C ) 1160 1590 2650 860 1290 880 1310 1350 1880 470Return over paid out cost (gross return-C) 2584 4610 -2650 2396.5 5822 2935.5 5998 2310 7817.5 -470BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 3.23 3.90 0.00 3.79 5.51 4.34 5.58 2.71 5.16 0.00Total exp. 5400 2150 2190 3700Total Income 9944 10368.5 11123.5 13357.5Net Returns 4544 8218.5 8933.5 9657.5 106
  • 107. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Padd Ground Ground Man Padd Ground Mang Padd Ground GroundCrop y Nut Paddy Nut go y Nut o y Nut Mango Paddy Nut MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 6 4.5 6.5 5 1.5 5 6.5 6 5 6 6 4 6.5 7value of (Rs./Qt) 681 2423 921 2231 1500 1001 2621 1800 920 3117 2000 943 3684 2000Gross Return(A) 4086 10903.5 5986.5 11155 2250 5005 17036.5 10800 4600 18702 12000 3772 23946 14000Paid out cost of productionSeeds 200 700 200 700 200 800 200 1000 200 1000Fertilizer (Urea, F.Y.M.) 180 180 180 180 600 600 400 200 200 220 220Water Charges 90 360 90 360 90 360 150 600 150 600labor cost 800 600 800 600 320 800 600 400 1000 750 400 1000 750 400Total paid out cost (TVC) ( C ) 1270 1840 1270 1840 320 1690 2360 800 1550 2550 400 1570 2570 400Return over paid out cost (grossreturn-C) 2816 9063.5 4716.5 9315 1930 3315 14676.5 10000 3050 16152 11600 2202 21376 13600BCR - TVC basis (grossreturn/TVC) 3.22 5.93 4.71 6.06 7.03 2.96 7.22 13.50 2.97 7.33 30.00 2.40 9.32 35.00Total exp. 3110 3430 4850 4500 4540Total Income 14989.5 19391.5 32841.5 35302 41718Net Returns 11879.5 15961.5 27991.5 30802 37178 107
  • 108. Case- 6.17 Sakaram bhai Ganpatbhai TadveVillage: KankhadiBlock: SagbaraDist.: Narmada (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 0.75 acreLeased land: 6 AcreIrrigated Land: 0.75 acreAge: 45 yearsMob No. +91-9924523199Education: 4th std.Background:Sakaram bhai has two sons, both are well settled. Elder son is working in the constructionsector (mystery), he works in nearby places and younger one is doing the work in own farm.Both of them are married.He has 0.75 acre land and it is irrigated land, Also he has taken 6 acre land on lease out ofthat 3 acre is irrigated and remaining 3 acre is rain fed. As irrigation source he has one openwell and it is working trough out the year. He uses the electric motor for lifting the waterfrom well, for that he pays 200-250 Rs. Monthly.Before, intervention of wadi project, he had been migrated to other places like, Ankleshwar,Surat and nearby places. Sakaram use to migrate for to generate some extra income that hecan maintain the livelihood sustainable. During migration he was working in the field like,construction, Sugar cutting and cutting stone, Etc. Around five to six month he used tomigrate through the year and migrated only on in dry season.In 2002, Jairam and Manisha these two person of AKRSP (I) came to his village andconducted meeting. He attended that meeting then he thought to take mango-wadi.In 2002, He took wadi, from AKRSP (I) in his own half acre land and he got 20 mangoseedlings (10 keshar and 10 Rajapuri seedlings) after getting wadi had he done digging forplanting mango. As well as he got equipments, fertilizers and pesticides (Ticum, Pavda,parayi, vermicompost, pesticides) from AKRSPI. He didn’t invest any money on wadi. Onlyhe used pesticides in Last two years of Rs. 520. 108
  • 109. In the first three years he didn’t get any yield. Then he tried for intercropping in the wadi. Hegot benefit from that. Then in 2005, he has taken intercrop of maize. Also he took severalcash crops and vegetables in that land.Graph: 6.17.1 Mango-wadi production table:Since from five year he is getting yield in mango-wadi, and every year his income increases,he gets horticulture support to sustainable livelihood due to when he gets yield he gives someinput for mango and his production has been increases every year also he has to done somepest attack. And he is selling these mangos in Shelamba market and in his village only.After some days he got AKSRP(I) training in Netrnag, Dediapada and some village exposurevisit, in this exposure visit, he have seen mango-wadi and Bio-Gas plant in nearby places hehad visited in last 10 years.Also, he has one cow and one buffalo. He sells 5 lit. /day milk to dairy. By using milkbusiness, he is getting more support for his sustainable livelihood. 109
  • 110. Graph: 6.17.2 Mango-wadi net returnsFrom 2002-2004 he did not cultivated any crop as intercrop in Wadi, but from year 2005 hestarted cultivating maize and red gram up to year 2008, but net income was considerablylower. After this he started growing Paddy as intercrop, from in 2010, he grew vegetables andfrom these vegetables he got good return because he got good prices for vegetables he grew.In year 2011 again he added some vegetable crops like brinjal, lady finger and also gotconsiderable return from vegetables as well as mango wadi.Breakeven point in 6th year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.17.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis 110
  • 111. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2002 2005 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2011 Maiz Red Red Maiz Mang Padd Mang Padd Onio Mang Padd Ladies MangCrop Mango e gram gram Mango e o y o y Brinjal n o y Brinjal finger oYield(Qt/Acre) 2 1 0.8 2 2 3 6 3 6 2 3 4 7 2 3 5value of (Rs./Qt) 599 2875 1670 1500 795 1500 1001 1800 920 1000 2337 2000 943 1500 800 1500Gross Return(A) 0 1198 2875 1336 3000 1590 4500 6006 5400 5520 2000 7011 8000 6601 3000 2400 7500Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 800Equipments 750Seeds 100 50 50 200 240 240 20 20 240 20 20Fertilizer 1350 300 300 300 350 530 600 160 160 600 160 160Pesticides 300 200 200 200 200 520Transportation 150 150 200Water Charges 200 300 300 200 100 100 150 150 100 150 150labor cost 300 300 240 240 160 400 160 320 320 400 500 500 400 400 500 500 400Total paid out cost(TVC) ( C ) 3500 900 890 890 160 1150 160 1190 470 1340 1030 1030 550 1340 1030 1030 1120Return over paid outcost -3500 298 1985 446 2840 440 4340 4816 4930 4180 970 5981 7450 5261 1970 1370 6380BCR - TVC basis(gross return/TVC) 0 1.33 3.23 1.50 18.7 1.38 28.1 5.047 11.4 4.11 1.94 6.80 14.5 4.92 2.91 2.33 6.69Total exp. 3500 900 890 1050 1310 1660 3950 4520Total Income 0 1198 2875 4336 6090 11406 22531 19501Net Returns -3500 298 1985 3286 4780 9746 18581 14981 111
  • 112. Case -6.18 Santu Shipa ChoudharyVillage: GondadeviBlock: MandviDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 3.34 acreIrrigated Land: 3.34 acreAge: 60 yearsMob No. +91-9712314062Education: 4th std.Background:Shnatu has three sons, Vijay is working in Bio-gas project, Jaish is driver and Naresh isworking in dairy plant in his own village. He has four grandsons and three granddaughtersthey all are in school. Total 17 members there in the family. Main occupation of the family isagriculture, and second source of income is milk dairy business. This is running from since18 years.Shantu has 3.34 acre land and total land comes under irrigated land. For irrigation source hehas one group open well that works in whole year but in summer, water level goes down. Inthis group well there are 12 members, this group well provides by AKRSP (I) in 2001, peopleare getting water from 2002 and they charged some rupees for water, and that money can beused for maintenance purpose. Also this group has mobile engine.Before intervention he has migrated for working in village forestry department, he did workthere more than 15 year. He used to migrate because of low availability of land; also he wasable to take only single crop through the year. Because he didn’t have irrigation facility. Thenin 2001, AKRSP (I) went to his village and gave irrigation source as group well and mobileengine. From that year onwards he grows in two seasons in a year. In that he is takingvegetables, paddy in every year.When AKRSP (I) came for wadi project, they conducted meeting in village and he was therein the meeting but no one showed the interest in wadi project. But after some days he realizedthat his elder son was saying right that wadi is very good project and that will help you in thefuture, finally he took the wadi. 112
  • 113. The main problem of the village is irrigation source. People always think that without waterwe cannot do anything.In 2002, he took one acre wadi in his own farm that time he got 30 keshar and 10 Rajapuriseedlings. He also got some fertilizer, equipments & pesticides i.e. (Vermicompost,pesticides, spade, hoe and sickle) and till now he didn’t invest any money on that, he just doonly labor work in mango-wadi.In intercropping he took some vegetables in summer season and in kharif season he took onlypaddy he grow vegetables like, Ladies finger, onion, Brinjal and Chili. These crops havegood market value in summer season.Before wadi he took only paddy on that farm and didn’t get good yield. In 2001 he get groupwell and that time he took some vegetables and sell to local market Jankhvav is 6 km fromGondadevi village.Graph: 6.18.1 Mango Production:From Last 4 year he is getting mango production, every year production of mango isincreasing and he is getting more money. In first year he got only 100KG production fromsome plant then production was increase he got 6, 9, 12 quintal production in next three yearsrespectively.He has 2 cows and 4 buffalo that give support to his livelihood, every day he sell 12 lit. Milkand he got average price 32-35 Rs/lit.Also, he is beneficiary of Flower farm, Pamroja farm, Bio-gas plant, SHG and SRI Farmingprocedure doing in paddy every year. This was the good support from AKRSP (I) and my lifehas changed. Now I have store food grains for whole year for consumption. 113
  • 114. Graph: 6.18.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns:Wadi was cultivated in 2002 with different vegetables as intercrops, trend was continued upto year 2007 and got mixed level of income every year, In year 2008 wadi started giving yieldand also concerned farmer decided to switch from vegetables to food grains like sorghum andgot good returns from 2008 onwards.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table:1.7 114
  • 115. Table: 6.18.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysisIntercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 LadiesCrop Paddy Sorghum Mango Paddy finger Paddy Ground Nut Paddy Onion Paddy BrinjalYield(Qt/Acre) 12 5 10 20 10 4 12 25 10 10value of (Rs./Qt) 574 617 624 500 501 1778 587 584 610 700Gross Return(A+B) 6888 3085 0 6240 10000 5010 7112 7044 14600 6100 7000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1600Equipments 750Seeds 150 100 150 1000 150 1000 150 150 200 100Fertilizer 1200 600 600 1200 600 1200 600 1300 300 1400 800Pesticide 300 600 900Water Charges 100 200 100 600 100 500 100 600 100 800labor cost 900 450 600 900 900 900 1200 900 1500 900 900cost of production (C ) 2350 1350 3850 2350 3700 2350 3300 2450 2550 2600 3500Return over paid out cost (gross return-C) 4538 1735 -3850 3890 6300 2660 3812 4594 12050 3500 3500BCR - TC basis (gross return/TC) 2.93 2.29 0.00 2.66 2.70 2.13 2.16 2.88 5.73 2.35 2.00total cost 7550 6050 5650 5000 6100total income 9973 16240 12122 21644 13100recover income 2423 10190 6472 16644 7000 115
  • 116. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 SameCrop Paddy Chili Paddy beans Mango Paddy Mango Paddy Mango Paddy Sorghum MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 8 20 10 20 1 10 6 10 9 11 2 12value of (Rs./Qt) 681 1000 921 1000 1500 1001 1800 920 2000 943 1487 2000Gross Return 5448 20000 9210 20000 1500 10010 10800 9200 18000 10373 2974 24000Paid out cost of productionSeeds 200 200 240 250 240 240 240 240Fertilizer 1800 800 1800 500 1850 2000 2000 1000Pesticide 600 300Transportation 300 700 1000Water Charges 100 400 150 450 150 200 200 400labor cost 1200 2400 1200 1000 400 1200 400 1500 750 1500 750 750cost of production (C ) 3300 4400 3390 2500 400 3440 700 3940 1450 3940 2390 1750Return over paid out cost (grossreturn-C) 2148 15600 5820 17500 1100 6570 10100 5260 16550 6433 584 22250BCR - TC basis (gross return/TC) 1.65 4.55 2.72 8.00 3.75 2.91 15.43 2.34 12.41 2.63 1.24 13.71Total cost 7700 6290 4140 5390 8080Total income 25448 30710 20810 27200 37347Recover income 17748 24420 16670 21810 29267 116
  • 117. Case- 6.19 Shiva Nuraji VasavaVillage: PathadiBlock: DediapadaDist.: Narmada (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 10 acreIrrigated Land: 3 acreAge: 48 yearsMob No. +91-9408262142Education: 4 rd std.Shiva has one son named as Ramsingh and he is doing agriculture. There are nine membersin the Family. Including two grandsons and three granddaughters, all are going to school.Agriculture is main source of his family.He has 9 acre land. Out of that 3 acre land is under irrigation, remaining 7 acre is dependsupon rain. As irrigation source he has one open well and it is working trough out the year. Heuses the diesel engine for lifting the water from well.Before, intervention of wadi project, he was working as labor. He had been migrated to otherplaces like, Ankleshwar, Surat and Navsari. Shiva use to migrate for to generate income thathe can maintain the sustainable livelihood. During migration he was working in theconstruction sector. Around five to six month he used to migrate through the year andmigrated only in dry season.Also, before intervention of land leveling his land is too sloppy and undulating land whichleads to run of water. So it was hard to grow any crops. But later on in 1995, AKRSP (I)provided a support and land was leveled up and now he can do cultivation in better way. Thiswas the NABARD project of watershed management but it supported by AKRSP (I).He said that “AKRSP (I) had implemented so many projects in his village like in 1996,organization worked on “VANIKARAN PROJECT” for this project village community hadgiven to support, for this they formed group of 25 members that was Goan vikas mandal. 117
  • 118. That time we planted some Trees like, Nilgiri, Vas, Bamboo, Sag van (Local name) inforestry area. Also in 2004 organization came with MANGO WADI project.”For the mango wadi project they conducted meeting. That time near about 10 people wereready to take the project and he was one of them.In 2004, He took wadi, from AKRSP (I) in one acre land and he got 40 mango seedlings (35keshar and 5 Rajapuri seedlings) after getting wadi he prepared the land for wadi. He got thesupports of equipments, fertilizers and pesticides (Ticum, Pavda, parayi, vermicompost,pesticides, Drip irrigation) from the organization. Plant spacing in between each tree is 8X8meter; he is cutting trees from last three year. Finally he saw the benefits of wadi project.And thought to take another acre wadi and took in one more acre wadi in 2009. In this wadihe got 40 Trees.He is doing intercropping in this wadi; he is taking Chili, Sorghum and Red gram in that land.That is giving him an additional income for sustainable livelihood.Graph: 6.19.1 mango productionSince from three year he is getting yield from mango-wadi, and he is selling these mangos inGandevi market & Local market. Also, his mango yield increase by every year. He givessome fertilizers and pesticides for getting more income.Before some years ago he got AKSRP (I) training in Netrnag, Dediapada and got an exposureto visit the palaces like mango-wadi and Bio-Gas plant in nearby. 118
  • 119. Graph: 6.19.2 Mango-wadi net returns:In above table, we can see in 2004 he had not earned even what he invested due to his chilicultivation was failed therefore he could not get good production then he grew only Red gramand Sorghum, from 2006, he has been earning good return and amount that he invested aswell as some profit also. Graph reveals after year 2009, when mango production started hisincome went on increasing per year.Breakeven point in 3rd year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.19.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysis 119
  • 120. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2004 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 Red Sorgh Red Sorghu RedCrop Chili Mango Red gram Sorghum gram um gram Mango m Mango gram MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 4 1.5 5 2.5 6 2 2 5 3 2 5value of (Rs./Qt) 500 1776 901 1670 692 2191 1500 1046 2500 3211 2000Gross Return 2000 0 2664 4505 4175 4152 4382 3000 5230 7500 6422 10000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1600Equipments 2250Seeds 100 150 250 200 250 600 300 600Fertilizer 55 600 120 120 150 150 160 180 1000 180 1000Pesticide 300 300 150 0 250 0 500 0 600 500 600Transportation 0 0 150 400Water Charges 100 100 100 150 200 300 200 240labor cost 450 600 300 300 300 400 400 750 500 750 500 750cost of production (C ) 1005 5350 820 770 1050 1000 1960 750 1180 2500 2020 2750Return over paid out cost 995 -5350 1844 3735 3125 3152 2422 2250 4050 5000 4402 7250BCR - TC basis 1.990 0 3.248 5.85 3.97 4.152 2.23 4 4.43 3 3.1 3.63total cost 6355 820 770 1050 1000 2710 3680 4770total income 2000 2664 4505 4175 4152 7382 12730 16422recover income -4355 1844 3735 3125 3152 4672 9050 11652 120
  • 121. Case- 6.20 Ukadia JatariaVillage: Sakawa (Koliwada)Block: DediapadaDist.: Narmada (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 2 acreIrrigated Land: 2 acreAge: 55 yearEducation: 2 nd std.Background:Ukadia has one son, he is doing in agriculture. He has three brother and all are doing inagriculture. He has 2 acre of irrigated land. Source irrigation has been available from last fouryear. Due to running water available through river near to his farm. As he is poor farmer he isnot able to afford a motor pump which can supply water to his farm from 500mt distance.When there was no irrigation facility available in his farm he has been migrating to variousplaces like, Surat, Ankleswar and Bharuch. Where ever he went he worked as agri-labor orconstruction labor. He went out for search work only four year. Along with him he used totake his brother for work. In 2003, AKRSP (I) has came with new plan to improve the living condition of these villagekohaliwada and Sakawa. That time they conducted meeting for mango-wadi. Ukadia also, heattended this meeting and he thought about mango-wadi and also, he got interested to tookmango-wadi. He had a discussion with his family member. According to suggestion taken byhis family member he agrees to go for it.Then, he bought 38 Trees of mango and all are Keshar. But due to lack of source irrigationthree Trees has been dead and now survival Trees is 35. Actually he has done digging formango plant at own hard work. Also, he bought some equipments, fertilizers and pesticides(Ticum, Pavda, parayi, vermin compost, pesticides) from AKRSPI. From last five year hecould gives only one trolley F.Y.M. every year. Before five year he didn’t invest any moneyto wadi. Sometimes he carried water from river and provided to plants in first year. As he wasvery laborious person so, he has tried to put full effort for mango-wadi to be success. 121
  • 122. Also, he has taken intercropping in wadi, he grow intercropping in paddy, cotton, Chickpeaand pearl millet) last three year he watered to intercropping and he got good yield from thisintercropping.Graph: 6.20.1 Mango average per Tree productionLast 5 year, Mango production has been increasing continually. In first year there was only 1quintal production but from second year and on words it was increased in the production. Hegot 3, 3.5, 4, 5 quintal respectively production, last four year he sold mangoes to village &Dediapada local market.Sakawa village is outside from kohaliwada. Where there is no facility of transportation tillnow he has been using bullock cart for transportation purpose. But from kohaliwada villagethere is mode of transportation available by jeep or auto rickshaw.He has 1 cow that support to his livelihood and he is able to sustain in his life. That every dayhe sell 2 lit/day milk and he got average price 22-25 Rs. 122
  • 123. Table: 6.20.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysisIntercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2003 2003 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008Crop Paddy Cotton Mango Paddy Paddy Paddy Paddy Mango Paddy MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 3 0.2 3 2.5 3 3.5 1 3 3value of (Rs./Qt) 624 2310 501 587 610 681 1500 921 1800Gross Return 1872 462 1503 1467.5 1830 2383.5 1500 2763 5400Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1120equipments 750Seeds 150 250 150 150 200 200 200Fertilizer (Urea, F.Y.M.) 425 425 600 600 600 700 700 600 800 600Pesticides 300 150Transportation 150Water Charges 200 300 300 200labor cost 300 300 600 240 240 160 400 320 160 320Total paid out cost (TVC) ( C ) 875 1475 3220 1290 1290 1060 1500 920 1160 1070Return over paid out cost (gross return-C) 997 -1013 -3220 213 177.5 770 883.5 580 1603 4330BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 2.14 0.31 0.00 1.17 1.14 1.73 1.59 1.63 2.38 5.05Total exp. 5570 1290 1290 1060 2420 2230Total Income 2334 1503 1467.5 1830 3883.5 8163Net Returns -3236 213 177.5 770 1463.5 5933 123
  • 124. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 pearl pearlCrop Paddy Chickpea Mango Paddy millet Mango Paddy millet MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 10 1 3.5 10 6 4 12 5 5value of (Rs./Qt) 1001 2000 1800 920 1287 2000 943 967 2000Gross Return 10010 2000 6300 9200 7722 8000 11316 4835 10000Paid out cost of productionEquipments 400Seeds 240 400 240 1000 240 1000Fertilizer (Urea, F.Y.M.) 850 900 600 1000 1400 600 1000 1400 600Pesticides 300 200 200Transportation 150 200 200Water Charges 800 800 800 4000 800 4000labor cost 320 320 400 500 400 400 500 400Total paid out cost (TVC) ( C ) 2210 2400 1070 2440 7100 1200 2440 7100 1600Return over paid out cost (grossreturn-C) 7800 -400 5230 6760 622 6800 8876 -2265 8400BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 4.529412 0.833333 5.88785 3.770492 1.087606 6.666667 4.637705 0.680986 6.25Total exp. 5680 10740 11140Total Income 18310 24922 26151Net Returns 12630 14182 15011 124
  • 125. Graph: 6.20.2 Wadi net returnsAt first five year, he did not received considerable income and suffered loss, from fifth yearhe got mango yield and he got good returns from the wadi. From year 2007 onwards he gotgood income from wadi and income has been increased every year. When he got mango-yieldhe bought diesel engine for irrigation purpose. First five year (2003-2007) he grew onlypaddy and in fifth year he got good mango yield and he changed intercrops like, pearl milletand Chickpea in summer.Breakeven point in 8th year see annexure table:1.7 125
  • 126. Chapter: 7. References:1. http://www.mangifera.org2. http://nhm.nic.in/3. http://nhb.gov.in4. http://agri.gujarat.gov.in/hods/dir-horticulture.htm5. http://guj-nwrws.gujarat.gov.in/showpage.aspx?contentid=1474&lang=English6. http://guj-tribaldevelopment.gov.in/7. http://tribal.guj.nic.in/ 126
  • 127. Chapter: 8. ANNEXTURE AKRSP (I), Gujarat HORTICULTURE PROGRMMES QUESTIONNAIREThis questionnaire is a part of study conducted on “Assessment of result of Horticultureprogrammes in Tribal South Gujarat region” SI No. ……………… Background: Name of District Name of AKSP(I) Cluster Name of the Village MIS Code Name of Farmer Age of Respondent Name of Interviewer Date Household members Adult Children Total Male Female Male Female School going Children Sex Before intervention After intervention Male Female 127
  • 128. Source of Income code:S. No. Source of household Before intervention (in After intervention (in Rs.) income Rs.)1 Farmer2 Agri-Labor3 Artician4 Business5 Salaried Job6 Non Agri-labor7 OthersIf other then Specify:Land holding (area in acre)Total Irrigated land Rain fed Land Waste landland Agriculture Horticulture Agriculture Horticulture Agriculture HorticultureTotalIrrigation Source for Horticulture crops (Skip if no Irrigated land) Sources of Private =1, Working If No, How How many Irrigation Public =2 throughout the many months it people in year? Yes =1 is working? Group/Public? No = 2.1 Well2 Bore well4 Through mobile engine5 Lift irrigation6 Canal7 Drip Irrigation8 OthersRemarks (if any): 128
  • 129. Inter cropping:Input (Horticulture) AKRSP (I) (Amount Own Contribution in Rs.) (Amount in Rs.) Quantity Price Quantity PriceSeedlings Keshar RajapuriTrees KesharSurvival RajapuriSpacing …………..X………..meterFertilizer1.2.3.Pesticide1.2.3.Labor Hired Male ……..(Days) …...(Days)Charges ….....(per day) Female ……..(Days) ……..(Days) ….....(per ….....(per day) day) Own Male FemaleWater chargesTransportationOthersTotal 129
  • 130. Post harvest Management:1. Method of harvesting?:-2. Harvest Period (Start/End)?:-3. on farm value addition (Washing, Sorting, Grading, etc)?Washing (Y/N): If Yes,Sorting (Y/N): If Yes,Grading (Y/N): If yes,Storage (Y/N): If yes, where to store (Home, Own Godown, Govt.Godown)How much cost they have to pay for storage?Packaging (Y/N): If Yes, Type of packaging and cost?Marketing:1. Where you sell Mango? (City market, Local market, Village market)2. If any middle person in process of selling, how much he take from farmer?3. Mode of Transportation? And how many cost you have to pay? 130
  • 131. Income from Agriculture & Horticulture Crop: Horticulture Crop:Details 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Crop Production Quantity (qt) Price (per qt)Total Quantity soldHH Utility Livestock and poultry assets A B C Category Present market Scope of Number value (Rs.) alternative 1 Cow 2 Bullock 3 Buffalo 4 Calf 5 Goat/Sheep 6 Poultry 7 Others (specify) Remarks (if any): How effectively/productively this livestock is being managed. Excellent [1] Good [2] Average [3] Bad [4] Did you avail for any government subsidy scheme/loan for buying Cows/Buffaloes? YES [1] NO [2] 131
  • 132. Benefits:Items 2002 2012Agricultural EquipmentsBullock cartTractorCycleIrrigation well / bore wellMotor pump/ EngineVehicleRadioT.V.Telephone/MobileNo. of roomsMigration Details: Before Intervention After InterventionTotal Members Male FemaleReason for migrationWage per day Male FemaleMonths of migrationMigration PlaceHow frequently the committee meeting of “WADI VIKAS ZUT” is organized in ayear/month?----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Do you have equal say in the meetings/ Decision making?----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What do you feel about AKRSP? What are your expectations from AKRSP?According to you what is the need related to Horticulture programmes in village? 132
  • 133. Table: 9.2 Price List: Average prices as on December monthCrop 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 200 2009 2010 2011 Mar-name / 8 2012YearPeddy (Dahod (Dahod (Gandh (Surat) (Suarat (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (surat(Rs./Qui ) 411 ) 574 inagar) 501 ) 587 t) ) 681 at) 1001 ) 920 943 )ental) 624 610 921 1049Ground (Dahod (Dahod (Dahod (Surat) (Suarat (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (suratNut ) 1250 ) 1556 ) 1550 1778 ) 1624 t) ) at) 2621 ) 3684 ) 2155 2423 223 3117 4650 1Tuver (Dahod (Rajkot (Bhavn (Surat) (Bhavn (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (surat ) 1901 ) 1427 agar) 1520 agar) t) ) at) 2191 ) 3211 ) 1288 1776 2875 1670 211 2165 3494 5Sorghu (Dahod (Rajkot (Dahod (Surat) (surat) (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (suratm ) 275 ) 617 ) 392 685 795 t) ) 984 at) 1047 ) 1487 ) 901 692 1046 1680Bajra (Dahod (Rajkot (Dahod (Dahod (Dahod (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (Daho (Daho ) 400 ) 575 ) 507 ) 571 ) 675 t) ) 733 at) 1222 ) d) 967 d) 902 976 1287 1043Makai/ (Dahod (Rajkot (Dahod (Dahod (Dahod (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (suratMaize ) 435 ) 569 ) 500 ) 590 ) 599 t) ) 666 at) 934 ) 866 752 ) 596 879 795Udad / (Dahod (Dahod (Dahod (Surat) (Surat) (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (suratBlack ) 1630 ) 1328 ) 1126 1400 2492 t) ) at) 4619 ) 3247 )Grams 2946 1569 218 3049 3101 9Soyabea (Dahod (Dahod (Dahod (Dahod (Dahod (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (suratn ) 1028 ) 1333 ) 1409 ) 1269 ) 1107 t) ) at) 2292 ) 2259 ) 1309 1770 170 2119 2819 1Cotton (Bhavn (Bhavn (Bhavn (Bhavn (Bhavn (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (surat agar) agar) agar) agar) agar) t) ) at) 3140 ) 4055 ) 1664 1971 2310 1919 1985 1935 2281 264 4206 3975 4Wheat (Rajkot (Dahod (Dahod (Surat) (Surat) (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (surat ) 849 ) 839 ) 1150 706 828 t) ) at) 1508 ) 1000 ) 1140 1005 114 1396 1253 6Onion (Dahod (Dahod (Dahod (Surat) (Dahod (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (surat ) 456 ) 357 ) 699 338 ) 584 t) ) 520 at) 1306 ) 639 ) 471 604 109 2337 4Tomato (Rajkot (Dahod (Dahod (Surat) (Surat) (sura (surat (sur (surat) (surat (surat) (surat ) 553 ) 192 ) 313 406 319 t) ) 484 at) 682 ) 420 ) 812 759 728 1156 Source: url://www.agmark.nic.in 133
  • 134. Table: 1.3 Horticulture beneficiaries of tribal south Gujarat region Cluster 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 201 Grand Name 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Total Dediapada 263 334 401 841 519 256 280 686 850 4430 Mandvi 143 112 25 242 522 273 259 134 1710 Naswadi 253 592 589 1434 Netrang 83 262 247 736 518 114 183 166 240 2549 Sagbara 220 124 695 767 842 759 160 457 500 4524 Umarpada 1 253 919 116 1289 136 258 290 291 158 144 159 Grand Total 709 832 8 7 7 3 7 3 0 15936 (Source: AKRSP (I) data base 2010) Horticulture wadi program was started from 2002 in Gujarat and worked in these 6 clusters. They achieved above 15936 beneficiaries. They covered 3 districts Surat, Narmada and Baruch. In Dediapada, there is highest no. of beneficiaries farmer are found i.e. 4524 and 1289 in Umarpada cluster is lowest. In Umarpada there is work started from 2005 and in Naswadi there is only three year work has been done. Table: 1.4 Species wise beneficiaries:Cluster GrandName Name Of Specie 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 TotalDediapada Mango 263 334 401 841 519 256 64 850 3528 MANGO(KESER) 281 281 Mango, lemon 341 341 Mango, Lemon, Chikoo 280 280DediapadaTotal 263 334 401 841 519 256 280 686 850 4430Mandvi Lemon 3 3 Mango 103 112 25 242 521 273 259 134 1669 134
  • 135. Sapota 3 1 4MandviTotal 109 112 25 242 522 273 259 134 1676Naswadi Chicku 148 3 151 Lemon 128 7 135 Mango 135 315 71 521 Mango,Lemon,Sarg vo 118 118 Mango,Sapota,Lem on 508 508NaswadiTotal 253 591 589 1433Netrang Mango 68 262 247 736 518 114 183 240 2368 Mango, lemon 166 166NetrangTotal 68 262 247 736 518 114 183 166 240 2534Sagbara Chiku 118 118 Lemon 135 135 Lemon, Chiku, Mango 160 18 89 267 Mango 220 124 695 767 842 506 189 411 3754 Mango ,Lemon 250 250SagbaraTotal 220 124 695 767 842 759 160 457 500 4524Umarpada Chikoo 60 309 36 405 Lemon 1 64 260 23 348 Mango 120 349 57 526UmarpadaTotal 1 244 918 116 1279GrandTotal 660 832 1368 2587 2898 2911 1587 1443 1590 15876 (Source: AKRSP (I) data base 2010) 135
  • 136. These tables stated the distribution of wadi beneficiaries based on the species. In 2002,highest amount of species was distributed and in 2004, lowest amount was distributed. InDediapada highest mango species are distributed. And In Sagbara cluster highest species aredistributed.Table: 1.5 Area in Ha of species wise Horticulture covered in Tribal South Gujarat Region:Cluster Name Of GrandName Specie 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total 74.2 12.5Dediapada Mango 0 0 0 1.6 0 6 5 4.4 92.81 MANGO 75.4 75.4 Mango,lemon 89 89 Mango,Lemon ,Chiku 75 75Dediapada 74.2 176.Total 0 0 0 1.6 0 6 75 95 4.4 332.21Mandvi Lemon 0.03 0.03 25.0 84.5 54.1 Mango 6.37 4 5.06 6.8 1 3 34.2 15.7 231.81 Chiku 0.13 0.2 0.33Mandvi 25.0 84.7 54.1Total 6.53 4 5.06 6.8 1 3 34.2 15.7 232.17 35.5Naswadi Chiku 8 0.7 36.28 30.8 Lemon 6 0.1 30.96 87.9 Mango 16.1 1 12.1 116.11 Mango,Lemon 30.5 30.5 Mango, 184. Chiku,Lemon 4 184.4Naswadi 154. 197.Total 46.6 35 3 398.25 52.0 29.5Netrang Mango 0 0 1 12.7 5 0 6 67.05 162.36 Mango,lemon 43 43Netrang 52.0 29.5Total 0 0 1 12.7 5 0 6 43 67.05 205.36Sagbara Chiku 2.96 2.96 136
  • 137. Lemon 3.96 3.96 Lemon,Chiku, 57.2 Mango 2 3.6 17.8 78.62 61.9 17.2 243. 107. 107. 50.9 Mango 4 7 01 0 48 33 7 2.4 590.4 82.0 Lemon 4 82.04Sagbara 61.9 17.2 243. 107. 114. 57.2 136.Total 4 7 01 0 48 25 2 61 20.2 757.98Umarpada Chiku 2 2 0 4 Lemon 0 0 1.25 0 1.25 Mango 4.1 7.25 0 11.35UmarpadaTotal 0 6.1 10.5 0 16.6Grand 68.4 42.3 249. 296. 407. 393. 372.Total 7 1 07 21.1 94 49 28 26 91.65 1942.57 (Source: AKRSP (I) data base 2010)These tables stated the horticulture program in south Gujarat based on the area distribution.The total area covered is 1942.57 hector. In Sagbara, largest area is covered 757.98 hectorand the smallest area comes under Netrang cluster is 205.36 hector.Table: 1.6 Mango- beneficiaries in all clusters: Benefited Farmers farmers Cluster based on year (2002-10) Dediapada 2391 Sagbara 2520 Netrang 1658 Mandvi 1356 Umarpada 457 Naswadi 996 Total 9378(Source: AKRSP (I) data base 2010)There are total 9378 mango-beneficiaries. Highest no. of beneficiaries is found in Sagbaraand lowest no. is found in Umarpada. This mango wadi program helps a lot to increase theirsource of income. 137
  • 138. Table 1.7 Break Even Point of Farmers:Name of farmer/ year 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 thSantu shipa chaudhary 2423 10190 6472 16644 7000 17748 24420 16670 21810 29267Ramsingh Bablia 4544 8218 8933 9657 11879 15961 27991 30802 37178Rajesh Murji Vasava 200 7020 4526 6350 7622 -950 4530 12350 17750Balwant Umaid Vasava -5146 0 0 0 0 1852 3888 7092 10850Dhanjibhai Kotania -4262 168 430 8390 9070 1671 8405 13371 -Ramesh Surji 28281 7013 8667 13130 19300 32085 19100 38000 46500Shiva Naruji -4355 1844 3735 3125 3152 4672 9050 11652Ukadia Jataria -3236 213 177 770 1463 5933 12630 14182 15011 -Ajaybhai Hursimbhai 1960 -3026 2029 454 4477 12383 22032 37080 33371Bachu Gimia 240 800 2250 6000 8500 12000 16000 5000 -Kiransingh vasava 3733 -544 3620 43500 2790 -157 163 363 12090 6991Bhikubhai Tadvi 2600 813 800 750 -550 4750 7420 11160Dhanjibhai Bondabhai -4900 2920 2608 3887 4235 7244 8805Dineshbhai Navalbhai 4610 2900 5968 6172 4446 14887 16541 26345 14764Lalubhai Tade -7014 -1155 9110 1286 7130 13884 18710 14252Sakarambhai Tadve -3500 0 0 298 1985 3286 4780 9746 18581 14981 -Dhanabhai Dungersingh 10081 3025 5586 4475 16375 17657 20911 -Karansingh Dhamnia 10002 -202 -331 2038 2739 -434 1979 -Laxman Tadvi 12478 2620 3599 2276 16796 7310 41107 -Murji Kotania 10612 1490 1164 3249 4791 5004 5666 138