Horticulture study in tribal south Gujarat region

1,211 views

Published on

to study on horticulture intervention of AKRSP (I)

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,211
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Horticulture study in tribal south Gujarat region

  1. 1. “Study On Horticulture Intervention of AKRSP (I) in Netrang, Tribal South Gujarat Region” Author Biradar Shivshankar Vijaykumar Host Organization Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India)Faculty Guide Reporting OfficerProf. Ashok Gupta Mr. Sukumar R.“A REPORT SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THEREQUIREMENTS FOR MASTERS IN RURAL MANAGEMENT” School of Rural Management Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) University Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India Management Traineeship Segment (MTS) I 1
  2. 2. Approval PageSCHOOL OF RURAL MANAGEMENT, KIIT UNIVERSITY Bhubaneswar The MTS Report of Biradar Shivshankar Vijaykumar Candidates for the degree of MBA Rural Management Are hereby APPROVED Prof. Ashok Gupta 2
  3. 3. AcknowledgmentIn preparing this report a considerable amount of thinking and informationalinputs from various sources were involved. I express our sincere gratitude toeveryone who contributed towards making this report possible.First of all I would like to thank dignitaries of AKRSP (I), Mr. Sukumar R. forgiving me the guidelines for the successful completion of this report. I wouldlike to thank all cluster officer of AKRSP(I) for his valuable support andfeedback. I would also like to thank all our respondents for their responsewithout which this study couldn’t be possible.I also take a special mention of faculty of KSRM, Prof. Ashok Gupta for hisvaluable inputs.At last, I extend my special thanks to my dear friends who actually made myreport on horticulture intervention a success.Biradar Shivshankar VijaykumarDate –Bhubaneswar 3
  4. 4. Executive SummaryTitle of Project: “Study on Horticulture Intervention of AKRSP (I) in Netrang, Tribal SouthGujarat Region”Host Organization: - Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India)Author: - Biradar Shivshankar VijaykumarObjective of the project:- 1. To understand the benefits made through horticulture crops supplements agriculture livelihood among the tribal farmers of TSG region of AKRSP (I). 2. To analyze the financial and social changes on tribal community through horticulture programme. 3. To analyze cost benefit and calculate breakeven point from the horticulture intervention.I have conducted case study of 20 beneficiaries who are involved in Mango wadi.In the beginning Farmer didn’t show their Interest for mango-wadi but after 2-3 year gettingmango yield they got shown interest in mango-wadi and they have stated generating profit.Many farmers got support of drip irrigation from AKRSP (I) but they didn’t use thesetechnologies in horticulture. There are 9 farmers who have doing cultivation of mango wadiin 0.25 acre to 0.85 acre of land. While 10 farmers taken only for 0.85 to 1.75 acre of land formango wadi. Before horticulture intervention they used to follow traditional farming andwere getting low yields. But now condition of beneficiaries has changed, they are usingintercropping in mango-wadi. And they grow vegetables and cash crops and have irrigationfacility in their lands. Also, farmers are now showing interest in Mango-marketing soAKRSP (I) is forming a federation for mango marketing in this area.A storage facility should be made in this region for storage of fruits as the perishable &getting good price fruits. Provide training programme & exposure visit on post harvestmanagement as especially on farm value addition. Provide suitable market for mango yield,that they have to sell in the market and get good value for their producing yield. 4
  5. 5. Table of contentChapter 1: Introduction ....................................................................................................... 10 1.1 Mango ....................................................................................................................... 14 1.1.1 Indian Varieties .................................................................................................. 14 1.2 Organizational Overview: .......................................................................................... 15 1.2.1 Organization Structure: ........................................................................................... 16Chapter: 2 Literature Review............................................................................................... 17Chapter 3: Methodology...................................................................................................... 20 3.1 Research Design ........................................................................................................ 20 3.2.1. Selection of area: ............................................................................................... 20 3.2.2. Identification of project elements: ...................................................................... 21 3.2.3. Collection of primary data: ................................................................................ 21 3.2.4. Collection of Secondary Data: ........................................................................... 21 3.3 Methods of Data Analysis: ..................................................................................... 21 3.4. Limitations of the assignment: .............................................................................. 21Chapter: 4 Findings & Analysis: ......................................................................................... 22 4.1 Land Holding pattern: ................................................................................................ 22 4.1.1 Area Utilized For Wadi:...................................................................................... 23 4.2 Mango Survival Trees: .............................................................................................. 24 4.3 Average per Tree production of mango-wadi: ............................................................ 24 4.4 Mango-wadi average net returns: ............................................................................... 26 4.5 Breakeven point: ....................................................................................................... 27 4.6 Post Harvest Management ......................................................................................... 27 4.7 Changes in Income: ................................................................................................... 27 4.8 Migration Status: ....................................................................................................... 28Chapter: 5 Conclusion & Recommendations: ...................................................................... 29 5.1 Conclusion: ............................................................................................................... 29 5.2 Recommendations: .................................................................................................... 30Chapter: 6 Case Studies ....................................................................................................... 31 Case -6.1 Ajaybhai Hursimbhai ................................................................................... 31 Case-6.2 Balwant Umaid Vasava ................................................................................ 37 Case- 6.3: Bachubhai Gimia ........................................................................................ 41 Case- 6.4 Bhikubhai Varanashibhai Tadvi ................................................................... 46 5
  6. 6. Case - 6. 5 Dhana bhai Dunger singh ........................................................................... 51 Case- 6.6 Dhanji bhai Kotania ..................................................................................... 56 Case-6.7 Dinesh bhai Navalbhai .................................................................................. 60 Case – 6. 8 Karansingh Damniya ................................................................................. 65 Case- 6.9 Dhanji bhai bhai Bondabhai ......................................................................... 69 Case-6.10 Kiranbhai Ganpatbhai Vasava ..................................................................... 73 Case -6.11 Lalubhai Jaisinghbhai Tade ........................................................................ 78 Case -6.12 Laxman Padvi ............................................................................................ 83 Graph: 6.12.2 Mango-wade Net Returns ...................................................................... 85 Case - 6.13 Murji Kathodia.......................................................................................... 87 Case- 6.14 Rajesh Murji Vasava .................................................................................. 92 Case: 6. 15 Govind Surajibhai .................................................................................... 97 Case – 6. 16 Ramsingh Bablia ................................................................................... 103 Case- 6.17 Sakaram bhai Ganpatbhai Tadve .............................................................. 108 Case -6.18 Santu Shipa Choudhary ............................................................................ 112 Case- 6.19 Shiva Nuraji Vasava................................................................................ 117 Case- 6.20 Ukadia Jataria .......................................................................................... 121Chapter: 7. References: ..................................................................................................... 126Chapter: 8. ANNEXTURE ................................................................................................ 127List of TablesTable: 1.1 Annual Horticulture Development Rate in Gujarat .............................................. 12Table: 1.2 Gujarat Position in some of the fruit and vegetable crops in all India productivityrank. .................................................................................................................................... 12Table 1.3 District wise Estimated Area and Production of Mango Year 2010-11 in Gujarat . 13Chart: 4.2.1 Mango Tree Survival ....................................................................................... 24Table 5.1.1 Income through animal Husbandry: .................................................................. 33Table 5.1.2. Intercropping cost & benefits analysis of mango-wadi: .................................... 33Table: 5.2.1 Animal Husbandry:.......................................................................................... 39Table: 5.2.2 intercropping of mango wadi ........................................................................... 39Table: 5.3.1 Mango- Cost benefits analysis: ........................................................................ 44Table: 5.4.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis ............................................................... 49Table: 5.5.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis ............................................................... 54 6
  7. 7. Table 5.6.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis: ............................................................... 58Table: 5.7.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .............................................................. 63Table: 5.8.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis:............................................................. 68Table:5.9.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysis: ............................................................. 71Table : 5.10.1 Animal Husbandry: ....................................................................................... 75Table: 5.10.2 intercropping cost & benefits analysis: ........................................................... 76Table: 5.11.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis ............................................................ 80Table: 5.12.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis ............................................................ 85Table: 5.13.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis ............................................................ 89Table: 5.14.1 Animal Husbandry: ........................................................................................ 93Table: 5.14.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis ............................................................ 95Table: 5.15.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .......................................................... 101Table: 5.16.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysis.......................................................... 106Table: 5.17.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .......................................................... 110Table: 5.18.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .......................................................... 115Table: 5.19.1 Intercropping cost & benefits analysis.......................................................... 119Table: 5.20.1 intercropping cost & benefits analysis .......................................................... 123List of GraphsGraph: 4.1.1 Land Holding Pattern ...................................................................................... 23Graph: 4.3.1 Average per tree production in TSG ................................................................ 26Graph: 4.4.1 Average Net Returns:...................................................................................... 26Graph: 4.7.1 Migration Status ............................................................................................. 28Graph: 5.1.1 Mango Production ......................................................................................... 32Graph: 5.1.2 Wadi Net Returns: .......................................................................................... 36Graph 5.2.1 Average per Tree production of mango ............................................................ 38Graph: 5.2.2 Mango-wadi net returns .................................................................................. 39Graph: 5.3.1 Average per Tree production........................................................................... 43Graph: 5.4.1 Average per graph production ......................................................................... 48Graph: 5.4.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 49Graph : 5.5.1 Average per graph production ........................................................................ 52Graph : 5.5.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 53 7
  8. 8. Graph: 5.6.1 Mango-wadi per Tree production: ................................................................... 57Graph 5.6.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: ................................................................................ 58Graph: 5.7.1 Average per Tree production........................................................................... 61Graph: 5.7.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 62Graph: 5.8.1 Mango-wadi Net Income: ............................................................................... 67Graph: 5.9.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 71Graph: 5.10 average per tree production .............................................................................. 75Graph: 5.10.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: ............................................................................. 76Graph: 5.11.1 Mango-wadi Production chart: ...................................................................... 80Graph: 5.11.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns Table: ................................................................... 82Graph: 5.12.1 mango production average ............................................................................ 84Graph: 5.12.2 Mango-wade Net Returns: ............................................................................ 85Graph: 5.13.1 Mango-wadi Net Returns: ............................................................................. 89Graph: 5.14.2 Average per Tree production ......................................................................... 94Graph 5.14.1 Mango-wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 95Graph: 5.15.1 Average per Tree production ......................................................................... 99Graph 5.15.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: .............................................................................. 99Graph: 5.16.1 Average per Tree production ....................................................................... 104Graph: 5.16.2 Mango-wadi Net-Returns Charts: ................................................................ 105Graph: 5.17.1 Mango-wadi production table: .................................................................... 109Graph: 5.17.2 Mango-wadi net retuns................................................................................ 110Graph: 5.18.1 Mango Production: ..................................................................................... 113Graph: 5.18.2 Mango-wadi Net Returns: ........................................................................... 114Graph: 5.19.1 mango production ....................................................................................... 118Graph: 5.19.2 Mango-wadi net returns: ............................................................................. 119Graph: 5.20.1 Mango average per Tree production ............................................................ 122Graph: 5.20.2 Wadi net returns .......................................................................................... 125List of Chart:Chart: 4.1.2 Area Utilize for wadi ....................................................................................... 23Chart: 4.5.1 breakeven point................................................................................................ 27Chart : 5.15.1 Mango-wadi paid out cost: ............................................................................ 98 8
  9. 9. ABBREVIATIONSAKRSP (I): Aga Khan Rural Support Programme IndiaGJ: GujaratBCR: Benefit cost ratioC: CostTC: Total CostTVC: Total Variable CostGR: Gross ReturnBEP: Break even pointTSG: Tribal South GujaratNABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentAPMC: Agriculture Produce Market Committees 9
  10. 10. Chapter 1: IntroductionGujarat has about 94.99 lakh Ha1 (as per 2010 data) of the total area of the state undercultivation. The area under irrigation is about 33% of the net area sown, while rest of area iscultivated under rain fed conditions. Thus, there is large area dependence on rain in theGujarat. Horticulture is a priority sector in Agriculture by virtue of its vast potential inimproving the Socio – economic conditions of the farmers.The horticulture sector is supplier for large number of agro 2based industries which has highavenues for generation of skill full employment and self employment opportunities both inrural and urban areas. Gujarat has a wide variety of soil, rainfall pattern, temperature regimesand irrigation availability.“Presently, India is the 2nd largest producer of fruits & vegetables in the world3.”Gujarat has achieved considerable growth rate in horticulture during last five years becauseof serious efforts made by the Gujarat Govt. The area & production of horticulture crop was5.89 lakh ha (5 %of total cropped area) & 59.49 lakh tons in 1998-1999 which increased upto 13.54 lakh ha. and 173.00 lakh tons respectively in 2010-11. Gujarat has strongcooperative credit & marketing structure, along with 265 cold storages having 12.50 lakh mt.storage capacities. About 42 fruit & vegetable co-operative marketing societies and 197Agriculture Produce Market Committees (APMCs) dealing with selling & buying ofhorticulture produce in the Gujarat. These have been mandate to maintain utmosttransparency for dealing to ensure farmers against exploitation by middlemen.Agriculture Export Zone for dehydrated onion & zone for fruits - vegetables has beenestablished, which will be the back bone to boost horticultural development in the Gujarat.Gujarat having ample potential to export various horticultural produce. The main produce arefresh fruits which includes mangoes (Kesar and Alphonso), Chiku, Aonla and Dates (khalal).The vegetables viz. okra, beans, bitter gourd, onion fresh as well as flacks and powder, garlicpowder and gourds.. The spices viz. cumin, fennel and garlic are also potential for export.1 http://agri.gujarat.gov.in/department/overview151.html2 url://www.agri.gujarat.gov.in3 www.nhm.nic.in 10
  11. 11. In floriculture, major flowers grown in the state are Roses (Deshi & Hybrid), Lily, Marigold,Jasmine & Tuberose. As far as area under floriculture is concerned about 15000 ha area iscovered under these crops in the Gujarat. Flowers like carnation, gerbera & rose are alsocultivated by using Hi-tech Green house technology in some of the districts. Isabgol,Aloevera, Senna, Gugal, Safed musali, Ashvagandha, Kadu-kariyatu, Kaucha, and kalmeghetc. are being mainly cultivated in the different parts of the Gujarat. But the assure market isthe major constraints for the development of these crops, however, Isabgul has find the wayto the world market.Dehydrated vegetables, canned vegetables, Mango Pulp, Juices, Pickles - chuteny (Sauce) &ketchup are the important processed products of the Gujarat. Onion dehydration industry ofthe state is biggest in the country & it comprises 80% of total onion dehydration units, whichprocess nearly one lakh ton onion and one lakh ton fruits and vegetables annually. Nearly halfof the produce is being exported. Approximately 0.10 lakh ton of Isubgul husk is processedand 0.06 lakh ton of husk is exported to various countries. Mango, Banana, Guava, Chikoo,Papaya, Potato, Onion, Garlic, Cumin, Fennel, & Isabgul are the focused crops for the valueaddition.Grapes, cashew, medicinal & aromatic crops like aloevera, palmarosa are emerging as apotential- new crops in suitable areas of the Gujarat. Investment in Greenhouses, floriculture& medicinal plant projects, tissue culture units, fruit & vegetable processing units areinitiated in the Gujarat which show shining future of horticulture in the Gujarat. 11
  12. 12. Table: 1.1 Annual Horticulture Development Rate in Gujarat Year Production (Lakh M. Tan) Annual Development Rate 1993-94 42.5 - 1994-95 44.3 4.2 1995-96 46.8 5.6 1996-97 42.7 -8.8 1997-98 47.8 11.9 1998-99 59.0 23.4 1999-2000 52.8 -10.5 2000-01 55.6 5.3 2001-02 61.0 9.7 2002-03 66.9 9.7 2003-04 85.1 27.2 2004-05 93.5 9.9 2005-06 115.46 23.5 2006-07 121.04 4.8 2007-08 144.74 16.3 2007-08 138.03 -4.63 Average 8.72 (Source NHB Data base 2008)Table: 1.2 Gujarat Position in some of the fruit and vegetable crops in all Indiaproductivity rank. Crop Productivity (t / ha) Rank Gujarat India Onion 26.6 15.1 1 Potato 22.9 19.3 2 Banana 54.8 35.9 2 Mango 24.0 17.9 2 Pomegranate 8.5 6.3 3 Tomato 10.2 7.0 3 Guava 15.2 11.1 3 Lime 10.42 8.5 3 Papaya 43.7 33.4 4 (Source NHB Data base 2009) 12
  13. 13. Table 1.3 District wise Estimated Area and Production of Mango Year 2010-11 inGujaratS.No. Name of Area in Hect. Prod (In M.T.) District1 Ahmadabad 240 7232 Amreli 6480 405003 Banaskantha 510 14794 Bharuch 2866 241325 Narmada 3150 141756 Bhavnagar 6080 427427 Dang 3300 198008 Gandhinagar 1018 87559 Jamnagar 451 423910 Junagadh 19784 15770011 Porbandar 225 211512 Kutch 8020 5782413 Kheda 922 922014 Anand 2390 956015 Mehsana 934 569716 Patan 80 20017 Panchmahal 2300 1380018 Dahod 2580 1315819 Rajkot 366 128120 Sabarkantha 3224 2588921 Surat 7512 6009622 Surendranagar 690 310523 Baroda 5675 3405024 Valsad 26250 15487525 Navsari 20922 17783726 Tapi 4050 28350 TOTAL 130019 911302 (Source: url://www.agri.gujarat.gov.in) 13
  14. 14. 1.1 MangoMango is the most important fruit covering about 35 per cent of area and accounting of 22 percent total production of total fruits in the country, which is highest in the world with Indias shareof about 54%. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars. Major mango growing Statesare Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat,Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The main varieties of mango grown in the country areAlphanso, Dashehari, Langra, Fajli, Chausa, Totapuri, Neelum etc1.1.1 Indian VarietiesThere are nearly 1000 mango varieties in India. Only about 20 varieties are growncommercially. Most of the Indian mango varieties have specific ecogeographicalrequirements for optimum growth and fruiting.Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Bombay Green and Fazri in north India; Banganapalli, Totapuri,Neelum, Pairi, Suvarnarekha, Mulgoa, Kalapadi and Rumani in south India; Alphonso,Kesar, Mankurad, Fernandin’ and ‘Vanraj’ in western India and ‘Langra’, ‘Fazri; ‘Chausa’,‘Zardalu’, ‘Himsagar’ and ‘Malda’ in eastern India are grown commercially. 14
  15. 15. 1.2 Organizational Overview:The Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India) is a non-profit, Non-GovernmentalOrganization (NGO) and established in 1983 under the section 25 of Companies RegistrationAct. AKRSP (I) began its field operation in 1985 and has since become one of the largergrassroots NGOs in India. The organization is working with economically vulnerable andenvironmentally fragile people of the Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. It has innovatedand pioneered several efforts in areas such as participatory irrigation management (PIM),integrated wadi development (IWADP), system of rice intensification (SRI), joint forestmanagement (JFM), rain roof water harvesting structure (RRWHS), watershed development,preventing salinity ingress, Jeevika, forest right act (FRA), alternative energy and many moreto empower rural women and marginalized communities.AKRSP (I) follows a participatory approach of development. As per the organization’smission, rural people are involved in every stage of a project, from identification of theproblem to project formulation, implementation and management. AKRSP (I) works toinvolve villagers in the project through Village institutions, Participatory Rural Appraisal(PRA), village development assistants who are selected by the village institution, training andmobilizing people to contribute towards their village development.AKRSP (I) programmes are divided into two interrelated stream, Natural ResourceManagement (NRM) and Human Resource Management (HRM). The objective of the NRMprogramme is to increase rural income by providing access to knowledge and input materialfor the cost effective and environmental friendlily ways to improve their output from land,water and forest resource. It is interesting that all the NRM programmes are implementedthrough Village institution and the people participation with proper transparency andmonitoring. NRM programmes mainly consist of Agriculture, Forestry, Water ResourceDevelopment, Soil and Water Conservation and Biogas.The objective of the HRM programme is to help rural people to develop organizational skillslike systems and structure to manage their resources in an equitable and sustainable manner.Under HRM the major programmes are formation of various Village institutions (e.g. MahilaMunch, Mahila Vikash Mandal, Gram Vikash Mandal, Farmers Club, Farmers Cooperativeand Producer Company), gender development, computer and craft making skills etc. 15
  16. 16. 1.2.1 Organization Structure:Organization structure of the AKRSP (I) is professionally well defined. AKRSP (I) isworking on three hierarchy level namely it is called Central Office, Spear Head Team (SHT)and Cluster Office. The Central office (headed by CEO) is located in Ahmadabad which has ateam of senior specialists of various programmes i.e. community mobilizing, agriculture,forestry, soil & water conservation, water resource development, biogas, microfinance andmicro-enterprise development etc. along with accounts, administration, monitoring andhuman resource development, which are further supported by secretarial and other staffs.AKRSP (I) is mainly working in seven districts of Gujarat i.e. Bharuch, Surat, Narmada,Surendranager, Dang, Jamnagar and Junagadh, apart from these it also has outreach in andKhandwa, Barwani, Burhanpur and Khargone districts of MP further in Samastipur andMuzaffarpur districts of Bihar also. AKRSP (I) is operating in these districts through fieldteams called Spear Head Team (SHT) and it is headed by Area manager (AM) andProgramme Specialists of various discipline which is further supported by accounts,administration and other staffs.AKRSP (I) believes in decentralize way of work and decision making, hence the field teamhave further been decentralized into small groups comprising experts of different disciplesand called Cluster Office (CO) which is headed by Cluster Manager (CM). The teamstructure at the field offices is similar to the central office but there are differences in thelevel of experiences and qualification. 16
  17. 17. Chapter: 2 Literature ReviewThe implementation of comprehensive Tribal Development Programmes in Gujarat since1995 and in Maharashtra since 2000 had provided several insights for NABARD in framingstrategies for holistic development of tribal regions. The Tribal Development Programmeswere externally supported by German bank, KfW (Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau) whohave chosen NABARD as Indian partner and project implementation at ground level wastaken up by BAIF, one of the renowned nongovernmental organizations in natural resourcemanagement sector.The central focus of the ADPs is “wadi” (small orchard) together with suitable soilconservation, water resource development measures and other measures for improving thequality of tribal life such as community health & sanitation, women development,institutional development, etc. The wadi model has been acclaimed worldwide as asustainable and replicable model for poverty alleviation. The project was presented as asuccessful replicable model for poverty alleviation in the developing countries at the UNDPForum of Ministers for Poverty and Environment in New York, USA in 1999 as well as at theGlobal Dialogue in Hanover, Germany. This project was also exhibited in the “Basic NeedsPavilion” at the Expo-2000, GmbH, Hanover.The "Wadi" programme sponsored by Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau (KfW), Germany isunder implementation in two states: Gujarat since 1995: Valsad (Dharampur & Kapradablocks) and Dangs Maharashtra since 2000: Nasik (Peint, Triambak & Surgana blocks) andThane (Mokhada block). Since 2007 another Wadi Programme has been launched in Dangsand Valsad districts of Gujarat named as ADPG - Phase 2 with the financial assistance fromKFW Germany.Dr. Manibhai Desai, the Founder of BAIF came across the tribals of Vansda block in southGujarat in the mid 70‟s and realized that inspite of receiving relief from time to time fromvarious donor agencies, their quality of life has sharply declined. He also observed that in theprocess of harnessing the benefit of relief measures, the tribal families had lost confidence inthem and were suffering from a dependency syndrome. He also noticed that most of thetribal’s, both – men as well as women had turned to alcohol mostly brewed from local mahuaflowers to drown their miseries and to overcome starvation. Illiteracy, starvation and ill-health became a way of life for these unfortunate tribals. To reverse this process, he launcheda programme to rehabilitate these tribal families on their own lands through reforestation. 17
  18. 18. This ambitious project was sanctioned by the Ministry of Environment and Forests,Government of India with the objective of establishing fuel wood plantations on the degradedprivate lands owned by the tribal’s. However, the response from the target families was verylukewarm. They were also doubtful about the viability of the programme to generate income.Hence, extensive dialogues were carried out between the BAIF field staff and tribal familiesto identify their needs. The tribal’s expressed their preference for fruit trees instead offorestry species. Thus, a new model was developed to combine fruit trees as the main cropand forestry species on bunds and borders. As BAIF had put a condition that only thosewilling to give up alcohol could participate in the programme, the initial response was poorand the programme was started with only 42 families. Food security during the gestationperiod was posing a major concern and hence inter-cropping was introduced. Some wagesupport was also provided even for working on their own fields as they had no surplus moneyeven to buy their ration.A multi-disciplinary project was launched with the support of CAPART in 1988. This projectmade a significant impact in the surrounding villages. The programme did bring a significantimprovement in the quality of life. As anticipated, women played a leading role whichcontributed to the success. Extension Officers visited the field regularly not only to adviseand ensure better growth of the plants but also to motivate them to sustain their hard work.Formation of Self Help Groups of women and men, establishing village level planningcommittees to organize essential support services and linkages of these groups with financialinstitutions were the other components to implement the programme more efficiently.Finally, it was felt necessary to find a reliable market for the produce once the trees startedbearing after 4-5 years.The Hunger Project (USA) provided finance to support 1000 families in the adjoiningvillages in Vansda block. German Development Bank (KfW) provided a major support underbilateral assistance through NABARD for replicating the programme in 150 villages inVansda, Dharampur and Dangs. Suitability of different fruit crops were studied throughaction-research. Initially, the tribal’s preferred mango. Subsequently, after seeing the fielddemonstration, they accepted other fruit crops such as cashew, Indian gooseberry, custardapple, tamarind, jujube (ber), depending on the soil productivity and availability of moisture.Over the last two decades, the wadi has been transformed into a multidisciplinary programmefor rehabilitation. The essence is to provide sustainable livelihood from an acre (0.4 ha) ofland for the participating poor family. Each wadi owner can earn Rs 20,000-25,000 annuallyfrom this small plot of land, once the trees start bearing fruits. There are further opportunities 18
  19. 19. to enhance the income through other supplementary activities. Initially, motivation, impartingskills and providing critical inputs were the key components. Providing means of livelihoodduring the gestation period was very critical. This is being organized through promotion ofagriculture in the inter-space, introduction of short gestation cash crops, processing of foodand herbal medicines, livestock and poultry husbandry are some of the opportunities whichhelped the participating families to generate income till the orchards started bearing fruits.Micro-credit is being organized through SHGs and their linkage with financial institutions totake up these activities. During this process, local organizations are also strengthened andlinked with the external world, particularly the Government development agencies, financialinstitutions, market outlets and Panchayati Raj instituitons. Thus they will be able to continuetheir responsibilities even after completion of the project.Presently, wadi is a major programme of socio-economic rehabilitation of the tribal’s andother backward sections of the society. The programme has relevance for all sections of thesociety and is replicable throughout the country. Wadi is not only a programme for providingfood security and ecological restoration, but it is also a strong foundation to build the localcapabilities to initiate other community development programmes for socio-economicdevelopment. It is a programme demonstrating the feasibility of ecological restoration withpoverty eradication. Naturally, the impact of this programme can be measured in terms ofadditional employment generation, increase in the family income, and reduction in migration,food security, good health, improved literacy, greater awareness and high moral values. Manywomen and men have occupied important positions in Panchayati Raj Institutions and localcooperatives. The programme addresses the problems of the poor which can be replicatedthroughout the country. It provides sustainable income, clean environment and better qualityof life. 19
  20. 20. Chapter 3: MethodologyThe study entailed a detailed review of literature together with collection and analysis ofprimary and secondary data. Sample design acknowledges sample collection, both primaryand secondary data and deciding tools for data collection to identify cost benefit and breakeven Points. Field work includes survey through structured questionnaire with personalinterview and general discussion.3.1 Research DesignSouth Gujarat region was selected for the research on horticulture crops specifically mangogrown in that area. The reason for the selection is that, AKRSP (I) has works last 10 years onwadi project in this region. And this project timeline will be complete end of this year.3.2.1. Selection of area:The project implementation area is tribal South Gujarat Region, but selected area for makingcase study in Surat dist. Block Mandvi and Umarpada, in Bharuch dist. Valia block and inNarmada dist. Dediapada and Sagbara block. 20
  21. 21. Above map shows that working area of wadi-project. Project needed to visit all highlightedarea in map especially mango-wadi covered from these areas.3.2.2. Identification of project elements:Primary research is done on the basis of the project elements; the institutional linkages of theproject such as Seedlings, planting material, fertilizers, and pesticides and for availability ofinput supplier, and then AKRSP (I) officials for find out the procedural plans for monitoringand EC funding of project.3.2.3. Collection of primary data:Primary data are collected through structured questionnaire with personal interview. Thequestionnaire was checked beforehand and necessary corrections were made. The revisedquestionnaire was finalized for survey. Interviews and general discussions were conductedabout some facts, issues before and present situation of the Mango-wadi.3.2.4. Collection of Secondary Data:The most valuable secondary sources of information collected from AKRSP (I) office,website of Horticulture, ministry of Horticulture, department of Horticulture, wadi and StateHorticulture Board. A detailed personal interview conducted in three dist. of Surat, Narmada,Bharuch.3.3 Methods of Data Analysis:Excel is used as a major tool for analysis of primary data. The other tools like averages,percentage, profit and loss account, Gross Return, Return Over paid out cost, total variablecost, benefit cost ratio, internal rate of return, net present value by different financial ratioanalysis and sensitivity analysis for risk.3.4. Limitations of the assignment: 1. Reach to the tribal areas of the project where transportation is difficult. Due to lack of transportation facility. 2. At length interviews of the mango-wadi owners were not possible due to time constraint on the part of the interviewee. 3. Gap of communication 21
  22. 22. Chapter: 4 Findings & Analysis:In 1997, boundary plantation of mango trees was started in Netrang cluster of Gujarat state.Then the wadi project came in existence by AKRSP (I) in 2002 in following cluster.Following table shows all the beneficiaries covered under wadi project in different cluster ofGujarat state and area covered in each cluster, provided saplings and their survival rate.Table 4.1: Horticulture beneficiaries of TSG Total Provided Saplings Survival Cluster Name Area (In Hect.) Beneficiaries Saplings (%) Dediyapada 4430 332.21 94080 78.42 Mandvi 1710 235.24 26962 85.60 Netrang 2549 220.36 67854 60.42 Sagbara 4524 757.98 99896 89.32 Umarpada 1289 66.6 4404 96.84 Grand Total 14502 1612.39 293196 82.54 (Source: AKRSP (I) data base 2010)4.1 Land Holding pattern:Cropping pattern of these clusters is more dependent upon rain water than irrigation sourceslike open well, canal and tube well. In irrigated land, near about sixty percent of land is usedfor agriculture and remaining for horticulture. Where farming is totally based on rain water,people do only agriculture and no one does horticulture in rain fed, they want irrigationsource for doing horticulture. 22
  23. 23. Graph: 4.1.1 Land Holding Pattern (Source: Survey)4.1.1 Area Utilized For Wadi:Wadi project is the new intervention come in picture for development in horticulture. Farmershave taken wadi of 0.5-2.5 acre and they are doing intercropping in between mango-wadi. Itwas found that near about fifty percent people is doing wadi in 0.85 to 1.75 acre of land.After that 45% of are doing in 0.1 to 0.84 acre of land. And only one person is found that hedoing wadi in more than 1.76 acre of land. In that, farmers take intercrops like paddy,vegetables, red gram, maize, Soybean, wheat, cotton etc so this becomes their additionalincome. In first year AKRSP (I) give input cost for making mango-wadi, also farmers usedfirm yard manure to in it .Chart: 4.1.2 Area Utilize for wadi (Source: Survey) 23
  24. 24. 4.2 Mango Survival Trees:Mango-wadi project started in 2002 but some people got mango boundary plantation in 1997as well as in 2002. AKRSP (I) has given mango inputs like Seedlings, Fertilizer, Equipments,Pesticides, Drip irrigation and more. Some seedlings died within 2-3 years and AKRSP (I)provided new seedlings to maintain wadi.Data collection five cluster was done of Netrang, Dediyapada, Sagbara, Mandvi, Umarpadabased on personal interview of 20 beneficiaries of mango wadi. Mango survival rate is 91%and it is good survival rate due support of AKRSP (I) to farmers like replantation.Chart: 4.2.1 Mango Tree Survival (Source: Survey)4.3 Average per Tree production of mango-wadi:Last eight year(2004-2012) data shows that, production per tree started as below:In Dediyapada cluster production started from 2007 and of mango production was very lessin the first three years and every year slightly increasing but later in the fifth year, productionincreased up to thrice than the third year. The highest production of the Dediyapada clusterwas 14 kg per Tree.In Sagbara cluster the production started from 2007 and in first year farmers got 10 Kg pertree production but next year the production reduced and then every year productionincreased. Last year 17 KG was the average per tree productionIn Mandvi cluster production started from 2008, productivity here was better compared toother clusters. In first year they got five KG average production tree. In second yearproduction increased to the triple of the previous year. In the last year production was around 24
  25. 25. 30 Kg per Tree. In this cluster many people have irrigation source that AKRSP (I) hasprovided group wells and canal irrigation facility. Also they got support from organizationabout infestation and diseases. Mandvi is largest producer of average per Tree in TSG.In Umarpada cluster production was started in 2009 and first year they got 10 KG per Treeproduction and then after every year production increased. Highest production of mangos inthis cluster is 15 KG per Tree. One of the major problems of Umarpada cluster isunavailability of water. Due to lack of irrigation production didn’t increase. Some farmershave Drip irrigation source but many of them are not using drip. In Umarpada cluster manyfarmers have not shown interest for making & caring wadi. They just have taken wadi butthey didn’t do any special operation like, cutting, post harvest management, on farm valueaddition and more. But still they are getting good production.In Netrang, Wadi project was started in 2002. Those who planted in 2002, they were startgetting the production in 2007. And those who planted in 1998 they got production in 2004. Itwas to be found that overall production of mango is good in Netrang cluster among the entirecluster. Following diagram shows that the production of mango was fluctuating year by year.And in 2006 production was highest in Netrang. But in 2011 it was found that the productiondecreased to the lowest level due to infestation. Except last year the production in all theyears was good.In the year when Mango wadi was cultivated, AKRSPI had provided inputs like fertilizersand pesticides, but later on except first year (when AKRSPI had provided fertilizers andpesticides) farmers did not applied any fertilizer and pesticide in all successive years, so itaffected on healthy growth of the Wadi and ultimately on production or yield, farmers couldnot met the production level which a ideal Mango Wadi has. 25
  26. 26. Graph: 4.3.1 Average per tree production in TSGINKG (Source: Survey) 4.4 Mango-wadi average net returns: The following graph shows the net return of farmers from year 2002-2010. In first year, net return observes to be negative. Thereafter production goes on increasing successively from 2003 to 2009 but in last year due to some pest attack and insect attack production goes down than previous year. Graph: 4.4.1 Average Net Returns: (Source: Survey) Net return calculated as: Net return= Gross return- Total variable cost (expenses) 26
  27. 27. 4.5 Breakeven point:Following table shows the number of farmers and their initial money invested recovery yearsin mango wadi project. As per table, 6 farmers get back his initial money investment inmango wadi project in first year likewise 3 farmers gets in third year and so on as per belowtable.Chart: 4.5.1 breakeven point Year No. of Farmers st 1 6 3rd 3 4th 3 5th 2 th 6 2 7th 1 8th 1 (Source: Survey)4.6 Post Harvest ManagementAfter production of mango, farmers didn’t go for sorting, grading and cleaning the produce indifferent category, because lack of awareness about grading and sorting and benefits afterthese process. They stored the mangos in home, due to unavailability of warehouse facility inthe region. Some farmers are selling the produce in the nearest market of Shelamba, Mandvi,Dediyapada, Jankhavav, etc. some farmers are using Mango federation for selling themangos, which was formed by AKRSPI in Gandevi. Also as per the convince some of themsale the Mangos in Surat, Ankaleshwar market.4.7 Changes in Income:Before the wadi intervention, people were migrated to other places for work like agri labor,construction field. And they were growing only in tradition way of farming. Afterintervention of wadi, people were practicing new intervention like intercropping, SRI,WADI, for taking cash crops it may includes vegetables like parwal, Brinjal, Tomato, Samebeans, Onion, Ladies finger. Due to all these new intervention their income pattern alsochanged. Following two bars shows that how much of income has been increased afterintervention. Almost 130% income increased as compared with 10 years ago. It was theincredible change due accepting new intervention. 27
  28. 28. Graph: 4.7.1 Change in Income (Source: Survey)4.8 Migration Status:As the income increases after intervention, the people stopped migrating. They used tomigrate for more income but after intervention of wadi and all allied intervention to wadi,they are getting more money than they earned when they migrated.Following bar diagram shows, how much of migration is being reduced due to allintervention. More or less hundred percent of migration has been reduced.Graph: 4.8.1 Migration Status (Source: Survey) 28
  29. 29. Chapter: 5 Conclusion & Recommendations:5.1 Conclusion:The Wadi programme is implemented in the area where the rainfall is above 1000 mm or inother areas having reliable source of water. A family with less than 1 ha land with reliablemarket outlet will earn Rs.10000-15000 per annum, after 4-5 years when the tree start to giveyield. The gestation period is very critical. During this period, the participating families needsome support in the form of employment to sustain their basic needs. However, activitiessuch as vegetable cultivation and intensive use of the inter space for production of food,vegetables and cash crops are essential. With the establishment of wadi, the beneficiaries feelsecure and do not migrate to urban areas with all the members of the families. Thus, theydevelop an inclination to maintain various species of livestock. This is an additional source ofincome for the family. Thus, by participating in tree-based farming with 0.2 to 1 ha land, afamily is able to come out of poverty.At first beneficiaries did not show interest in making wadi but after 4-5 year gettinghorticulture yield they have shown interest in wadi. And many farmers got support for dripirrigation from AKRSP (I) but they don’t use these technologies in horticulture. Manyfarmers have gone for only 0.5 & 1 acre wadi due to lack of irrigation facilities. Beforehorticulture intervention they used to follow traditional farming and were getting feweryields. But now the condition of beneficiaries has changed and they grow vegetables and cashcrops and have irrigation facility in their lands. Also, farmers are now showing interest inhorti-marketing and AKRSP (I) is forming a federation for mango marketing in this area.Farmers’ income has also risen with this intervention.As it is the holistic approach of development it includes all the factors with an approach tosustainable livelihood and better quality of life.Wadi beneficiaries used inputs only when AKRSP (I) provided them in the initial period.Later they never used fertilisers and pesticides until the production started. Hence the yield is40% lesser than the expected yield. 29
  30. 30. 5.2 Recommendations: 1. A storage facility should be made in this region for storage of fruits as the perishable & getting good price fruits. 2. Provide training programme & exposure visit on post harvest management as especially on farm value addition. 3. Provide suitable market for mango yield, that they have to sell in the market and get good value for their producing yield. 4. As the farmers do not prefer to use fertilisers and pesticides unless any external support is provided, monitoring of the beneficiaries and constant guidance and support is necessary so that the objective of the intervention is fulfilled. 30
  31. 31. Chapter: 6 Case StudiesCase -6.1 Ajaybhai HursimbhaiVillage: KambodiaBlock: NetrangDist.: Bharuch (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 10 acreIrrigated Land: 3 acreAge: 28 yearsMob No. +91-9909238716Education: 12th std.Background:Ajaybhai has two sons, one is in primary school and another is in KG school. Ajay’s fatherdied five year ago. His father was a Doctor. After his father death, he has to own theresponsibility of his family.He has 10 acre of land in that 3 acre land is irrigated and 7 acre land is on rain fed. Forirrigation source he have one open well as well as one bore well but both of them are notworking throughout the year. He uses the electric motor for lifting water from well for that hepays 200-250 Rs monthly.Before, Wadi he was growing only paddy. That time he took single crop through the year.Also he dint get not much of yield from single crop. Then he thought we can change ourcropping pattern and make some cash crops like, Soyabean, Red gram, Ground nut and somevegetable crops that he growing in this year.Support:In 2003, AKRSP (I) has conducted meeting in his village. He attended that meeting then hethought that “can I take one acre wadi?” He discussed with his family members but somepeople were not ready to take. Then he explained all benefits of mango wadi and finely hetook wadi in his one acre land. First he did land leveling and then he dig open well and got anirrigation facility then he took wadi, he got 20 Keshar and 30 Rajapuri seedlings.He got interest to dig a well for making mango-wadi for better irrigation. Then he thoughtthat “I should go for organic farming in this wadi.” first year he took Soyabean & Red gram 31
  32. 32. for intercropping in this wadi. He used to give a two trolley F.Y.M. fertilizer for every year inone acre wadi land; still his dint used any chemical fertilizer but his use chemical pesticidesfor mango and other crops.Also, in Kamodia village there is 15 farmers’s got mango-wadi in 2003, people are showingtheir interest for mango-wadi and they conducted every meeting for every month and discusssome agriculture problems they are facing. Also previous year they sold mango to Gandevimarket through AKRSP (I).They form one group for mango marketing. Before two year they sold mango to villagemarket or Netrang local market but they didn’t get that much of price, but now they formedgroup and sold mango to juice making factory.Graph: 6.1.1 Mango ProductionAbove table shows the increase in production of mango – wadi production how to increaseper plant production in year by year, last year he got 15 quintals production of wadi.Changes:When he has done H.S.C. that time he wanted to do agriculture and wants to work in his ownfarm but he didn’t have that much of knowledge at that time. Then he did in tradition way ofagriculture that time he grows only on rain fed agriculture.Then sometimes he used to think that I should do something for irrigation source? Then hetook bore well & Open well and he got water in open well this time to still he growing twotimes crop in a year.After some days he got AKSRP(I) training in Netrnag, Dediapada and some village exposurevisit, in this exposure visit, he have seen SRI method, mango-wadi and Bio-Gas plant innearby places he had visited in last 10 years. 32
  33. 33. Table 6.1.1 Income through animal Husbandry: Animal Husbandry 2008 2009 2010 2011 Month in year 10 9 10 10 Lit./Rs. 18 21 23 26 Per day milk in Lit. 5 5 6 6 Total gives milk in year 1500 1350 1800 1800 Total amount in year 27000 28350 41400 46800Also, he has one cow, four buffalo. He sells 7 lit/day milk to dairy. He is getting moresupport for his sustainable livelihood. AKRSP (I) has been provided finance for buying cowin 2010. Actually before giving loan he had buffalo but he didn’t sold milk. Since from lasttwo year he sold 7 lit. / Milk in a day. Also he is constructing a new home in his village. Thisyear he planned to sell mango to Gandevi market that will give more profit and more prices.Also, he wants a fruits and vegetable “COLD STORAGE” facility, because AKRSP (I) givesin this area some vegetable mandap (stacking for creeper vegetable) and mango wadi butpeople not get that time price on right time when you provide us cold storage facility thenthat gives us much more profit.Table 6.1.2. Intercropping cost & benefits analysis of mango-wadi: 33
  34. 34. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 Soyabea Red Mang Mang Ground Mang Sorgh maka Mang Red Ground MangCrop n gram o Bajari Makai o nut Maize o um i o gram nut oYield(Qt/Acre) 8 1 0 2 0.8 3 1 5 1 2.5 2 2Value of (Rs./Qt.) 1409 1288 0 571 590 1624 599 901 879 2423 1670 1500Gross Return 11272 1288 0 1142 472 4872 599 4505 879 6057 3340 3000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 2000Equipments 1150Seeds 450 100 200 100 1000 100 150 100 200 1200Fertilizer (F.Y.M.) 600 1500 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400Pesticide 300 200 800 500 600 500 500 300 600 500Water Charges 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600labor cost 500 300 900 300 240 300 1600 400 300 480 400 300 320 1200 600Total paid out cost (TVC)(C) 2450 1200 6950 1500 1340 1800 4200 1500 1800 1630 1500 1800 1820 4000 2100Net return (gross return-TC) 8822 88 -6950 -358 -868 -1800 672 -901 -1800 2875 -621 -1800 4237 -660 900BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 4.60 1.07 0.00 0.76 0.35 0.00 1.16 0.40 0.00 2.76 0.59 0.00 3.33 0.84 1.43Total exp. 2003 10600 4640 7500 4930 7920Total Income 12560 1614 5471 5384 12397 34
  35. 35. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 Red Red Same Red Same Red SameCrop Sorghum gram Mango gram beans Mango gram beans Mango gram beans MangoYield(Kg/Acre) 4 1 9 2 8 11 2 10 13 2 5 15value of (Rs./Kg) 692 2115 1500 2191 900 1800 2165 1000 2500 3211 1200 2000Gross Return(A+B) 2768 2115 13500 4382 7200 19800 4330 10000 32500 6422 6000 30000Paid out cost of productionSeeds 200 200 200 300 200 300 200 300Fertilizer (F.Y.M.) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400Pesticide 300 500 300 600 500 300 1000 500 300 1000 1000Transportation 200 200Water Charges 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600labor cost 400 400 1000 500 2500 1250 500 2500 1250 500 1500 1250Total paid out cost (TVC)(C) 1600 1900 2500 2000 4400 2950 2000 4800 2950 2000 3800 3250Net return (gross return-TC) 1168 215 11000 2382 2800 16850 2330 5200 29550 4422 2200 26750BCR - TVC basis (grossreturn/TVC) 1.73 1.11 5.40 2.19 1.64 6.71 2.17 2.08 11.02 3.21 1.58 9.23Total exp. 6000 9350 9750 9050Total Income 18383 31382 46830 42422Net Returns 12383 22032 37080 33372 35
  36. 36. Graph: 6.1.2 Wadi Net Returns:Initial four years, there has been no notable income through agriculture. Initially in first yearthe farmer started growing cash crop but there as not so good production. In second yearframer has tried to grow fodder for animals. Then farmer has made comparison between thesecrops seeing which one gives more net return. From fifth year onwards, when horticulturecrops started producing income, gave considerable change in income through the agriculturalpractices and has supplemented overall income through agriculture. Even after gettingincome through horticulture, there has been good progress in income through other crops likesame beans (Dolichas lablab), as the horticulture crops provides secured income and hasgiven confidence for change over the corps.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table 1.7 36
  37. 37. Case-6.2 Balwant Umaid VasavaVillage: KalijamanBlock: UmarpadaDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 7 acreIrrigated Land: 2 acreAge: 40 yearsMob No. +91-9925089914Education: 7th std.Balawant has two sons named as Pradip studying in 10th and Prakash studied in 12th std. alltogether there are seven members in the family. Agriculture is the main source of his family.Also, he has three sisters they all are married.He has 7 acre land; out of only two acre land is under irrigation, remaining 5 acre is rain fed.As irrigation source, he has one open well and it is working out for 10 month in a year. Heuses the diesel engine for lifting the water from well.Also, before intervention the land was sloppy due to which water could not stay in his field.So it was hard to grow any crops. But later on in 1995, Dinesh Patel AKRSP (I) employeecame to his village and conducted meeting about land leveling also he got support and landwas well leveled up and now he can do cultivation in better way. And also, he has donebanding to his farm.Balawant is well known person in his village, in his village he is president of “GRAMVIKAS MANDALI” there is 11 committee members. And this committee is formed before15 year.Kalijaman is 3 km far from kevdi local market, 16 km far from jankhavav local market and90 km farm from Surat city market.In Kalijaman, AKRSP (I) has done lot of work and people got benefited to services like, Bio-gas 12 plant, vermicompost, Bugger pata, Animal Husbandry-45, group open well, mobileengine, Gabion, Equipment, Hybrid seeds, SRI, Wadi, Banding, Land leveling, Ground nutharvester machine and some other. Kalijaman is comes under hilly area there is lot of wasteland available in before intervention. Now many people have grown minimum on time in ayear due to land leveling and banding has been done. 37
  38. 38. From 1995, to till now AKRSP (I) working in this village but in 2003, they came on themango-wadi project. And they conducted meeting that time he has attended this meeting.Then 14 people have agreed to take mango-wadi in own land.In his village main problem is irrigation facility is not well because people think no water.Because they can grow only in rainy season they think after December water level to goes tolow level and where to get water to mango plant.In 2003, he took half acre wadi in his own farm that time he got 11 keshar and 11 Rajapuriseedlings but after some time 1 Keshar plants are dead. Now he has 21 mango plants in hismango wadi. He also got some fertilizer, equipments & pesticides i.e. (Vermicompost, LimPowder, pesticides, spade, hoe and sickle) and he has done all work of wadi from labor. Hegives some F.Y.M. and pesticides. Before one year he buys one spay for pest attack onmango.In intercropping he took first year paddy and Red gram he get good yield and next four yearhe grow only fodder then from 2008 he grows only paddy and pearl millet that is last fiveyear taken this crops.Mango-wadi production chart:Last 3 year he gives mango production every year his production has been increase and he getmoney. In first year he give only 50KG production from some plant then production wasincrease he got 2, 5 quintal respectively production, last year he got more production becausehe has done on pest attack practices.Graph 6.2.1 Average per Tree production of mango 38
  39. 39. Table: 6.2.1 Animal Husbandry:Animal Husbandry 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Month in year 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7Average Lit./Rs. 15 15 18 20 22 25 28 32Per day milk in Lit. 5 5 6 6 6 7 5 7Total milk in year 1050 1050 1260 1260 1260 1470 1050 1470Total amount inyear 15750 15750 22680 25200 27720 36750 29400 47040He has 1 cow and 1 buffalo that is support to his livelihood and he sustain in his life. Thatevery day he sell 6 lit/day milk and he got average price 30-35 Rs. /lit.Mango-wadi Net Returns:In year 2003, Paddy and Red gram was cultivated as intercrops, applied fertilizers andpesticides and provided other inputs. But did not even get amount he spent for growing thesecrops, for next four year he focused on fodder crops only for livestock that he had. From fifthyear onwards, when horticulture crops started producing income, shown considerable changein income level through the agricultural practices and has supplemented overall incomethrough agriculture. Even after getting income through horticulture, there has been goodprogress in income through other crops like Paddy and Water melon, as the horticulture cropsprovides secured income and has given confidence for change over the corps. Now there lifehas been improved then before.Breakeven point in 7th year see annexure table 1.7Graph: 6.2.2 Mango-wadi net returnsTable: 6.2.2 intercropping of mango wadi 39
  40. 40. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2003 2003 2003 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011Crop Paddy Red gram Mango pearl millet Mango pearl millet Mango pearl millet Mango Paddy MangoYield(Kg/Acre) 4 1 0 7 0 4 0.5 6 2 5 5value of (Rs./Kg) 624 1288 0 976 1222 1800 1287 2000 943 2000Value of Crop (A) 2496 1288 0 6832 0 4888 900 7722 4000 4715 10000Gross Return(A+B) 2496 1288 0 6832 0 4888 900 7722 4000 4715 10000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 880Equipments 750 1200Seeds 200 100 200 200 200 240Fertilizer (F.Y.M.) 240 240 3600 400 3000 400 400 450Pesticide 200 300 900 1200Water Charges 90 90 180 180 180 225labor cost 450 240 1550 800 400 800 320 1000 750 1000 750Total paid out cost (TVC) ( C ) 980 870 7080 1580 3400 1580 320 1780 2850 1915 1950Net return (gross return-TC) 1516 418 -7080 5252 -3400 3308 580 5942 1150 2800 8050BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 2.546 1.480 0 4.32 0 3.093 2.81 4.33 1.403 2.46 5.12Total exp. 8930 4980 1900 4630 3865Total Income 3784 6832 5788 11722 14715Net Returns -5146 1852 3888 7092 10850BCR 0.423 1.37 3.04 2.53 3.80 40
  41. 41. Case- 6.3: Bachubhai GimiaVillage: GhanekutBlock: NetrangDist.: Bharuch (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 1 acreIrrigated Land: 0.75 AcreAge: 45 yearsMob No. +91-9586645116Education: 4th std.Background:Bachubhai has two son, both are working in the hotel (Ankleshwar). He is not well ineducated. He didn’t study only because of lack of money and support. Further same thingshappened with his children’s Ajay and Chickpea, both of them studied only 7th standard.Before wadi he had migrated to other place and generated income for livelihood. He gotmarried at the age of 21. He have 1 acre land in 3differents parts, out of that only 0.75acreland is under irrigated by canal water. Ghanekhut is 12km from Dediapada and 13 kmfrom Netrang local market. Mohan bhai is a head of village Ghanekhut, when he went toKarjan in 1994; he saw mandli of canal irrigation. Then he thought this type of mandali weformed in our village that gives more sustainable livelihood for village community. He met tocollector and discussed all these issues and collector had visited his village and saw what typeof condition is going on in his village. Collector gave this project of making mandali to Agakhan foundation. That time villagers came to know to Aga khan, which made 52 members ina piyat mandali (water user association).Bachubhai have seven brothers, three of them have wadi and two are doing Agri-labor inMovi village and rest of them are doing agriculture. In Ghanekhut there is a Dam forirrigation. In Ghanekhut, there is check dam named as Karajan check dam having 52 memberof his village. In 1994, these 52 members had collected 500 Rs. each for making Karjancheck dam. There were two installed of this collected amount, 15H.P. motor which provideirrigation water to whole area. Name of this committee is “SHIV PIYAT MANDALI (wateruser association) ” and there are nine committee members of this project. He and his threesons have 1.5 acres of land each. Before Wadi he went to other villages for income that he 41
  42. 42. can repay the loan. Before the wadi project he was growing cotton, Sorghum, kang (localname) in his field. Due to wadi project he was able to grow vegetables for his daily foodconsumption, he said that “hame pahle khane me Javari, kang khate the aur aab rice, wheat,baingan, brinjal, some vegetables milte hai.” He complained about, that he was not gettinggood price for cotton and the yield was also less, about 1 Quintal per acre. As the incomefrom cotton was less, he had to take loan and then had to migrate in search of work forrepaying the loan.Support:In 1995 Aga khan has conducted meeting for making piyat mandali (water user association)(Water User Association), that time he has attended this meeting and he got more interest inmaking piyat mandali (water user association) (Water User Association) in that year. Whenmandali was formed in his village then water gets available to people for irrigation. After oneyear Aga khan has sell mango seedlings, that time he had buy 3 seedlings in 45 Rs. That timethis was too much amount, and then he planted these seedlings in waste land border. (Merepass uss time pe paise the aur aam ke poudhe mil raha tha isse liye lagaya). Then he tookcare of these three plants. And after some years in 2004 he got mango production 30kg thenhe realize we have to plant more seedlings in our farm. In 2004 he realize from mango plant,he thought that, I can make one wadi in 0.25 acre in our waste land there is sloppy land whichwas pasture land then he received one wadi, that year he got 20 seedlings of mango and nowthat survival Trees are only 14 (keshar is 8 and Rajapuri is 6) mango trees Actually he hasdone digging for mango plant at own and till now he gives on half trolley F.Y.M. fertilizers tomango trees. He spend 250 Rs. for pesticide in last 4 years and also he irrigate these plants 8months in a year and every 15 days gives to tree .Also he get hybrid seeds to growing onother land and he gets more production from these hybrid seeds also. 42
  43. 43. Graph: 6.3.1 Average per Tree productionAs shown in above graph, in year 2004-08 he got production of only three Trees and in 2009he got production from 14 Trees of mango plants. As he took wadi he gets benefited inproduction as well as in his income. Again in year 2009 production reduces to some extentbecause more Trees give production. But again his average Trees production is good and lastyear his production is decrease due pest attack.Changes:He share his experienced of 2007, he said “aam kaise pakate hai pata nahi tha isse liye meranear about 3 quintal waste ho gaye.” after the loss in income. He came to know about ‘mangowadi exposure’ and he visited to Junagadh, Bhopal and Nearby places, in 2011 he gottraining in Bhopal for after caring of mango, Also he get SRI exposure visit Because ofkarjan dam and wadi our village people are satisfied and more happy now. He said that” Isskepahle goan ke bahot sare log majuri karne ke liye bahar jate the abhi bahot kam log jate hai.”He has take lease land on paying money to these farmers and generate livelihood.Also he grow in farm Maize, cotton, Sorghum and other that gives more production and highprice in market. Also he grows paddy in leased land and he used SRI method to grow Paddy.He grows fodder for animal I Mango wadi. He has 2 cows and gets 8 months milk in everyyear from 2008 to till. When he buys this cows and 1st year his sell 10 lit. Milk/day and then2nd year 6 lit. /day then 3rd year he sell 9 lit./day. That’s why he got more sustainablelivelihood. Now mango-wadi as my summer business for me because his sells mango in hisvillage and in nearby villages & on highway road. 43
  44. 44. Table: 6.3.1 Mango- Cost benefits analysis:Village Ghanekhut Waste LandYear of Wadi 1997 three Trees in boundary 2004 0.25 Survival Trees isArea of Wadi acre 34.78 % Variet y Keshar 2 0.25 8Seedlings Rajapuri 1 0.25 6 Average Per Tree Production in KGYield(Quintal/Acre) 1st Year-2004 0.3 10 2nd Year- 2005 0.8 26.66 3 rd Year- 2006 1.5 50 4th Year- 2007 4 133.33 5th Year- 2008 5 166.67 6th Year-2009 6 42.86 7th Year-2010 8 57.14Pest attack 8th Year- 2011 2 14.28Total Production (Quintal) 27.6 Price in KGValue of mango 2004 8 240 2005 10 800 2006 15 2250Break Even Point 2007 15 6000 2008 17 8500 2009 20 12000 2010 20 16000 2011 25 5000Gross Return (In RS.) 50790Paid out cost of productionEquipment (pawed, Kodaly, Parlay, Talcum, water tank) 2200 44
  45. 45. Seedlings 825Fertilizer 300Pesticides 1000Labor cost (Own) 1500Transportation (use Bicycle) 0Water charges 2400Total paid out cost (A) (TVC) 8225Return over paid out cost (gross return-A) 42565BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 6.17 45
  46. 46. Case- 6.4 Bhikubhai Varanashibhai TadviHe is living in Shimamli Village. In block Sagbara, Dist. Narmada (GJ). His Occupation isAgriculture Own Land 1.5 acre, Irrigated Land 1.5 acre. Bhikubhai Age 85 years. MobileNo. is 7878748210 and Education is 2nd STD.Background-Bhikubhai has 4 children, 3 boys & a girl who all are married. He stays with his youngestson. He and his three sons own 1.5 acres of land each. Shimamli is 5 km from sagbara and 10km from shelamba local market.In Shimamli there is a canal for irrigation 600 users of the canal have formed an associationand Bhikubhai is a committee member of this association before Wadi .His son used tomigrate for his livelihood & reply loan before intervention he was growing cotton, Javari,kang (local name) in his farmAlso, his daily (hame pahle khane me, Javari, kang khate the aur aab rice, wheat, baingan,brinjal, some vegetables milte hai). He complains that he was not getting good price forcotton and the yield was also less, about 1 Quintal per acre. As the income from cotton wasless, he had to take loan and then had to migrate in search of work for replying the loan. 46
  47. 47. Support:In 2003-04 Ajaybhai & Naval singh were visiting Shimamli village and organizing meeting,regarding wadi and new interventions implemented like SRI. Bhikubhai got good support inthis operation, and he was also a leader in his own village .In the meetings they gave moreinformation about this project and in shimamli 30 farmers got ready to take wadi in their ownfarm.Also, Bhukubhai decided to take mango-wadi in his farm and then they formed wadi vikaszut for wadi project and Bhikubhai is a member of this zut, meeting is conducted twice ayear. First, they arranged training in Sagbara, Netrang, Rajpipala, Navsari and some exposurevisits on wadi farm. Bhikubhai got more practical knowledge about mango-wadi in his wadiproject. He was in regular touch with AKRSP (I) Para workers and Sagbara office, heattended monthly meetings too.Also, he got timely operation information from the Sagbara office (Which fertilizer to beused? Where to buy in cheap price and good quality? Pest attack etc) .When he got canalwater in his farm, he made some changes in agriculture pattern which results in less inputcost and more yield.Impact and process:In 2003, he undertook 1 acre land, which he took another 2 acre and later handed over the 2acre land to his son. When he undertook wadi project, he received 40 mango seedlings fromAKRSP (I) and also some equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, training and agriculturalinformation. He carried out the whole process mango plantation in his farm.Also, he had provided with F.Y.M. (farm yard manure) 10 tractor because to grow moremango production. According to him he gets more of rainfall in his area annually. For heavyrainfall, farmers don’t give more water to field.Also, he has undertaken cultivation of paddy and Red gram in an intercropping pattern andgets 15 quintal paddy and 5 quintal tuber and it regarded as a good production in 1 acre land.He told (abhi tak mere jindgi me itna jyada production kabhi nahi mila tha).In this year hegives to water to plant on his hard work and without hiring labor. Then next three year hecultivates chili, Brinjal and tomato had a good production.Then last five year he did only fodder making for his animal husbandry that gives moremoney. He get 6 lit milk in 10 month in one year from buffalo and sell to village dairy andget 23-27 Rs. /lit. Price and that gives more support to his livelihood. He takes more care ofmango-wadi like mulching, regular cutting and other related activity. In 2007 receives mangobut this year he was not so much satisfied with the production. 47
  48. 48. Graph: 6.4.1 Average per graph productionHe takes production in 2008 1 quintal for HH utility. Then next three year he take 4, 5, 7quintal respectively. He didn’t hire labor for any operation of mango till now and take careown. He harvest 3-4 times in mango plantation and store in his home, his sell agricultureyield in Shelamba local market 10 km far from his village. He sell own in shelamba it giveshim more money and good price for mango which reflects in his satisfaction.Many people buy for pickle preparation and some people are also booked to prepare pickle.Mango production finally profiteer the farmer in month of June that help in kharif in thatmoney they can buy seeds, fertilizers, herbicides. Main thing is agricultural productionprovides financial support to them because previous they cultivate cotton and Javari, kangthis crop cannot generate more income for the family and cotton benefits a lot but not up tothe mark. Mr. suresh bhai went 3 days tour to in Maharashtra as (Shirdi sai baba, Ralegand,Ridhi Sidhi, Nashik and some other places) in this period he get exposure visit to goodintervention applied in Ralegand .Now he is satisfied with his production. He has bankbalance and he can suffer one year. And he stored food grain for 1 yr to get food sufficient.Also he visited some places of AKRSP (I) and gets much more of experience of mango wadi. 48
  49. 49. Graph: 6.4.2 Mango-Wadi Net Returns:In above graph, first year gives lots of input cost like, fertilizer, pesticides that it get goodreturns and after three year he took some vegetable like, chili, Brinjal and Tomato but inreturn he couldn’t get any profit. So in 2008 he changed the crop and started growing fodderfor animals as well as he adopted mango wadi. Started to mango yield but first year he hasnot recover input cost and after three year his income increase every year. Now he growsonly fodder for his animal husbandry in intercropping and his life to become change in tosustainable livelihood.Breakeven point in 1st year see annexure table:1.7Table: 6.4.1 Intercropping cost & benefit analysis 49
  50. 50. Intercropping Cost & Benefityear of sowing 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Paddy Red Mang Brinja Mang Tomat Mang Mang Mang MangCrop (SRI) gram Mango Chili o l o o o o o o MangoYield(Qt/Acre) 8 2.5 0.65 10 9 0.5 3.5 4.5 6.5value of (Rs./Qt) 700 200 500 525 500 1800 1800 2000 2000Gross Return(A+B) 5600 5000 3250 5250 4500 900 6300 9000 13000Paid out cost of productionSeedlings 1560Equipments 1000Seeds 400 100 200 300 600Fertilizer 430 300 2050 437 800 950 1200 1200 1200 1200Pesticide 300 600 400 1150 500 200Water Charges 100 200 400 600 400Transportation 100 100 180labor cost 450 150 360 900 100 1500 100 1200 100 250 250 280 260Total paid out cost (TVC) 1380 1050 5570 2337 100 4350 100 3650 100 1450 1550 1580 1840Return over paid out cost (grossreturn-C) 4220 3950 -5570 913 -100 900 -100 850 -100 -550 4750 7420 11160BCR - TVC basis (gross return/TVC) 4.05 4.76 1.39 1.20 1.23 0.62 4.06 5.69 7.06Total Exp in a year 8000 2437 4450 3750 1450 1550 1580 1840Total Income 10600 3250 5250 4500 900 6300 9000 13000Recover amount 2600 813 800 750 -550 4750 7420 11160 50
  51. 51. Case - 6. 5 Dhana bhai Dunger singhVillage: KavangaiBlock: umarpadaDist.: Surat (GJ)Occupation: AgricultureOwn Land: 3 acreIrrigated Land: 3 acreAge: 42 yearsMob No. +91-999752657Education: 6th std.Background:Dhana has one son he is in 10th std in Chokhwada village. It is 3 km away from his village.And he has two daughter both are married. Also, he has two brothers both are working inagriculture sector, but his family divided before 8 year ago and he stays with father.Agriculture is the main source of the family. But due to lack of land and less yield from thathis whole family used to migrate for labor work in nearby places.He has three acre of land that is divided in three different places, and all three acre is irrigatedland. For irrigation source he has one open well but it’s not working throughout the year. Heuses the Diesel engine for lifting water from well to farm. And before intervention he growspaddy, Red gram, Sorghum, pearl millet, Chickpea and some other crops due tounavailability of hybrid seeds. But till now he grow paddy in kharif season and in Rabiseason he takes vegetables and Ground Nut in his farm to generate income.In 1998 he dig open well and got an irrigation facility to his farm but he didn’t have sufficientbalance to buy diesel engine then he migrated every year and saved some money to buy onemobile engine. In 2001, he buys one mobile engine and that year he gives water to his farm.From 2001, he has growing crops in two times in year. Before that he was taking only onecrop by using rain fed. Now he takes took some vegetable and cash crops like Cotton,Soybean, Red gram, Paddy, Tomato, Brinjal, onion and others.In 2005, AKRSP (I) comes in Mango-wadi project in this area. Ram bhai and Sumitra bahenwent to his village and conducted meetings but people were not ready to take wadi then theygave some examples of wadi project. And also they conducted 4-5 times meetings then 51

×