Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
4© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning   PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie CookAll rights reserved.           ...
Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be able to           Discuss the relationship between job       ...
Chapter Objectives (cont’d)After studying this chapter, you should be able to           Describe the different group techn...
What is a Job?• Job    A group of related     activities and duties• Position                                  Job       ...
Job Requirements• Job Specification    Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and     abilities (KSAs) of the person ...
Relationship of Job Requirements  Job Requirements    to Other HRM Functions  Job Requirements             Recruitment    ...
Job Analysis• Job Analysis    The process of obtaining information about jobs by     determining what the duties, tasks, ...
FIGURE           The Process of Job Analysis4.1  © 2010 South-Western, a part of  Cengage Learning. All rights  reserved. ...
Determining Job Requirements Nature of:                                  Basis for:  Job Analysis  ••   What employee does...
Job Analysis and the Law• Section 14.C.2 of the Uniform Guidelines  states:   “There shall be a job analysis which includ...
Job Analysis and Essential Job Functions• Essential Functions    Statements in the job description of job duties     and ...
Performing Job Analysis1. Select jobs to study2. Determine information to collect: Tasks,    responsibilities, skill requi...
Gathering Job Information• Interviews• Questionnaires• Observation• Diaries© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning...
Controlling the Accuracy of Job Information• Factors influencing the accuracy of job  information    Self-reporting exagg...
O*NET and Job Analysis• Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)    A systematic occupational classification structure    ...
Popular Approaches to Job Analysis                       Position Analysis                       Position Analysis        ...
Approaches to Job Analysis• Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)    A questionnaire covering 194 different tasks that,  ...
FIGURE           A Sample Page from the PAQ4.2  © 2010 South-Western, a part of  Cengage Learning. All rights  reserved.  ...
Approaches to Job Analysis (cont’d)• Task Inventory Analysis   Is an organization-specific analysis developed by    ident...
Approaches to Job Analysis (cont’d)• HRIS and Job Analysis    Human resource information systems (HRIS) and     specializ...
Key Elements of a Job Description• Job Title    Indicates job duties and organizational level• Job Identification    Dis...
Job Descriptions• Job Title    Provides status to the employee.    Indicates what the duties of the job entails.    Ind...
Job Descriptions (cont’d)• Job Identification Section    Departmental location of the job    Person to whom the jobholde...
1    Job Description for an Employment Assistant© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved.      ...
Job Descriptions (cont’d)• Job Duties, or Essential Functions, Section    Statements of job duties that:         Are arr...
1    Job Description for an Employment Assistant (cont’d)© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserv...
Job Descriptions (cont’d)• Job Specifications Section    Personal qualifications an individual must possess in     order ...
1    Job Description for an Employment Assistant (cont’d)© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserv...
Problems with Job Descriptions1. If poorly written, they provide little guidance   to the jobholder.2. They are not always...
Writing Clear and Specific Job Descriptions• Create statements that:   Are terse, direct, and simply worded; eliminate   ...
Job Design• Job Design   An outgrowth of job analysis that improves jobs    through technological and human consideration...
FIGURE           Basis for Job Design4.3  © 2010 South-Western, a part of  Cengage Learning. All rights  reserved.        ...
Job Enrichment Factors• Increasing the level of difficulty and   responsibility of the job• Allowing employees to retain m...
Job Characteristics• Job Characteristics Model  (Hackman and Oldham)    Job design theory that purports that three     ps...
Job Characteristics (cont’d)1. Skill variety: The degree to which a job entails a variety of different   activities, which...
Job Characteristics Model• Job               • Psychological          • Job  Characteristics     States                   ...
Employee Empowerment• Employee Empowerment    Granting employees power to initiate change,     thereby encouraging them t...
Industrial Engineering Considerations• Industrial Engineering    A field of study concerned with analyzing work     metho...
Designing Work for Group/Team Contributions• Employee Involvement Groups (EIs)    Groups of employees who meet to resolve...
FIGURE           Computer Workstation Ergonomics Checklist4.4              Use the following list to identify potential pr...
FIGURE           The Dynamics of Employee Involvement Groups4.5  © 2010 South-Western, a part of  Cengage Learning. All ri...
Employee Teams• Employee Teams    An employee contributions technique whereby:         Work functions are structured for...
Benefits of Employee Teams• Increased integration of individual skills• Better performance (quality and quantity)  solutio...
How To Develop Team Synergy                            Support Focus on Quality                        Listen and Clarify ...
FIGURE              Synergistic Team Characteristics4.6  Team synergy is heightened when team members engage in these posi...
Teamwork and Synergy• Synergy    Occurs when the interaction and outcome of team    members is greater than the sum of th...
Forms of Employee Teams• Cross-Functional Team    A group staffed with a mix of specialists (e.g.,     marketing, product...
Forms of Employee Teams (cont’d)• Self-Directed Team    Groups of highly trained individuals performing a     set of inte...
Forms of Employee Teams (cont’d)• Process-Improvement Team   A group of experienced people from different    departments ...
FIGURE               Forms of Employee Teams4.7  Cross-Functional      A group staffed with a mix of specialists (e.g., ma...
Characteristics of Successful Teams• Commitment to shared goals and objectives• Motivated and energetic team members• Open...
Obstacles to Effective Team Function•   Overly high expectations•   Group compensation•   Training•   Career movement•   P...
Training Team Members• Complete skills training in:    Team leadership    Mission/goal setting    Conduct of meetings  ...
Flexible Work Schedules• Compressed Workweek    Shortening the number of days in the workweek by     lengthening the numb...
Flexible Work Schedules• Benefits                         • Disadvantages    Recruitment and retention        Overtime p...
Flexible Work Schedules• Flextime    Working hours that permit employees the option of     choosing daily starting and qu...
3     How to Request a Flexible Work Schedule     You may be thinking, “My manager would never agree to a flexible work sc...
Flexible Work Schedules• Job Sharing   The arrangement whereby two part-time employees    perform a job that otherwise wo...
Advantages of Telecommuting• Increased flexibility for employees• Ability to attract workers who might not  otherwise be a...
FIGURE          Keys for Successful Telecommuting4.8  • Identify jobs best suited to distance work.  • Select responsible ...
critical incident method            job description employee empowerment                job design employee involvement gr...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Bohlander15e ch04

236

Published on

I don't own this slide...

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
236
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • This should
  • Transcript of "Bohlander15e ch04"

    1. 1. 4© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie CookAll rights reserved. The University of West Alabama
    2. 2. Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be able to Discuss the relationship between job requirements and the performance of HRM functions. Indicate the methods by which job analysis typically is completed. Identify and explain the various sections of job descriptions. Provide examples illustrating various factors that must be taken into account in designing a job.© 2010 South-Western, avarious job characteristics that Discuss the part of motivate employees.Cengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–2
    3. 3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d)After studying this chapter, you should be able to Describe the different group techniques used to maximize employee contributions. Differentiate and explain the different adjustments in work schedules.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–3
    4. 4. What is a Job?• Job  A group of related activities and duties• Position Job Job  The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee Job Job Job Job Job Job• Job Family  A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–4
    5. 5. Job Requirements• Job Specification  Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the person who is to perform the job  Since Griggs v Duke Power and the Civil Rights Act of 1991, job specifications used in selection must relate specifically to the duties of the job.• Job Description  Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be performed© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–5
    6. 6. Relationship of Job Requirements Job Requirements to Other HRM Functions Job Requirements Recruitment Recruitment Determine recruitment qualifications Determine recruitment qualifications Provide job duties and job Provide job duties and job Selection Selection specifications for selection process specifications for selection process Performance Performance Provide performance criteria for Provide performance criteria for Appraisal evaluating employees evaluating employees Appraisal Training and Training and Determine training needs and develop Determine training needs and develop Development instructional programs instructional programs Development Compensation Compensation Provide basis for determining© 2010 South-Western, a part of Management Provide basis for determining employee’s rate of pay Management employee’s rate of payCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–6
    7. 7. Job Analysis• Job Analysis  The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining what the duties, tasks, or activities of jobs are.  HR managers use the data to develop job descriptions and job specifications that are the basis for employee performance appraisal and development.  The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–7
    8. 8. FIGURE The Process of Job Analysis4.1 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4–8
    9. 9. Determining Job Requirements Nature of: Basis for: Job Analysis •• What employee does What employee does •• Why employee does it Why employee does it •• Determining job requirements Determining job requirements •• How employee does it How employee does it Job Description •• Summary statement of the job •• Employee orientation Employee orientation Summary statement of the job •• List of essential functions of the •• Employee instruction Employee instruction List of essential functions of the job job •• Disciplinary action Disciplinary action Job Specification •• Personal qualifications required •• Recruitment Recruitment Personal qualifications required in terms of skills, education and in terms of skills, education and •• Selection Selection© 2010 South-Western, a part of experience experience •• Development DevelopmentCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–9
    10. 10. Job Analysis and the Law• Section 14.C.2 of the Uniform Guidelines states:  “There shall be a job analysis which includes an analysis of the important work behaviors required for successful performance. . . . Any job analysis should focus on work behavior(s) and the tasks associated with them.”• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)  Requires that job duties and responsibilities be essential functions for job success.  The purpose of essential functions is to help match© 2010 South-Western, a part of capabilities to job and accommodate humanCengage Learning. All rights requirements.reserved. 4–10
    11. 11. Job Analysis and Essential Job Functions• Essential Functions  Statements in the job description of job duties and responsibilities that are critical for success on the job.  A job function is essential if: 1. The reason that the position exists is to perform the function. 2. A limited number of employees are available to perform the function. 3. The function is specialized, requiring needed expertise or abilities to complete the job.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–11
    12. 12. Performing Job Analysis1. Select jobs to study2. Determine information to collect: Tasks, responsibilities, skill requirements3. Identify sources of data: Employees, supervisors/managers4. Methods of data collection: Interviews, questionnaires, observation, diaries and records5. Evaluate and verify data collection: Other employees, supervisors/managers© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreport6. Write job analysisreserved. 4–12
    13. 13. Gathering Job Information• Interviews• Questionnaires• Observation• Diaries© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–13
    14. 14. Controlling the Accuracy of Job Information• Factors influencing the accuracy of job information  Self-reporting exaggerations and omissions by employees and managers  Collecting information from a representative sample of employees  Capturing all important job information  Length of job cycle exceeding observation period  Lack of access to job site for personal observation Lack of familiarity with the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job© 2010 South-Western, a in theof  Ongoing changes part jobCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–14
    15. 15. O*NET and Job Analysis• Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)  A systematic occupational classification structure based on interrelationships of job tasks and requirements.  Contains standardized and comprehensive descriptions of twenty-thousand jobs.• O*NET Database  A online database of all DOT occupations plus an update of over 3,500 additional DOT occupations.  Data are collected and published continuously.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–15
    16. 16. Popular Approaches to Job Analysis Position Analysis Position Analysis System System Critical Incident Critical Incident Method Method Task Inventory Task Inventory Analysis Analysis Competency Job Competency Job Analysis Analysis© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–16
    17. 17. Approaches to Job Analysis• Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)  A questionnaire covering 194 different tasks that, by means of a five-point scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a particular job• Critical Incident Method  Job analysis method by which job tasks are identified that are critical to job success.  The job analyst writes five to ten important task statements for each job under study.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–17
    18. 18. FIGURE A Sample Page from the PAQ4.2 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4–18
    19. 19. Approaches to Job Analysis (cont’d)• Task Inventory Analysis  Is an organization-specific analysis developed by identifying—with the help of employees and managers—a list of tasks and their descriptions that are components of different jobs.• Competency-Based Analysis  Involves constant development of job profiles of current worker tasks, duties, and responsibilities that are “key” competencies for use in creating job descriptions, setting recruitment requirements, and in performance evaluation.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–19
    20. 20. Approaches to Job Analysis (cont’d)• HRIS and Job Analysis  Human resource information systems (HRIS) and specialized software help automate job analysis.  Analyze jobs and write job descriptions and job specifications based on those analyses.  Combine job analysis with job evaluation and the pricing of organizational jobs.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–20
    21. 21. Key Elements of a Job Description• Job Title  Indicates job duties and organizational level• Job Identification  Distinguishes job from all other jobs• Essential Functions (Job Duties)  Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished• Job Specifications  Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–21
    22. 22. Job Descriptions• Job Title  Provides status to the employee.  Indicates what the duties of the job entails.  Indicates the relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–22
    23. 23. Job Descriptions (cont’d)• Job Identification Section  Departmental location of the job  Person to whom the jobholder reports  Date the job description was last revised  Payroll or code number  Number of employees performing the job  Number of employees in the department where the job is located  O*NET code number.  “Statement of the Job”© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–23
    24. 24. 1 Job Description for an Employment Assistant© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–24
    25. 25. Job Descriptions (cont’d)• Job Duties, or Essential Functions, Section  Statements of job duties that:  Are arranged in order of importance that indicate the weight, or value, of each duty; weight of a duty is gauged by the percentage of time devoted to it.  Stress the responsibilities that duties entail and the results to be accomplished.  Indicate the tools and equipment used by the employee in performing the job.  Should comply with law by listing only the essential functions of the job to be performed.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–25
    26. 26. 1 Job Description for an Employment Assistant (cont’d)© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–26
    27. 27. Job Descriptions (cont’d)• Job Specifications Section  Personal qualifications an individual must possess in order to perform the duties and responsibilities  The skills required to perform the job: – Education or experience, specialized training, personal traits or abilities, interpersonal skills or specific behavioral attributes, and manual dexterities.  The physical demands of the job: – Walking, standing, reaching, lifting, talking, and the condition and hazards of the physical work environment© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–27
    28. 28. 1 Job Description for an Employment Assistant (cont’d)© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–28
    29. 29. Problems with Job Descriptions1. If poorly written, they provide little guidance to the jobholder.2. They are not always updated as job duties or specifications change.3. They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success.4. They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing organizational flexibility.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–29
    30. 30. Writing Clear and Specific Job Descriptions• Create statements that:  Are terse, direct, and simply worded; eliminate unnecessary words or phrases.  Describe duties with a present-tense verb, the implied subject being the employee performing the job.  Use “occasionally” to describe duties performed once in a while and “may” for duties performed only by some workers on the job.  State the specific performance requirements of a job based on valid job-related criteria.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–30
    31. 31. Job Design• Job Design  An outgrowth of job analysis that improves jobs through technological and human considerations in order to enhance organization efficiency and employee job satisfaction.• Job Enrichment (Herzberg)  Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties (vertical expansion) to make the work more rewarding or satisfying.  Providing opportunities for achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and performance.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–31
    32. 32. FIGURE Basis for Job Design4.3 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4–32
    33. 33. Job Enrichment Factors• Increasing the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job• Allowing employees to retain more authority and control over work outcomes• Providing unit or individual job performance reports directly to employees• Adding new tasks to the job that require training and growth• Assigning individuals specific tasks, enabling them to use their particular competencies or© 2010 South-Western, a part of skillsLearning. All rightsCengagereserved. 4–33
    34. 34. Job Characteristics• Job Characteristics Model (Hackman and Oldham)  Job design theory that purports that three psychological states (experiencing meaningfulness of the work performed, responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of the results of the work performed) of a jobholder result in improved work performance, internal motivation, and lower absenteeism and turnover.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–34
    35. 35. Job Characteristics (cont’d)1. Skill variety: The degree to which a job entails a variety of different activities, which demand the use of a number of different skills and talents by the jobholder2. Task identity: The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome3. Task significance: The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people, whether in the immediate organization or in the external environment4. Autonomy: The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out5. Feedback: The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual being given direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–35
    36. 36. Job Characteristics Model• Job • Psychological • Job Characteristics States Outcomes  Skill variety  Meaningfulness of  Improved work  Task identity the work performance  Task performed  Increased significance  Responsibility for Internal  Autonomy work outcomes motivation  Knowledge of the  Lower  Feedback results of the absenteeism work performed. and turnover© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–36
    37. 37. Employee Empowerment• Employee Empowerment  Granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do  Organizational conditions favoring empowerment:  Participation and autonomy  Innovation and acceptance of risk-taking  Access to information  Accountability for results  Cultural openness to change© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–37
    38. 38. Industrial Engineering Considerations• Industrial Engineering  A field of study concerned with analyzing work methods and establishing time standards• Ergonomics  An interdisciplinary approach to designing equipment and systems that can be easily and efficiently used by human beings© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–38
    39. 39. Designing Work for Group/Team Contributions• Employee Involvement Groups (EIs)  Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems or offer suggestions for organizational improvement  Also known as quality circles (QCs)  Success with EIs requires:  Comprehensive training for group members  Recognition of the group’s contributions  Continuing input and encouragement by management  Use of a participative/democratic leadership style© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–39
    40. 40. FIGURE Computer Workstation Ergonomics Checklist4.4 Use the following list to identify potential problem areas that should Use the following list to identify potential problem areas that should receive further investigation. Any “no” response may point to a problem. receive further investigation. Any “no” response may point to a problem. 1. Does the workstation ensure proper worker posture, such as 1. Does the workstation ensure proper worker posture, such as • Thighs in the horizontal position? • Thighs in the horizontal position? • Lower legs in the vertical position? • Lower legs in the vertical position? • Feet flat on the floor or on a footrest? • Feet flat on the floor or on a footrest? • Wrists straight and relaxed? • Wrists straight and relaxed? 2. Does the chair 2. Does the chair • Adjust easily? • Adjust easily? • Have a padded seat with a rounded front? • Have a padded seat with a rounded front? • Have an adjustable backrest? • Have an adjustable backrest? • Provide lumbar support? • Provide lumbar support? • Have casters? • Have casters? 3. Are the height and tilt of the work surface on which the keyboard is 3. Are the height and tilt of the work surface on which the keyboard is located adjustable? located adjustable? 4. Is the keyboard detachable? 4. Is the keyboard detachable? 5. Do keying actions require minimal force? 5. Do keying actions require minimal force? 6. Is there an adjustable document holder? 6. Is there an adjustable document holder? 7. Are armrests provided where needed? 7. Are armrests provided where needed? 8. Are glare and reflections minimized? 8. Are glare and reflections minimized? 9. Does the monitor have brightness and contrast controls? © 2010 South-Western, a part of 9. Does the monitor have brightness and contrast controls? 10. Is there sufficient space for knees and feet? 10. Is there sufficient space for knees and feet? Cengage Learning. All rights 11. Can the workstation be used for either right- or left-handed activity? 11. Can the workstation be used for either right- or left-handed activity? reserved. 4–40
    41. 41. FIGURE The Dynamics of Employee Involvement Groups4.5 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4–41
    42. 42. Employee Teams• Employee Teams  An employee contributions technique whereby:  Work functions are structured for groups rather than for individuals  Team members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management prerogatives, such as process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignments.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–42
    43. 43. Benefits of Employee Teams• Increased integration of individual skills• Better performance (quality and quantity) solutions to unique and complex problems• Reduced delivery time• Reduced turnover and absenteeism• Accomplishments among team members© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–43
    44. 44. How To Develop Team Synergy Support Focus on Quality Listen and Clarify SYNERGY Consensus Disagree Decision Making Constructively© 2010 South-Western, a part of Acceptance of Member SkillsCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–44
    45. 45. FIGURE Synergistic Team Characteristics4.6 Team synergy is heightened when team members engage in these positive behaviors. • Support. The team exhibits an atmosphere of inclusion. All team members speak up and feel free to offer constructive comments. • Listening and Clarification. Active listening is practiced. Members honestly listen to others and seek clarification on discussion points. Team members summarize discussions held. • Disagreement. Disagreement is seen as natural and is expected. Member comments are nonjudgmental and focus on factual issues rather than personality conflicts. • Consensus. Team members reach agreements through consensus decision-making. Consensus decisions require finding a proposal that is acceptable to all team members, even if not the first choice of individual members. Common ground among ideas is sought. • Acceptance. Team members are valued as individuals, recognizing that each person brings a valuable mix of skills and abilities to team operations. © 2010 South-Western, is committed to excellent performance. There is • Quality. Each team member a part of Cengage Learning. All rights and attention to detail. emphasis on continuous improvement reserved. 4–45
    46. 46. Teamwork and Synergy• Synergy  Occurs when the interaction and outcome of team members is greater than the sum of their individual efforts.  Synergistic team member behavior characteristics:  Is supporting and inclusive  Listens and clarifies  Disagrees but remains nonjudgmental  Engages in consensus building  Is accepting of others  Is focused on quality and continuous improvement© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–46
    47. 47. Forms of Employee Teams• Cross-Functional Team  A group staffed with a mix of specialists (e.g., marketing, production, engineering) and formed to accomplish a specific objective.  Cross-functional teams are based on assigned rather than voluntary membership.• Project Team  A group formed specifically to design a new product or service. Members are assigned by management on the basis of their ability to contribute to success.  The group normally disbands after task completion.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–47
    48. 48. Forms of Employee Teams (cont’d)• Self-Directed Team  Groups of highly trained individuals performing a set of interdependent job tasks within a natural work unit.  Team members use consensus decision making to perform work duties, solve problems, or deal with internal or external customers.• Task Force Team  A task force is formed by management to immediately resolve a major problem.  The group is responsible for developing a long-term plan for problem resolution that may include a charge for© 2010 South-Western, asolution proposed. implementing the part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–48
    49. 49. Forms of Employee Teams (cont’d)• Process-Improvement Team  A group of experienced people from different departments or functions and charged with improving quality, decreasing waste, or enhancing productivity in processes that affect all departments or functions involved. Team members are normally appointed by management.• Virtual Team  A group with widely dispersed members linked together through computer and telecommunications technology.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–49
    50. 50. FIGURE Forms of Employee Teams4.7 Cross-Functional A group staffed with a mix of specialists (e.g., marketing, production, Teams engineering) and formed to accomplish a specific objective. Cross- functional teams are based on assigned rather than voluntary membership. Project Teams A group formed specifically to design a new product or service. Members are assigned by management on the basis of their ability to contribute to success. The group normally disbands after task completion. Self-Directed Teams Groups of highly trained individuals performing a set of interdependent job tasks within a natural work unit. Team members use consensus decision- making to perform work duties, solve problems, or deal with internal or external customers. Task Force Teams A task force is formed by management to immediately resolve a major problem. The group is responsible for developing a long-term plan for problem resolution that may include a charge for implementing the solution proposed. Process-Improvement A group made up of experienced people from different departments or Teams functions and charged with improving quality, decreasing waste, or © 2010 South-Western, a part of enhancing productivity in processes that affect all departments or functions involved. Team members are normally appointed by management. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4–50
    51. 51. Characteristics of Successful Teams• Commitment to shared goals and objectives• Motivated and energetic team members• Open and honest communication• Shared leadership• Clear role assignments• Climate of cooperation, collaboration, trust, and accountability• Recognition of conflict and its positive resolution© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–51
    52. 52. Obstacles to Effective Team Function• Overly high expectations• Group compensation• Training• Career movement• Power© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–52
    53. 53. Training Team Members• Complete skills training in:  Team leadership  Mission/goal setting  Conduct of meetings  Team decision making  Conflict resolution  Effective communication  Diversity awareness© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–53
    54. 54. Flexible Work Schedules• Compressed Workweek  Shortening the number of days in the workweek by lengthening the number of hours worked per day.  The four-day, forty-hour week, generally referred to as 4/10 or 4/40.  Reducing weekly hours to 38 or 36 hours or scheduling 80 hours over nine days (9/80), taking one day off every other week.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–54
    55. 55. Flexible Work Schedules• Benefits • Disadvantages  Recruitment and retention  Overtime payments of employees required by the Fair Labor  Coordinating employee Standards Act for employees working over 40 work schedules with hours in one week. production schedules  The additional stress on  Accommodating the managers and employees, leisure-time activities of and long workdays can be employees while exhausting. facilitating employee personal appointments  Improvements in employee job satisfaction and morale© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–55
    56. 56. Flexible Work Schedules• Flextime  Working hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times, provided that they work a set number of hours per day or week.  All employees are required to be present during a designated “core period.”  Flexible hours reduce absenteeism and tardiness.  Employees can schedule their working hours for the time of day when they are most productive.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–56
    57. 57. 3 How to Request a Flexible Work Schedule You may be thinking, “My manager would never agree to a flexible work schedule.” But that’s not necessarily so. When valued employees make reasonable scheduling requests, managers often try to accommodate employee proposals. Here are some proven strategies for securing different types of flexible work hour arrangements. • Investigate. Look into similar arrangements others have made within your company or industry. Research company policy. Be realistic by providing a schedule that will fit the demands of your organization. • Be Professional. Treat your request as a business proposal. Be positive and assume a “can-do” attitude. • Be serious and present the proposal as a benefit to both you and your company. Present your idea as a “win-win” arrangement. • Write It Out. Submit your request for a flexible work hour arrangement in a well-organized, detailed written proposal. • Promote Yourself. Explain your value to your organization. Have others speak to your abilities— especially those in authority. Ask to be evaluated based on your quantity and quality of work rather than on the hours you actually spend on the job. • Anticipate Questions. Be prepared for potential problems and have specific answers on how to deal with these issues. For example, how you will communicate or coordinate with other© 2010 South-Western, a part of employees.Cengage Learning.Propose review dates tomanager. your new flexible schedule. Continually • Propose a Review. All rights assess how you work with others and your evaluatereserved. 4–57
    58. 58. Flexible Work Schedules• Job Sharing  The arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job that otherwise would be held by one full-time employee.  Job sharers may work three days a week, creating an overlap day for extended face-to-face conferencing.• Telecommuting  The use of personal computers, networks, and other communications technology such as fax machines to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace.© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–58
    59. 59. Advantages of Telecommuting• Increased flexibility for employees• Ability to attract workers who might not otherwise be available• Lessened burden on working parents• Less time and money wasted on physical commuting• Increased productivity• Reduced absenteeism© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–59
    60. 60. FIGURE Keys for Successful Telecommuting4.8 • Identify jobs best suited to distance work. • Select responsible employees. • Establish employee feedback procedures and performance review methods for evaluation. • Establish formalized telecommuting procedures. • Begin a formal training program. • Keep telecommuters informed and “in the loop.” • Recognize when telecommuting isn’t working. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4–60
    61. 61. critical incident method job description employee empowerment job design employee involvement groups (EIs) job enrichment employee teams job family ergonomics job specification flextime position industrial engineering position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) job task inventory analysis job analysis telecommuting job characteristics model virtual team© 2010 South-Western, a part ofCengage Learning. All rightsreserved. 4–61
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×