Wage gap

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  • Can lifestyle be the reason for today’s gender pay gap? Yes, women have the freedom to choose their future and life, and these choices ultimately effect their income. These choices include
  • Wage gap

    1. 1.  What is WAGE GAP ?  Wage gap vs. Equal pay  Causes of the Gender Pay Gap  Employment and Equal Pay in East Asia  Suggestions for future action  List of Figures
    2. 2. It measures the difference between male and female average earnings and is usually expressed as a percentage or percentage point difference as follows:  The female-to-male earnings or wage ratio is calculated by dividing women’s earnings or wages by men’s earnings or wages, multiplied by 100. For example, if women’s average monthly wage is 3 units and men’s is 5 units, then the female-to-male wage ratio is 3 divided by 5, amounting to 0.6 or 60% when expressed as a percentage. In this example, women earn 60% of what men earn  The gender pay gap comprises the difference between the pay of men and women. For instance, in the above example, when women’s average monthly average wage is 60% of men’s average monthly wage, then the gender wage gap is 100 minus 60, and amounts to 40 percentage points.
    3. 3. Wage gap and pay equity are frequently used interchangeably but they are not the same thing. They both relate to the same concern, that is the gap in earnings between men and women. Pay Equity is defined as equal pay for work of equal value. Pay equity is part of the solution to the wage gap.
    4. 4.  Education, age and work experience  “Men’s and women’s” jobs: Occupational segregation by sex  Hours of work  Discrimination  Equality of opportunity and treatment
    5. 5.  Women are typically found in the care economy and are concentrated in the five C occupations:  Caring  Cashiering  Catering  Cleaning  Clerical
    6. 6. Extent of the gap Evolution of the wage gap Variables influencing the gap
    7. 7.  International instruments 1. Equal remuneration and nondiscrimination  ILO Convention No. 95 on the protection of wages has only been ratified by Malaysia and the Philippines. Japan and the Republic of Korea have ratified ILO Convention No. 131, the most recent instrument on minimum wage fixing. These two countries along with China are also the only ones which have ratified ILO Convention No. 26 on minimum wage fixing machinery. Only the Philippines has ratified ILO Convention No. 99on minimum wage fixing in agriculture. 2. Wages  ILO Convention No. 95 on the protection of wages has only been ratified by Malaysia and the Philippines. Japan and the Republic of Korea have ratified ILO Convention No. 131, the most recent instrument on minimum wage fixing. These two countries along with China are also the only ones which have ratified ILO Convention No. 26 on minimum wage fixing machinery. Only the Philippines has ratified ILO Convention No. 99 on minimum wage fixing in agriculture.
    8. 8. International instruments (cont.) 3. Collective bargaining ILO Convention No. 98 on the right to organize and collective bargaining has been ratified by Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore, and declared applicable in Hong Kong SAR, while the number of ratifications of ILO Convention No. 87 on freedom of association and the protection of the right to organize is even lower, with only two ratifications (Japan and the Philippines) among the countries reviewed in this guide and a declaration of applicability in Hong Kong SAR. None of the countries covered in this guide have ratified ILO Convention No. 154 on collective bargaining. 4. Maternity and family responsibilities  None of the countries in the study have ratified any of the maternity protection conventions.
    9. 9.  National laws and regulations ◦ Non-discrimination and equal opportunities and treatment in ◦ Employment ◦ Equal remuneration ◦ Discrimination compromising women’s income during and beyond working life ◦ Institutional mechanisms  Wages
    10. 10.  Practical measures  Job evaluation methods  Wage Indicator websites  Promoting pay equity in the public sector – Union action  Capacity building of labour inspectors – Czech Republic  Tripartite Alliance for Fair Employment Practices – Singapore  Guidelines for employers to eliminate wage disparity – Japan  Guidelines and mechanism for the promotion of work life balance Japan  Corporate social responsibility – Thailand  Campaigning for an Asian Floor Wage – Union Action

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