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Intelegent assignment (sahar abd ali p65295)

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  • 1. FACULTY OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING KKKA 6424INTELLIGENT URBAN TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM Prof. Dr. Riza Atiq Abdullah O.K. Rahmat ASSIGNMENT (1) PREPARED BY: 1- HAIDER FARHAN P65405 2- MUSTAFA TALIB P60915 3-- SAHAR ABD ALI P65295 1
  • 2. IntroductionTraffic lightsTraffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, signallights, robots and semaphores. Aresignaling devices positioned at or near roadintersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control competing flows oftraffic. Traffic lights were first installed in 1868 in London, United, now used in almostevery city of the world. Traffic lights alternate the right of way accorded to road users bydisplaying lights of a standard color (red, yellow/amber, and green) following auniversal color code (and a precise sequence to enable comprehension by those whoare color blind).In the typical sequence of color phases: Illumination of the green light allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do so Illumination of the yellow/amber light denoting prepare to stop short of the intersection, if it is safe to do so Illumination of the red signal prohibits any traffic from proceedingUsually, the red light contains some orange in its hue, and the green light contains someblue, said to be for the benefit of people with red-green color blindness Traffic signal is one of the more familiar types of intersection control. Using either afixed or adaptive schedule, traffic signals allow certain parts of the intersection to movewhile forcing other parts to wait, delivering instructions to drivers through a set ofcolorful lights (generally, of the standard red-yellow (amber)-green format). Somepurposes of traffic signals are to (1) improve overall safety, (2) decrease average traveltime through an intersection, and (3) equalize the quality of services for all or most trafficstreams. Traffic signals provide orderly movement of intersection traffic, have the abilityto be flexible for changes in traffic flow, and can assign priority treatment to certainmovements or vehicles, such as emergency services. However, they may increase delay 2
  • 3. during the off-peak period and increase the probability of certain accidents, such as rear-end collisions. Additionally, when improperly configured, driver irritation can becomean issue. Traffic signals are generally a well-accepted form of traffic control for busyintersections and continue to be deployed. Other intersection control strategies includesigns (stop and yield) and roundabouts. Intersections with high volumes may be gradeseparated.Single aspectsThe simplest traffic light comprises either a single or a pair of colored aspects that warnsany user of the shared right of way of a possible conflict or danger.Flashing Red: Treat as a stop sign. Also can signal the road is closed.Flashing Yellow: Caution, crossing or road hazard aheadFlashing Green: Varies among jurisdiction; can give permission to go straight as well asmake a left turn in front of opposing traffic (which is held by a steady red light), or canindicate the end of a green cycle before the light changes to a solid yellow. 3
  • 4. Case studyOur team which consists of three engineers selected a series of intersection of three,these three intersections are located on the road which link between Bangi (UKM),Kajang, Sepakat, and the highway lead to KL as shown in the figure below.Each one of these intersections are consist of three legs (three phases) and all phaseshave two lanes in each intersection. As a work team after selecting these intersections we conducted the traffic countsurvey for one hour for each intersection, and we found that the cycle time of trafficlight for each intersection is (120seconds),(160 sec ),and (180 sec ) ,respectively,andthe all red for each approach ( 2 seconds ), and amber for each approach ( 3 seconds). 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. Intersection-1-This is the first intersection linking Kajang, Babgi, and (UKM) as shown in thefigure below. 6
  • 7. DATA OF INTERSECTION: 1Passenger Car Unit Data traffic for one hour Traffic Flows in KAJANG UKM BANGI 15 Min Phase -1- Phase -2- Phase -3- Cars/Van 755 846 361 Lori < 5 ton 42 118 37 Lori > 5 ton 13 4 5 Motorcycle 322 215 137 Bus 10 14 5 Mini Bus 12 17 10so we need the table below Bil Vehicle Passenger Car Unit 1 Car / van / jeep / mpv 1 2 Lorry < 5 ton 1.75 3 Lorry > 5 ton 2.25 4 Trailer 3 5 Mini Bus 2.5 6 Bus 2.75 7 Motorcycle 0.35 7
  • 8. Phase Traffic Flows in 1 hour Total Car Lorry<5ton Lorry>5ton Trailer Mini Bus M/cycle (pcu/hr) Bus 1 755 42 13 0 12 10 322 1027 2 846 118 4 0 17 14 215 1216 3 361 37 5 0 10 5 137 524PCU 1 1.75 2.25 3 2.5 2.75 0.35UNITPhase Number of Saturation Saturation Actual Flow / Green Lanes Flow per Flow Flows Saturation Time Lane (pcu/hr) (pcu/hr) Flow Split (pcu/hr) Ration 1 2 1800 3600 1027 0.33 0.44 2 2 1800 3600 1216 0.28 0.37 3 2 1800 3600 524 0.14 0.18 Total = 0.75=Y L= 3 *(2+3) = 15 sec Cycle time (C0 ) = 1.5 L + 5 / 1- Y = 1.5*(15)+5 / 1-0.75=110 sec Effective green time = 110 – 15 = 95 sec Phase -1- green time =95* 0.44 =41.8 =42 sec Phase-2- green time =95*0.37 = 35.15 =36 sec Phase-3-green time =95*0.18 = 17.1 = 18 sec Total of green time = 42+36+18 = 96 sec Total of amber & all red time =3 * (2+3) = 15 sec Cycle time = 96 + 15 = 111 sec 8
  • 9. Intersection-2-The second intersection links Kajang, UKM, and Sepakat as shown in the figurebelow. 9
  • 10. DATA OF INTERSECTION: 2 Traffic Flows in KAJANG Ukm SEPAKAT 15 Min Phase-1- Phase-2- Phase-3- Cars/Van 808 918 338 Lori < 5 ton 46 135 46 Lori > 5 ton 17 5 11 Motorcycle 351 238 117 Bus 11 14 1 Mini Bus 14 20 4 Bil Vehicle Passenger Car Unit 1 Car / van / jeep / mpv 1 2 Lorry < 5 ton 1.75 3 Lorry > 5 ton 2.25 4 Trailer 3 5 Mini Bus 2.5 6 Bus 2.75 7 Motorcycle 0.35 11
  • 11. Phase Traffic Flows in 1 hour Total Car Lorry<5ton Lorry>5ton Trailer Mini Bus M/cycle (pcu/hr) Bus 1 808 46 17 0 14 11 351 1115 2 918 135 5 0 20 14 238 1336 3 338 46 11 0 4 1 117 498 PCU 1 1.75 2.25 3 2.5 2.75 0.35UNITPhase Number of Saturation Saturation Actual Flow / Green Lanes Flow per Flow Flows Saturation Time Split Lane (pcu/hr) (pcu/hr) Flow (pcu/hr) Ration 1 2 1800 3600 1115 0.31 0.37 2 2 1800 3600 1336 0.37 0.45 3 2 1800 3600 498 0.14 0.17 Total = 0.82=Y L = 3 * (2+3) = 15 sec Cycle time (C0)=1.5L+5 /1-Y=1.5*15+5/1-0.82=155 sec Effective green time = 155- 15 = 140 sec Phase-1- green time =140* 0.37 =51.8 =52 sec Phase-2- green time=140 *0.45 = 63sec Phase-3-green time=140 *0.17=23.8 = 24 sec Total of green time = 52+63+24 = 139 sec Total of amber & all red = 3*(2+3) =15 sec Cycle time = 139 +15 = 154 sec 11
  • 12. Intersection-3- This is the third intersection which links Kajang, UKM, and the highway asshown in the figure below. 12
  • 13. DATA OF INTERSECTION: 3 Traffic Flows in KAJANG Ukm HIGHWAY 15 Min Phase-1- Phase-2- Phase-3- Cars/Van 768 956 585 Lori < 5 ton 42 137 24 Lori > 5 ton 11 5 9 Motorcycle 333 258 34 Bus 11 14 3 Mini Bus 14 22 0 Bil Vehicle Passenger Car Unit 1 Car / van / jeep / mpv 1 2 Lorry < 5 ton 1.75 3 Lorry > 5 ton 2.25 4 Trailer 3 5 Mini Bus 2.5 6 Bus 2.75 7 Motorcycle 0.35 13
  • 14. Phase Traffic Flows in 1 hour Total Car Lorry<5ton Lorry>5ton Trailer Mini Bus M/cycle (pcu/hr) Bus 1 768 42 11 0 16 12 333 1056 2 940 134 4 0 22 14 205 1348 3 585 24 9 0 0 3 34 667PCU 1 1.75 2.25 3 2.5 2.75 0.35UNITPhase Number of Saturation Saturation Actual Flow / Green Lanes Flow per Flow Flows Saturation Time Lane (pcu/hr) (pcu/hr) Flow Split (pcu/hr) Ration 1 2 1800 3600 1056 0.29 0.34 2 2 1800 3600 1348 0.37 0.44 3 2 1800 3600 667 0.18 0.21 Total = 0.84= Y L = 3 * (2+3) = 15 sec Cycle time (C0) = 1.5L+5/1-Y=1.5*15+5/1-0.84=175 Effective green time =175 – 15 = 160 sec Phase-1- green time = 160 * 0.34=54.4 =55 sec Phase-2- green time = 160 * 0.44 =70.4 = 71 sec Phase-3- green time = 160 * 0.21 =33.6 = 34 sec Total time green = 55 + 71 + 34 = 160 sec Total of amber& all red =3 *(2+3) =15 sec Cycle time = 160 + 15 = 175 sec 14
  • 15. Summary of results for cycle time ( C₀ ) and effective green time( Ge) Intersection Cycle time C₀ (sec) Effective Green time Ge (sec) 1 111 95 2 154 140 3 175 160Calculation of cycle time:After calculation of cycle time with Webster method, the highest cycletime was for intersection 3 and it was equal to175 seconds. So adjust allintersection using Cycle Time 175 second phase GreenIntersection 1: timeCycle time = 175 sec 1 71Total of amber and all red time = (3+2) x3=15 sec 2 60Total green time = 175-15=160sec 29 3Phase 1 green time = 160* 0.44=70.4sec =71 sec total 160Phase 2 green time =160 *0.37=59.2sec=60secPhase 3 green time = 160*0.18=28.8sec=29secIntersection 2:Cycle time = 175 secTotal of amber and all red time = (3+2) x3= 15sec phase GreenTotal green time = 175-15 =160sec timePhase 1 green time =160*0.37=59.2sec=60sec 1 60Phase 2 green time =160*0.45= 72sec 2 72Phase 3 green time = 160*0.17=27.2sec =28sec 3 28 total 160 15
  • 16. Intersection 3:Cycle time =175 secTotal of amber and all red time = (3+2) x3=15 secTotal green time = 175-15= 160 sec phase Green timePhase 1 green time = 55sec 1 55Phase 2 green time = 71sec 2 71Phase 3 green time = 34 sec 3 34 total 160Calculation of offset time :Offset time : L/S - ( Qh+ loss)WhereQ = Number of vehicles queued per lane, vehicle.h = Discharge Headway of queued vehicle in seconds/vehicle.Typical value of h is 2 seconds / vehicle.S = Average Speed in metre in secondL = Distance between intersectios in metreLoss1 = Loss Time associated with vehicles starting from rest at thefirst downstream signal (2 seconds can be used as a default).1-offset1S= 10 m/sL1= 1600 mQ1= 12 vehh=2 sec per vehloss =2 secOffset1 =1600/10-(12x2+2) =134sec RELATIVE OFFSET= 134 , ABSOLUTE OFFSET=134 OFFSET=== 16
  • 17. 2-offset2S= 10 m/sL2= 250mQ2= 14vehh=2 sec per vehloss =2 secOffset 2 =250/10-(14x2+2) =-5sec RELATIVE OFFSET =-5, ABSOLUTE OFFSET =1293-Offset3= 0 17
  • 18. 14cars 12cars3 2 1 ntersection1 OFFSET=129 18
  • 19. phase Green phase Green phase Green time time time1 55 1 60 1 712 71 2 72 2 603 34 3 28 3 29total 160 total 160 total 160Offset3 0 Offset2 -5 Offset1 134 19