SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 77
Download to read offline
Highway Geometric design
Houssam Ihsan Siyoufi
Q1)
• An urban freeway is being designed with the following characteristics:
11-ft lanes; no lateral clearance; a ramp density of 4.5/mi; 7% trucks
and no RVs; PHF = 0.90; rolling terrain. Determine the minimum
number of lanes required for the freeway to achieve a LOS of C or
better if the demand peak-hour directional demand volume is 3400
veh/h.
Step 1: Specify input data
• DHV = 3400 veh/h
• PHF = 0.90
• PT = 0.07
• PR = 0
• Lane width = 11 ft
• Lateral clearance = 0
• Rolling terrain
• TRD = 4.5 ramps per mile
Assume 4 lane highway ( 2 in each direction)
Step 2: compute the value of free-flow speed (FFS)
• We either measure from field test or we use the equation of
𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–𝑓𝐿𝑊–𝑓𝐿𝐶–3.22𝑇𝑅𝐷0.84
1. Get the adjustment factor for lane width from table 9.1 (slide number 48)
our lane width is 11ft so our 𝑓𝐿𝑊 =1.9
Table 9.1 (Garber & Hoel2013)
2. For our 𝑓𝐿𝐶 which is our lateral clearance, go to table 9.2 (slide 49).
We assumed 4 lane freeway which means we have 2 lanes in each
direction and we are given that there is zero lateral clearance.
From the table our 𝑓𝐿𝐶=3.6
• Table 9.2 (Garber & Hoel2013)
Now we can calculate FFS
• For TRD we are given that we have a ramp density of 4.5/mile
• 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–𝑓𝐿𝑊–𝑓𝐿𝐶–3.22𝑇𝑅𝐷0.84
• 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–1.9–3.6–3.22∗ 4.50.84 = 58.1 mi/h
Step 3: select FFS curve
• It is based on what value we calculated FFS which was 58.1 mi/h
• For FFS = 58.51 mi/h (≥ 57.5 < 62.5) → use the 60 mi/h speed curve; breakpoint = 1600 pc/h/ln.
• Use slide number 51
Step 4: compute the demand flow rate (vp)
• FOR 𝑓𝑝 which the adjustment factor for unfamiliar drivers, in the question given we
are not told who are the type of drivers, so if it is not given, we go to base condition
of freeway and assume all are regular commuters (regular users) for that 𝑓𝑝 =1
• 𝑣𝑝=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉
=
3400
0.9×1×2×𝑓𝐻𝑉
• The only unknown is 𝑓𝐻𝑉, the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
• The terrain that we have is rolling (given)
• Since 𝑃𝑇 = 0.07 then 𝐸𝑇=2.5 while 𝑃𝑅=0 then 𝐸𝑅=2
• the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
= the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1
1+0.07 2.5−1 +0(2−1)
=0.905
• 𝑣𝑝=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉
= 𝑣𝑝=
3400
0.9×1×2×0.905
=2087 pc/h/ln
• 𝒗𝒑=2087pc/h/ln
• Remember in this question we used the case 1 extended grade
segment
» Not too long or too steep grades
» Area is level, rolling, or mountainous
» Use Table 9.3
Step 5: estimate average passenger car speed (S)
• We must check first if our 𝑣𝑝 is either greater or less than the
breakpoint , if 𝑣𝑝 is greater than breakpoint we use the following
equations given in slide number 16, if not we use the FFS as our
average car speed.
• The breakpoint we got from step 3 is equal to 1600 pc/h/ln
• The 𝑣𝑝=2087 pc/h/ln
• So 𝑣𝑝> breakpoint – so we compute 𝑆𝐵𝑃
• 𝑆𝐵𝑃−60=60-0.00001816(𝑣𝑝 − 1600)2= 60 – 0.00001816( 2087-
1600)2
=55.69 mi/h
Step 6: compute the density (D)
• D=
𝑣𝑝
𝑆
=
2087
55.69
=37.47 pc/mi/ln
• Step 7: estimate LOS For D = 37.47 pc/mi/ln (>35-45) → LOS = E
• LOS on Basic Freeway Segments (pg461)
• Use 6 lane highway (3/direction)
Step 2: compute the value of free-flow speed (FFS)
• We either measure from field test or we use the equation of
𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–𝑓𝐿𝑊–𝑓𝐿𝐶–3.22𝑇𝑅𝐷0.84
1. Get the adjustment factor for lane width from table 9.1 (slide
number 48)
our lane width is 11ft so our 𝑓𝐿𝑊 =1.9
Table 9.1 (Garber & Hoel2013)
In getting flc there is a change from 2 lanes to 3 lanes
2. For our 𝑓𝐿𝐶 which is our lateral clearance, go to table 9.2 (slide 49).
We assumed 6 lane freeway which means we have 3 lanes in each
direction and we are given that there is zero lateral clearance.
From the table our 𝑓𝐿𝐶=2.4
Table 9.2 (Garber & Hoel2013)
Now we can calculate FFS
• For TRD we are given that we have a ramp density of 4.5/mile
• 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–𝑓𝐿𝑊–𝑓𝐿𝐶–3.22𝑇𝑅𝐷0.84
• 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–1.9–2.4–3.22∗ 4.50.84 = 59.71 mi/h
Step 3: select FFS curve
• It is based on what value we calculated FFS which was 59.71 mi/h
• For FFS = 59.71 mi/h (≥ 57.5 < 62.5) → use the 60 mi/h speed curve;
breakpoint = 1600 pc/h/ln.
• Use slide number 51
Step 4: compute the demand flow rate (vp)
• 𝑣𝑝=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉
=
3400
0.9×1×𝟑×0.905
=1392 pc/h/ln
• The only change is the number of lanes (N)
Step 5: estimate average passenger car speed (S)
• We must check first if our 𝑣𝑝 is either greater or less than the
breakpoint , if 𝑣𝑝 is greater than breakpoint we use the following
equations given in slide number 16, if not we use the FFS as our
average car speed.
• The breakpoint we got from step 3 is equal to 1600 pc/h/ln
• The 𝑣𝑝=1392 pc/h/ln
• So 𝑣𝑝 < breakpoint – so we compute so our S is 60mi/h from step 3
•
Step 6: compute the density (D)
• D=
𝑣𝑝
𝑆
=
1392
60
=23.20 pc/mi/ln
• Step 7: estimate LOS For the computed Density = 23.20 pc/mi/ln (>18-26) →
LOS = C
• LOS on Basic Freeway Segments (pg461)
• Therefore, use six-lane highway (3 lanes per direction)
Q2)
• A long section of a four-lane undivided multilane highway is in level
terrain. A section of 5 mile is however followed by a 5% grade, 2.0 mi
in length. If the demand hourly volume is 1500 veh/h, estimate the
level of service on each of the upgrade and downgrade if the
roadway has the following characteristics: percentage trucks and
buses = 10%; percentage RVs = 4%; PHF = 0.95; base free-flow speed
= 60 mi/h; average lane width = 11 ft; lateral clearance = 4 ft at both
roadsides; and access point density = 15/mi on each side of the
roadway
Step 1: specify input data
• N = 2 lanes/direction
• Median type = Undivided
• DHV = 1500 veh/h/direction
• PT = 0.10
• PR = 0.04
• PHF = 0.95
• BFFS = 60 mi/h
• Level terrain
• Lane width = 11 ft
• Lateral clearance => 4 ft on both road sides
• Average access point density = 15 points/mile
Step 2: compute the value of free-flow speed
FFS=BFFS- 𝑓𝑙𝑤 − 𝑓𝐿𝐶 − 𝑓𝐴- 𝑓𝑀
1. Lane width = 11 ft → fLW = 1.9 (Table 9.1)
2. Total lateral clearance = 4 (right side shoulder) + 6 (undivided road) =
10 ft → fLC = 0.4 (Table 9.7) (slide 58)
TLC= LCR + LCL =6+4=10
» LCR = right-side lateral clearance (shoulder); max = 6 ft
» LCL = left-side lateral clearance (median)
» LCL = 6 ft(if median > 6ft; including TWLTL)
» LCL = 6 ft(undivided roads)
3. 𝑓𝑚 =?
median = undivided → fM = 1.6 (Table 9.8) (slide number 59)
4. Average access point density = 15 points/mile → fA = 3.75 (Table 9.9)
• FFS=BFFS- 𝑓𝑙𝑤 − 𝑓𝐿𝐶 − 𝑓𝐴- 𝑓𝑀
• 60 - 1.9 - 0.4 – 3.75 - 1.6= 52.35 mi/h
• FFS=52.35 mi/h
Step 3: select FFS curve
• For FFS = 52.35 mi/h (≥ 47.5 < 52.5) → use the 50 mi/h speed curve;
breakpoint = 1400 pc/h/ln
Recommended FFS Curves & Flow-Rate Ranges for Multilane Highways
From step 4-7 we will calculate the result once for
the upgrade and once for the downgrade
• Upgrade :
Step 4: compute the value of flow rate vp
ofp = 1.0 (assume mainly commuter traffic)
oPT = 0.1; ET = 3.5 (Table 9.4; G=5% & L = 2 mi)
oPR = 0.04; ER = 3.5 (Table 9.5; G=5% & L = 2 mi
Table 9.4 (Garber & Hoel2013) slide 53 Table 9.5 (Garber & Hoel2013)
• 𝑣𝑝=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉
=
1500
0.95×1×2×𝑓𝐻𝑉
• the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
=
1
1+0.1 3.5−1 +0.4(3.5−1)
=0.74
• 𝑣𝑝=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉
=
1500
0.95×1×2×0.74
=1067pc/h/ln
• Remember we used case 2
• Case 2: Specific grade
• » L > 0.25 mi & G > 3% or L > 0.5 mi & G = 2-3%
• » For upgrades: use Table 9.4 for ET & Table 9.5 for ER
• » For downgrades: use Table 9.6 for ET & ER = ER for level grade
Step 5: estimate average passenger car speed (S)
• Equal to FFS at low flow rates (up to the breakpoint of vp = 1400
pc/h/ln):
• Beyond the breakpoint, use Figure 9.7or the relevant equations in slide
number 27
• 1067<1400pc/h/ln
• 𝑣𝑝 < 1400 pc/h/ln → S = 50 mi/h
Step 6: compute the density (D)
• D=
𝑣𝑝
𝑆
=
1067
50
=21.34 mi/h
• Step 7: estimate LOS
–Threshold of LOS F changes with FFS:
– Begins with Density= 40 pc/mi/ln for 60 mi/h and increases to 45
pc/mi/ln for 45 mi/h
–Otherwise, LOS criteria are similar to those on basic freeway
segments or use Figure 9.8 or Table 9.10
• For D = 21.34 pc/mi/ln → Table 9.10 → LOS = C
• Table 9.10 (Garber & Hoel2013)
Downgrade
• Step 4: compute the value of flow rate (𝑣𝑝)
fp = 1.0 (assume mainly commuter traffic)
PT = 0.1; ET = 1.5 (Table 9.6; G=5% & L = 2 mi)
PR = 0.04; ER = 1.2 (Table 9.3; level terrain)
Note: use level terrain for PR on downgrades (ref. pg. 470, textbook)
Our grade is 5% and our L=2 mil which is less than 4, while our
proportion of trucks and buses= 10% (Pt=0.1)
Table 9.6 slide number 55
Et=1.5
Table 9.3 (Garber & Hoel2013)
ER=1.2
• 𝑣𝑝=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉
=
1500
0.95×1×2×𝑓𝐻𝑉
• the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
=
1
1+0.1 1.5−1 +0.4(1.2−1)
=0.945
• 𝑣𝑝=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉
=
1500
0.95×1×2×0.945
=835pc/h/ln
Step 5: estimate average passenger car speed (S)
• 835>1400
• 𝑣𝑝 < 1400 pc/h/ln → S = 50 mi/h
•Step 6: compute the density (D)
•D=
𝑣𝑝
𝑆
=
835
50
=16.7pc/mi/ln
•
Step 7: estimate LOS
• –Threshold of LOS F changes with FFS:
• – Begins with D= 40 pc/mi/ln for 60 mi/h and increases to 45
pc/mi/ln for 45 mi/h
• –Otherwise, LOS criteria are similar to those on basic freeway
segments or use Figure 9.8or Table 9.10
• Our density is 16.7 pc/mi/ln
• For D = 16.7 pc/mi/ln → Table 9.10 → LOS = B
Table 9.10 (Garber & Hoel2013)
Tutorial 6
Q1
• An existing Class II two-lane highway is to be analyzed to determine
the level of service in the peak direction given the following
information: Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction: 900
veh/h; Peak hourly volume in the opposing direction: 400 veh/h;
Trucks: 12% of total volume; Recreational vehicles: 2% of total
volume; PHF: 0.95; Lane width: 12 ft; Shoulder width: 10 ft; Access
points per mile: 20; Terrain: rolling; Base free flow speed: 60 mi/h;
No passing zones: 40% of analysis segment length
Step 1: specify input data
• Class II Highway
• No passing zones = 40%
• BFFS ( base free flow speed)= 60 mi/h
• Access points per mile = 20
• Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction = 900 veh/h
• Peak hourly volume in the opposing direction = 400 veh/h
• PHF (peak hour factor)= 0.95
• PT = 0.12 (percentage of trucks =12%)
• PR = 0.02 (percentage of recreational vehicles= 2%)
• Lane width = 12 ft
• Shoulder width = 10 ft
• Rolling terrain
Step 2: compute the demand adjustment for PTSF
• For a class II two–lane highway, we analyze level of service by PTSF (
percent time spent following)
• Percent time spent following another vehicle (PTSF):
❖ It is the average percentage of time that vehicles are traveling behind
slower vehicles (time headway between consecutive vehicles is less than
3 s)
• We do computation of the demand adjustment for PTSF in;
1. Analysis direction
2. Opposing direction
Analysis Direction
• We are given Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction = 900 veh/h
• We are give PHF=0.95
• 𝑣𝑖,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹=
𝑉𝑖
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
=
900
0.95×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
• The 2 unknowns are 𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 & 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
• The 𝑃𝑇 = 0.12 and the 𝑃𝑅 =0.02
• for 𝑷𝑻 = 0.12 we go to table 9.23 in slide number 77, remember our
terrain is Rolling , in this table no interpolation 𝑬𝑻=1
𝑃𝑅=0.02 from the same table we get 𝐸𝑅
• 𝑃𝑅 =0.02 our 𝐸𝑇 =1
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
=
1
1±0.12 1−1 +0.02(1−1)
=1
• For 𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 1 from table 9.21 (slide number 75) the 𝑣=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹
=
900
0.95
=947
• 𝑣𝑖,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹=
𝑉𝑖
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
=
900
0.95×1×1
=947.37pc/h
• For table 9.21 interpolate,
• Table 9.23 do not interpolate
Opposing direction
• We are given Peak hourly volume in the opposite direction = 400 veh/h
• We are give PHF=0.95
• 𝑣𝑖,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹=
𝑉𝑖
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
=
400
0.95×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
• The 2 unknowns are 𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 & 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
• The 𝑃𝑇 = 0.12 and the 𝑃𝑅 =0.02
• for 𝑷𝑻 = 0.12 we go to table 9.23 in slide number 77, remember our
terrain is Rolling , in this table no interpolation, 𝑬𝑻=1.6
𝑃𝑅=0.02 from the same table we get 𝐸𝑅
• 𝑃𝑅 =0.02 our 𝐸𝑇 =1
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
=
1
1±0.12 1.6−1 +0.02(1−1)
=0.93
• For 𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 0.91 from table 9.21 the 𝑣=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹
=
400
0.95
= 421
• Remember for this table we interpolate.
How to interpolate
• Our directional demand flow was calculated to be 421 and it is
between 400 and 500. The 400 has a value of 0.9 while the 500 has a
value of 0.96.
• X1=400, X2=421 which we want its Y2 , X3=500
• Y1=0.9 ,Y2=? , Y3=0.96
• Y2=
(𝑋2−𝑋1)×(𝑌3−𝑌1)
(𝑋3−𝑋1)
+ 𝑌1 = 0.9126 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑦 𝑖𝑡 𝑖𝑠 0.91
(interpolation to the nearest 0.01).
• 𝑣𝑖,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹=
𝑉𝑖
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
=
400
0.95×0.91×0.93
=497.52pc/h
• For table 9.21 interpolate,
• Table 9.23 do not interpolate
Step 3: Estimate PTSF
• 𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑= 𝐵𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑 + 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 × {
𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹±𝑣𝑜,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
}
• First we get BPTS𝐹𝑑
• so a=-0.0027 (Table 9.26, Use 𝑣𝒐 𝑷𝑻𝑺𝑭= 497.52; interpolate to nearest
0.0001) (slide 80)
• And b=0.897 (Table 9.26, Use 𝑣𝒐 𝑷𝑻𝑺𝑭 = 497.52; interpolate to nearest
0.001) same slide 80
• 𝐵𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑= 100 × (1 − 𝑒−0.0027(947.37)0.897
)=71.71%
We do the interpolation between 400 and 600 because our opposing
demand flow rate=498 from step 2
𝑣𝑇,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹= 𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹+ 𝑣𝑜,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹=947.37+497.52=144.89 pc/h
•
𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
𝑣𝑇,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
=
947.37
144.89
=0.66=66% ≈ 70%
•So the split is directional =70/30
𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹?
• From table 9.25 slide number 79, the no passing zone was given 40%,
the computed 𝐯𝐓,𝐏𝐓𝐒𝐅=144.89 pc/h
• 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹=17.2 (by interpolation)
𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑= 𝐵𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑 + 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 × {
𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹±𝑣𝑜,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹
}
• 𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑= 71.71+17.2× {
947.37
947.37±497.52
}=82.99%
•
Step 4 Determine Level of Service (LOS)
• LOS = D (Table 9.11) slide 65
Q2)
• An existing Class III two-lane highway is to be analyzed to determine
the level of service in the peak direction given the following
information: Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction: 900 veh/h;
Peak hourly volume in the opposing direction: 720 veh/h; Trucks: 10%
of total volume; Recreational vehicles: 2% of total volume; PHF: 0.94;
Lane width: 12 ft; Shoulder width: 2 ft; Access points per mile: 30;
Terrain: level; Measured free flow speed: 45 mi/h; No passing zones:
60% of analysis segment length
Step 1: specify input data
• Class III Highway
• Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction = 900 veh/h
• Peak hourly volume in the opposing direction = 720 veh/h
• PT = 0.10
• PR = 0.02
• PHF: 0.94
• Lane width = 12 ft
• Shoulder width = 2 ft
• Access points per mile = 30
• Terrain: level Measured FFS = 45 mi/h
• No passing zones = 60%
Step 2: Compute demand adjustments for ATS
• Analysis Direction
• Opposite Direction
Main direction
• 𝑣𝑑,𝐴𝑇𝑆=
𝑉𝑑
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆
• The 2 unknowns are 𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆 & 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ,𝐴𝑇𝑆
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
• 𝑃𝑇 = 0.10 so from table 9.16, where our terrain is level in slide 70 so
our 𝐸𝑇= 1 , v=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹
=
900
0.94
=957
• 𝑃𝑅=0.02 from same table 𝐸𝑅=1
𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 =
1
1+0.10 1.1−1 +0.02(1−1)
=1
Remember for 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆
• For general terrain, upgrade and downgrades where trucks do travel
at a crawling speed (lecture notes slide 38).
• You can use table 9.16, 9.17 , 9.18
• For downgrades where trucks travel at crawling speed
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇𝐶 × 𝑃𝑇𝐶 𝐸𝑇𝐶−1 +(1−𝑃𝑇𝐶 )×𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1
• 𝑃𝑇𝐶= proportion of trucks at crawl speed, to 𝐸𝑇 use table 9.19
• For 𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆= 1 from table 9.14 the 𝑣=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹
=
900
0.94
=957 pc/h
• INTERPOLATE to nearest 0.01
• Level or rolling terrain and downgrade (table 9.14)
• If Upgrades (G≥ 3% & L≥ 0.6 mi) (Table 9.15)
Table 9.14
• 𝑣𝑑,𝐴𝑇𝑆=
𝑉𝑖
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆
=
900
0.94×1×1
=957.45pc/h
Opposite direction
• 𝑣𝑜,𝐴𝑇𝑆=
𝑉𝑜
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆
• The 2 unknowns are 𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆 & 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ,𝐴𝑇𝑆
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
• 𝑃𝑇 = 0.10 so from table 9.16, where our terrain is level in slide 70 so
our 𝑬𝑻= 1.1 , v=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹
=
720
0.94
=766 (interpolate nearest 0.1
• 𝑃𝑅=0.02 from same table 𝐸𝑅=1
• 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 =
1
1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1)
= 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 =
1
1+0.10 1.1−1 +0(1−1)
=0.99
• For 𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆= 1 from table 9.14 the 𝑣=
𝑉
𝑃𝐻𝐹
=
720
0.94
=766 pc/h
• INTERPOLATE to nearest 0.01
• 𝑣𝑜,𝐴𝑇𝑆=
𝑉𝑜
𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆
=
720
0.94×1×0.99
=773.69pc/h
Step 3 : Estimate ATS
• 𝐴𝑇𝑆𝑑=FFS – 0.00776(𝑣𝐷,𝐴𝑇𝑆 + 𝑣0,𝐴𝑇𝑆) -𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝐴𝑇𝑆
• 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝐴𝑇𝑆= adjustment factor for ATS determination for the percentage
of no-passing zones in the analysis direction (Table 9.20)
• 0.9 (Table 9.20; FFS = 45 mi/h; No passing zones = 60%;
𝑣0,𝐴𝑇𝑆=773.69 pc/h; interpolate to nearest 0.1)
• 𝐴𝑇𝑆𝑑=FFS – 0.00776(𝑣𝐷,𝐴𝑇𝑆 + 𝑣0,𝐴𝑇𝑆) -𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝐴𝑇𝑆=
• 𝑨𝑻𝑺𝒅=45 – 0.00776(957.57+773.69) – 0.9 = 30.67mi/h
Table 9.20 has two
tables, in this
example we do
not use this table
Table 9.20
Step 4 : Determine LOS
• PFF=
𝐴𝑇𝑆
𝐹𝐹𝑆
=
30.67
45
= 0.68 = 68%
• LOS= D (TABLE 9.11)
TABLE 9.11

More Related Content

Similar to Highway LOS - Freeway-- Multilane -- highway class 2 & 3 Housam Siyoufi

Traffic enginering highway capacity and los print mood publish
Traffic enginering highway capacity and los print mood publishTraffic enginering highway capacity and los print mood publish
Traffic enginering highway capacity and los print mood publishGizaw Mekonnen
 
Traffic engineering macroscopic
Traffic engineering macroscopic Traffic engineering macroscopic
Traffic engineering macroscopic ShaikhAtif12
 
Lecture 05 Roundabout (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & Dr. Usama Shahdah)
Lecture 05 Roundabout (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & Dr. Usama Shahdah) Lecture 05 Roundabout (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & Dr. Usama Shahdah)
Lecture 05 Roundabout (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & Dr. Usama Shahdah) Hossam Shafiq I
 
S2 5 traverses
S2 5 traversesS2 5 traverses
S2 5 traversesEst
 
2 Superelevation and Spiral Curve ( by Malyar Talash, Highway Design Manager/...
2 Superelevation and Spiral Curve ( by Malyar Talash, Highway Design Manager/...2 Superelevation and Spiral Curve ( by Malyar Talash, Highway Design Manager/...
2 Superelevation and Spiral Curve ( by Malyar Talash, Highway Design Manager/...Malyar Talash
 
Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteristics (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & D...
Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteristics (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & D...Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteristics (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & D...
Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteristics (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & D...Hossam Shafiq I
 
Routing Protocol EIGRP
Routing Protocol EIGRPRouting Protocol EIGRP
Routing Protocol EIGRPDmitry Figol
 
New highway project
New highway projectNew highway project
New highway projectjanaka ruwan
 
Capacity & level of service (transportation engineering)
Capacity & level of service (transportation engineering)Capacity & level of service (transportation engineering)
Capacity & level of service (transportation engineering)Civil Zone
 
Capacity and LOS of Multi-Lane HIghways
Capacity and LOS of Multi-Lane HIghwaysCapacity and LOS of Multi-Lane HIghways
Capacity and LOS of Multi-Lane HIghwaysRaghupathi Kandiboina
 
A Dynamic Logistic Dispatching System With Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization
A Dynamic Logistic Dispatching System With Set-Based Particle Swarm OptimizationA Dynamic Logistic Dispatching System With Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization
A Dynamic Logistic Dispatching System With Set-Based Particle Swarm OptimizationRajib Roy
 
Intersection analysis and data collection using jamar counter
Intersection analysis and data collection using jamar counterIntersection analysis and data collection using jamar counter
Intersection analysis and data collection using jamar counterSajawal Bhatti
 
When and where are bus express services justified?
When and where are bus express services justified?When and where are bus express services justified?
When and where are bus express services justified?BRTCoE
 
Traversing Notes |surveying II | Sudip khadka
Traversing Notes |surveying II | Sudip khadka Traversing Notes |surveying II | Sudip khadka
Traversing Notes |surveying II | Sudip khadka Sudip khadka
 
5. renewing of indonesia highway capacity manual urban road segment with traf...
5. renewing of indonesia highway capacity manual urban road segment with traf...5. renewing of indonesia highway capacity manual urban road segment with traf...
5. renewing of indonesia highway capacity manual urban road segment with traf...wandi rusfiandi
 
Pedestrian dead reckoning indoor localization based on os-elm
Pedestrian dead reckoning indoor localization based on os-elmPedestrian dead reckoning indoor localization based on os-elm
Pedestrian dead reckoning indoor localization based on os-elmAlwin Poulose
 
Travelling salesman problem using genetic algorithms
Travelling salesman problem using genetic algorithms Travelling salesman problem using genetic algorithms
Travelling salesman problem using genetic algorithms Shivank Shah
 

Similar to Highway LOS - Freeway-- Multilane -- highway class 2 & 3 Housam Siyoufi (20)

Traffic enginering highway capacity and los print mood publish
Traffic enginering highway capacity and los print mood publishTraffic enginering highway capacity and los print mood publish
Traffic enginering highway capacity and los print mood publish
 
Traffic engineering macroscopic
Traffic engineering macroscopic Traffic engineering macroscopic
Traffic engineering macroscopic
 
Lecture 05 Roundabout (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & Dr. Usama Shahdah)
Lecture 05 Roundabout (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & Dr. Usama Shahdah) Lecture 05 Roundabout (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & Dr. Usama Shahdah)
Lecture 05 Roundabout (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & Dr. Usama Shahdah)
 
S2 5 traverses
S2 5 traversesS2 5 traverses
S2 5 traverses
 
2 Superelevation and Spiral Curve ( by Malyar Talash, Highway Design Manager/...
2 Superelevation and Spiral Curve ( by Malyar Talash, Highway Design Manager/...2 Superelevation and Spiral Curve ( by Malyar Talash, Highway Design Manager/...
2 Superelevation and Spiral Curve ( by Malyar Talash, Highway Design Manager/...
 
Urban streets
Urban streetsUrban streets
Urban streets
 
Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteristics (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & D...
Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteristics (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & D...Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteristics (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & D...
Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteristics (Traffic Engineering هندسة المرور & D...
 
Routing Protocol EIGRP
Routing Protocol EIGRPRouting Protocol EIGRP
Routing Protocol EIGRP
 
New highway project
New highway projectNew highway project
New highway project
 
Capacity & level of service (transportation engineering)
Capacity & level of service (transportation engineering)Capacity & level of service (transportation engineering)
Capacity & level of service (transportation engineering)
 
Capacity and LOS of Multi-Lane HIghways
Capacity and LOS of Multi-Lane HIghwaysCapacity and LOS of Multi-Lane HIghways
Capacity and LOS of Multi-Lane HIghways
 
A Dynamic Logistic Dispatching System With Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization
A Dynamic Logistic Dispatching System With Set-Based Particle Swarm OptimizationA Dynamic Logistic Dispatching System With Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization
A Dynamic Logistic Dispatching System With Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization
 
Intersection analysis and data collection using jamar counter
Intersection analysis and data collection using jamar counterIntersection analysis and data collection using jamar counter
Intersection analysis and data collection using jamar counter
 
When and where are bus express services justified?
When and where are bus express services justified?When and where are bus express services justified?
When and where are bus express services justified?
 
Robot-dynamics.pptx
Robot-dynamics.pptxRobot-dynamics.pptx
Robot-dynamics.pptx
 
Traversing Notes |surveying II | Sudip khadka
Traversing Notes |surveying II | Sudip khadka Traversing Notes |surveying II | Sudip khadka
Traversing Notes |surveying II | Sudip khadka
 
5. renewing of indonesia highway capacity manual urban road segment with traf...
5. renewing of indonesia highway capacity manual urban road segment with traf...5. renewing of indonesia highway capacity manual urban road segment with traf...
5. renewing of indonesia highway capacity manual urban road segment with traf...
 
Pedestrian dead reckoning indoor localization based on os-elm
Pedestrian dead reckoning indoor localization based on os-elmPedestrian dead reckoning indoor localization based on os-elm
Pedestrian dead reckoning indoor localization based on os-elm
 
Transportation Systems In Buildings
Transportation Systems In BuildingsTransportation Systems In Buildings
Transportation Systems In Buildings
 
Travelling salesman problem using genetic algorithms
Travelling salesman problem using genetic algorithms Travelling salesman problem using genetic algorithms
Travelling salesman problem using genetic algorithms
 

Recently uploaded

Design-System - FinTech - Isadora Agency
Design-System - FinTech - Isadora AgencyDesign-System - FinTech - Isadora Agency
Design-System - FinTech - Isadora AgencyIsadora Agency
 
如何办理(RUG毕业证书)格罗宁根大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(RUG毕业证书)格罗宁根大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(RUG毕业证书)格罗宁根大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(RUG毕业证书)格罗宁根大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
Spring Summer 26 Colors Trend Book Peclers Paris
Spring Summer 26 Colors Trend Book Peclers ParisSpring Summer 26 Colors Trend Book Peclers Paris
Spring Summer 26 Colors Trend Book Peclers ParisPeclers Paris
 
Morgenbooster: Storytelling in Identity Design
Morgenbooster: Storytelling in Identity DesignMorgenbooster: Storytelling in Identity Design
Morgenbooster: Storytelling in Identity Design1508 A/S
 
如何办理(UoB毕业证书)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UoB毕业证书)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UoB毕业证书)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UoB毕业证书)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
ECHOES OF GENIUS - A Tribute to Nari Gandhi's Architectural Legacy. .pdf
ECHOES OF GENIUS - A Tribute to Nari Gandhi's Architectural Legacy. .pdfECHOES OF GENIUS - A Tribute to Nari Gandhi's Architectural Legacy. .pdf
ECHOES OF GENIUS - A Tribute to Nari Gandhi's Architectural Legacy. .pdfSarbjit Bahga
 
Resume all my skills and educations and achievement
Resume all my skills and educations and  achievement Resume all my skills and educations and  achievement
Resume all my skills and educations and achievement 210303105569
 
Levi's Advertisement and camapign design
Levi's Advertisement and camapign designLevi's Advertisement and camapign design
Levi's Advertisement and camapign designAkankshaD3
 
一比一原版(ANU毕业证书)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(ANU毕业证书)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证原件一模一样一比一原版(ANU毕业证书)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(ANU毕业证书)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证原件一模一样yhavx
 
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
Edward Boginsky's Trailblazing Contributions to Printing
Edward Boginsky's Trailblazing Contributions to PrintingEdward Boginsky's Trailblazing Contributions to Printing
Edward Boginsky's Trailblazing Contributions to PrintingEdward Boginsky
 
Spring Summer 2026 Inspirations trend book Peclers Paris
Spring Summer 2026 Inspirations trend book Peclers ParisSpring Summer 2026 Inspirations trend book Peclers Paris
Spring Summer 2026 Inspirations trend book Peclers ParisPeclers Paris
 
一比一原版(WLU毕业证)罗瑞尔大学毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原版一模一样
一比一原版(WLU毕业证)罗瑞尔大学毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原版一模一样一比一原版(WLU毕业证)罗瑞尔大学毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原版一模一样
一比一原版(WLU毕业证)罗瑞尔大学毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原版一模一样awasv46j
 
Branding in the Psychedelic Landscape Report.pdf
Branding in the Psychedelic Landscape Report.pdfBranding in the Psychedelic Landscape Report.pdf
Branding in the Psychedelic Landscape Report.pdfAlexandra Plesner
 
18+ Young ℂall Girls Vadodara Book Esha 7427069034 Top Class ℂall Girl Serviℂ...
18+ Young ℂall Girls Vadodara Book Esha 7427069034 Top Class ℂall Girl Serviℂ...18+ Young ℂall Girls Vadodara Book Esha 7427069034 Top Class ℂall Girl Serviℂ...
18+ Young ℂall Girls Vadodara Book Esha 7427069034 Top Class ℂall Girl Serviℂ...Payal Garg #K09
 
Solutions For Social Media App Development (1).pptx
Solutions For Social Media App Development (1).pptxSolutions For Social Media App Development (1).pptx
Solutions For Social Media App Development (1).pptxBrain Inventory
 
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证ugzga
 
Academic Portfolio (2017-2021) .pdf
Academic Portfolio (2017-2021)      .pdfAcademic Portfolio (2017-2021)      .pdf
Academic Portfolio (2017-2021) .pdfM. A. Architects
 
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdfDigital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdfOnecity
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Design-System - FinTech - Isadora Agency
Design-System - FinTech - Isadora AgencyDesign-System - FinTech - Isadora Agency
Design-System - FinTech - Isadora Agency
 
如何办理(RUG毕业证书)格罗宁根大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(RUG毕业证书)格罗宁根大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(RUG毕业证书)格罗宁根大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(RUG毕业证书)格罗宁根大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UCI毕业证书)加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
Spring Summer 26 Colors Trend Book Peclers Paris
Spring Summer 26 Colors Trend Book Peclers ParisSpring Summer 26 Colors Trend Book Peclers Paris
Spring Summer 26 Colors Trend Book Peclers Paris
 
Morgenbooster: Storytelling in Identity Design
Morgenbooster: Storytelling in Identity DesignMorgenbooster: Storytelling in Identity Design
Morgenbooster: Storytelling in Identity Design
 
如何办理(UoB毕业证书)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UoB毕业证书)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UoB毕业证书)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UoB毕业证书)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
ECHOES OF GENIUS - A Tribute to Nari Gandhi's Architectural Legacy. .pdf
ECHOES OF GENIUS - A Tribute to Nari Gandhi's Architectural Legacy. .pdfECHOES OF GENIUS - A Tribute to Nari Gandhi's Architectural Legacy. .pdf
ECHOES OF GENIUS - A Tribute to Nari Gandhi's Architectural Legacy. .pdf
 
Resume all my skills and educations and achievement
Resume all my skills and educations and  achievement Resume all my skills and educations and  achievement
Resume all my skills and educations and achievement
 
Levi's Advertisement and camapign design
Levi's Advertisement and camapign designLevi's Advertisement and camapign design
Levi's Advertisement and camapign design
 
一比一原版(ANU毕业证书)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(ANU毕业证书)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证原件一模一样一比一原版(ANU毕业证书)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证原件一模一样
一比一原版(ANU毕业证书)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证原件一模一样
 
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(UMN毕业证书)明尼苏达大学毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
Edward Boginsky's Trailblazing Contributions to Printing
Edward Boginsky's Trailblazing Contributions to PrintingEdward Boginsky's Trailblazing Contributions to Printing
Edward Boginsky's Trailblazing Contributions to Printing
 
Spring Summer 2026 Inspirations trend book Peclers Paris
Spring Summer 2026 Inspirations trend book Peclers ParisSpring Summer 2026 Inspirations trend book Peclers Paris
Spring Summer 2026 Inspirations trend book Peclers Paris
 
一比一原版(WLU毕业证)罗瑞尔大学毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原版一模一样
一比一原版(WLU毕业证)罗瑞尔大学毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原版一模一样一比一原版(WLU毕业证)罗瑞尔大学毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原版一模一样
一比一原版(WLU毕业证)罗瑞尔大学毕业证成绩单留信学历认证原版一模一样
 
Branding in the Psychedelic Landscape Report.pdf
Branding in the Psychedelic Landscape Report.pdfBranding in the Psychedelic Landscape Report.pdf
Branding in the Psychedelic Landscape Report.pdf
 
18+ Young ℂall Girls Vadodara Book Esha 7427069034 Top Class ℂall Girl Serviℂ...
18+ Young ℂall Girls Vadodara Book Esha 7427069034 Top Class ℂall Girl Serviℂ...18+ Young ℂall Girls Vadodara Book Esha 7427069034 Top Class ℂall Girl Serviℂ...
18+ Young ℂall Girls Vadodara Book Esha 7427069034 Top Class ℂall Girl Serviℂ...
 
Solutions For Social Media App Development (1).pptx
Solutions For Social Media App Development (1).pptxSolutions For Social Media App Development (1).pptx
Solutions For Social Media App Development (1).pptx
 
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
如何办理(Birmingham毕业证书)伯明翰大学学院毕业证成绩单本科硕士学位证留信学历认证
 
Academic Portfolio (2017-2021) .pdf
Academic Portfolio (2017-2021)      .pdfAcademic Portfolio (2017-2021)      .pdf
Academic Portfolio (2017-2021) .pdf
 
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdfDigital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
Digital Marketing Company in Bangalore.pdf
 

Highway LOS - Freeway-- Multilane -- highway class 2 & 3 Housam Siyoufi

  • 2. Q1) • An urban freeway is being designed with the following characteristics: 11-ft lanes; no lateral clearance; a ramp density of 4.5/mi; 7% trucks and no RVs; PHF = 0.90; rolling terrain. Determine the minimum number of lanes required for the freeway to achieve a LOS of C or better if the demand peak-hour directional demand volume is 3400 veh/h.
  • 3. Step 1: Specify input data • DHV = 3400 veh/h • PHF = 0.90 • PT = 0.07 • PR = 0 • Lane width = 11 ft • Lateral clearance = 0 • Rolling terrain • TRD = 4.5 ramps per mile Assume 4 lane highway ( 2 in each direction)
  • 4. Step 2: compute the value of free-flow speed (FFS) • We either measure from field test or we use the equation of 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–𝑓𝐿𝑊–𝑓𝐿𝐶–3.22𝑇𝑅𝐷0.84 1. Get the adjustment factor for lane width from table 9.1 (slide number 48) our lane width is 11ft so our 𝑓𝐿𝑊 =1.9 Table 9.1 (Garber & Hoel2013)
  • 5. 2. For our 𝑓𝐿𝐶 which is our lateral clearance, go to table 9.2 (slide 49). We assumed 4 lane freeway which means we have 2 lanes in each direction and we are given that there is zero lateral clearance. From the table our 𝑓𝐿𝐶=3.6 • Table 9.2 (Garber & Hoel2013)
  • 6. Now we can calculate FFS • For TRD we are given that we have a ramp density of 4.5/mile • 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–𝑓𝐿𝑊–𝑓𝐿𝐶–3.22𝑇𝑅𝐷0.84 • 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–1.9–3.6–3.22∗ 4.50.84 = 58.1 mi/h
  • 7. Step 3: select FFS curve • It is based on what value we calculated FFS which was 58.1 mi/h • For FFS = 58.51 mi/h (≥ 57.5 < 62.5) → use the 60 mi/h speed curve; breakpoint = 1600 pc/h/ln. • Use slide number 51
  • 8. Step 4: compute the demand flow rate (vp) • FOR 𝑓𝑝 which the adjustment factor for unfamiliar drivers, in the question given we are not told who are the type of drivers, so if it is not given, we go to base condition of freeway and assume all are regular commuters (regular users) for that 𝑓𝑝 =1 • 𝑣𝑝= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 3400 0.9×1×2×𝑓𝐻𝑉 • The only unknown is 𝑓𝐻𝑉, the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) • The terrain that we have is rolling (given) • Since 𝑃𝑇 = 0.07 then 𝐸𝑇=2.5 while 𝑃𝑅=0 then 𝐸𝑅=2
  • 9. • the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) = the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1 1+0.07 2.5−1 +0(2−1) =0.905 • 𝑣𝑝= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 𝑣𝑝= 3400 0.9×1×2×0.905 =2087 pc/h/ln • 𝒗𝒑=2087pc/h/ln • Remember in this question we used the case 1 extended grade segment » Not too long or too steep grades » Area is level, rolling, or mountainous » Use Table 9.3
  • 10. Step 5: estimate average passenger car speed (S) • We must check first if our 𝑣𝑝 is either greater or less than the breakpoint , if 𝑣𝑝 is greater than breakpoint we use the following equations given in slide number 16, if not we use the FFS as our average car speed. • The breakpoint we got from step 3 is equal to 1600 pc/h/ln • The 𝑣𝑝=2087 pc/h/ln • So 𝑣𝑝> breakpoint – so we compute 𝑆𝐵𝑃 • 𝑆𝐵𝑃−60=60-0.00001816(𝑣𝑝 − 1600)2= 60 – 0.00001816( 2087- 1600)2 =55.69 mi/h
  • 11. Step 6: compute the density (D) • D= 𝑣𝑝 𝑆 = 2087 55.69 =37.47 pc/mi/ln • Step 7: estimate LOS For D = 37.47 pc/mi/ln (>35-45) → LOS = E • LOS on Basic Freeway Segments (pg461) • Use 6 lane highway (3/direction)
  • 12. Step 2: compute the value of free-flow speed (FFS) • We either measure from field test or we use the equation of 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–𝑓𝐿𝑊–𝑓𝐿𝐶–3.22𝑇𝑅𝐷0.84 1. Get the adjustment factor for lane width from table 9.1 (slide number 48) our lane width is 11ft so our 𝑓𝐿𝑊 =1.9 Table 9.1 (Garber & Hoel2013)
  • 13. In getting flc there is a change from 2 lanes to 3 lanes 2. For our 𝑓𝐿𝐶 which is our lateral clearance, go to table 9.2 (slide 49). We assumed 6 lane freeway which means we have 3 lanes in each direction and we are given that there is zero lateral clearance. From the table our 𝑓𝐿𝐶=2.4 Table 9.2 (Garber & Hoel2013)
  • 14. Now we can calculate FFS • For TRD we are given that we have a ramp density of 4.5/mile • 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–𝑓𝐿𝑊–𝑓𝐿𝐶–3.22𝑇𝑅𝐷0.84 • 𝐹𝐹𝑆=75.4–1.9–2.4–3.22∗ 4.50.84 = 59.71 mi/h
  • 15. Step 3: select FFS curve • It is based on what value we calculated FFS which was 59.71 mi/h • For FFS = 59.71 mi/h (≥ 57.5 < 62.5) → use the 60 mi/h speed curve; breakpoint = 1600 pc/h/ln. • Use slide number 51
  • 16. Step 4: compute the demand flow rate (vp) • 𝑣𝑝= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 3400 0.9×1×𝟑×0.905 =1392 pc/h/ln • The only change is the number of lanes (N)
  • 17. Step 5: estimate average passenger car speed (S) • We must check first if our 𝑣𝑝 is either greater or less than the breakpoint , if 𝑣𝑝 is greater than breakpoint we use the following equations given in slide number 16, if not we use the FFS as our average car speed. • The breakpoint we got from step 3 is equal to 1600 pc/h/ln • The 𝑣𝑝=1392 pc/h/ln • So 𝑣𝑝 < breakpoint – so we compute so our S is 60mi/h from step 3 •
  • 18. Step 6: compute the density (D) • D= 𝑣𝑝 𝑆 = 1392 60 =23.20 pc/mi/ln • Step 7: estimate LOS For the computed Density = 23.20 pc/mi/ln (>18-26) → LOS = C • LOS on Basic Freeway Segments (pg461) • Therefore, use six-lane highway (3 lanes per direction)
  • 19. Q2) • A long section of a four-lane undivided multilane highway is in level terrain. A section of 5 mile is however followed by a 5% grade, 2.0 mi in length. If the demand hourly volume is 1500 veh/h, estimate the level of service on each of the upgrade and downgrade if the roadway has the following characteristics: percentage trucks and buses = 10%; percentage RVs = 4%; PHF = 0.95; base free-flow speed = 60 mi/h; average lane width = 11 ft; lateral clearance = 4 ft at both roadsides; and access point density = 15/mi on each side of the roadway
  • 20. Step 1: specify input data • N = 2 lanes/direction • Median type = Undivided • DHV = 1500 veh/h/direction • PT = 0.10 • PR = 0.04 • PHF = 0.95 • BFFS = 60 mi/h • Level terrain • Lane width = 11 ft • Lateral clearance => 4 ft on both road sides • Average access point density = 15 points/mile
  • 21. Step 2: compute the value of free-flow speed FFS=BFFS- 𝑓𝑙𝑤 − 𝑓𝐿𝐶 − 𝑓𝐴- 𝑓𝑀 1. Lane width = 11 ft → fLW = 1.9 (Table 9.1)
  • 22. 2. Total lateral clearance = 4 (right side shoulder) + 6 (undivided road) = 10 ft → fLC = 0.4 (Table 9.7) (slide 58) TLC= LCR + LCL =6+4=10 » LCR = right-side lateral clearance (shoulder); max = 6 ft » LCL = left-side lateral clearance (median) » LCL = 6 ft(if median > 6ft; including TWLTL) » LCL = 6 ft(undivided roads)
  • 23. 3. 𝑓𝑚 =? median = undivided → fM = 1.6 (Table 9.8) (slide number 59)
  • 24. 4. Average access point density = 15 points/mile → fA = 3.75 (Table 9.9)
  • 25. • FFS=BFFS- 𝑓𝑙𝑤 − 𝑓𝐿𝐶 − 𝑓𝐴- 𝑓𝑀 • 60 - 1.9 - 0.4 – 3.75 - 1.6= 52.35 mi/h • FFS=52.35 mi/h
  • 26. Step 3: select FFS curve • For FFS = 52.35 mi/h (≥ 47.5 < 52.5) → use the 50 mi/h speed curve; breakpoint = 1400 pc/h/ln Recommended FFS Curves & Flow-Rate Ranges for Multilane Highways
  • 27. From step 4-7 we will calculate the result once for the upgrade and once for the downgrade • Upgrade : Step 4: compute the value of flow rate vp ofp = 1.0 (assume mainly commuter traffic) oPT = 0.1; ET = 3.5 (Table 9.4; G=5% & L = 2 mi) oPR = 0.04; ER = 3.5 (Table 9.5; G=5% & L = 2 mi
  • 28. Table 9.4 (Garber & Hoel2013) slide 53 Table 9.5 (Garber & Hoel2013)
  • 29. • 𝑣𝑝= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1500 0.95×1×2×𝑓𝐻𝑉 • the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) = 1 1+0.1 3.5−1 +0.4(3.5−1) =0.74 • 𝑣𝑝= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1500 0.95×1×2×0.74 =1067pc/h/ln • Remember we used case 2 • Case 2: Specific grade • » L > 0.25 mi & G > 3% or L > 0.5 mi & G = 2-3% • » For upgrades: use Table 9.4 for ET & Table 9.5 for ER • » For downgrades: use Table 9.6 for ET & ER = ER for level grade
  • 30. Step 5: estimate average passenger car speed (S) • Equal to FFS at low flow rates (up to the breakpoint of vp = 1400 pc/h/ln): • Beyond the breakpoint, use Figure 9.7or the relevant equations in slide number 27 • 1067<1400pc/h/ln • 𝑣𝑝 < 1400 pc/h/ln → S = 50 mi/h
  • 31. Step 6: compute the density (D) • D= 𝑣𝑝 𝑆 = 1067 50 =21.34 mi/h • Step 7: estimate LOS –Threshold of LOS F changes with FFS: – Begins with Density= 40 pc/mi/ln for 60 mi/h and increases to 45 pc/mi/ln for 45 mi/h –Otherwise, LOS criteria are similar to those on basic freeway segments or use Figure 9.8 or Table 9.10
  • 32. • For D = 21.34 pc/mi/ln → Table 9.10 → LOS = C • Table 9.10 (Garber & Hoel2013)
  • 33. Downgrade • Step 4: compute the value of flow rate (𝑣𝑝) fp = 1.0 (assume mainly commuter traffic) PT = 0.1; ET = 1.5 (Table 9.6; G=5% & L = 2 mi) PR = 0.04; ER = 1.2 (Table 9.3; level terrain) Note: use level terrain for PR on downgrades (ref. pg. 470, textbook) Our grade is 5% and our L=2 mil which is less than 4, while our proportion of trucks and buses= 10% (Pt=0.1)
  • 34. Table 9.6 slide number 55 Et=1.5
  • 35. Table 9.3 (Garber & Hoel2013) ER=1.2
  • 36. • 𝑣𝑝= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1500 0.95×1×2×𝑓𝐻𝑉 • the 𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) = 1 1+0.1 1.5−1 +0.4(1.2−1) =0.945 • 𝑣𝑝= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑃×𝑁×𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 1500 0.95×1×2×0.945 =835pc/h/ln
  • 37. Step 5: estimate average passenger car speed (S) • 835>1400 • 𝑣𝑝 < 1400 pc/h/ln → S = 50 mi/h •Step 6: compute the density (D) •D= 𝑣𝑝 𝑆 = 835 50 =16.7pc/mi/ln •
  • 38. Step 7: estimate LOS • –Threshold of LOS F changes with FFS: • – Begins with D= 40 pc/mi/ln for 60 mi/h and increases to 45 pc/mi/ln for 45 mi/h • –Otherwise, LOS criteria are similar to those on basic freeway segments or use Figure 9.8or Table 9.10 • Our density is 16.7 pc/mi/ln • For D = 16.7 pc/mi/ln → Table 9.10 → LOS = B
  • 39. Table 9.10 (Garber & Hoel2013)
  • 41. Q1 • An existing Class II two-lane highway is to be analyzed to determine the level of service in the peak direction given the following information: Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction: 900 veh/h; Peak hourly volume in the opposing direction: 400 veh/h; Trucks: 12% of total volume; Recreational vehicles: 2% of total volume; PHF: 0.95; Lane width: 12 ft; Shoulder width: 10 ft; Access points per mile: 20; Terrain: rolling; Base free flow speed: 60 mi/h; No passing zones: 40% of analysis segment length
  • 42. Step 1: specify input data • Class II Highway • No passing zones = 40% • BFFS ( base free flow speed)= 60 mi/h • Access points per mile = 20 • Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction = 900 veh/h • Peak hourly volume in the opposing direction = 400 veh/h • PHF (peak hour factor)= 0.95 • PT = 0.12 (percentage of trucks =12%) • PR = 0.02 (percentage of recreational vehicles= 2%) • Lane width = 12 ft • Shoulder width = 10 ft • Rolling terrain
  • 43. Step 2: compute the demand adjustment for PTSF • For a class II two–lane highway, we analyze level of service by PTSF ( percent time spent following) • Percent time spent following another vehicle (PTSF): ❖ It is the average percentage of time that vehicles are traveling behind slower vehicles (time headway between consecutive vehicles is less than 3 s) • We do computation of the demand adjustment for PTSF in; 1. Analysis direction 2. Opposing direction
  • 44. Analysis Direction • We are given Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction = 900 veh/h • We are give PHF=0.95 • 𝑣𝑖,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹= 𝑉𝑖 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 900 0.95×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 • The 2 unknowns are 𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 & 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) • The 𝑃𝑇 = 0.12 and the 𝑃𝑅 =0.02
  • 45. • for 𝑷𝑻 = 0.12 we go to table 9.23 in slide number 77, remember our terrain is Rolling , in this table no interpolation 𝑬𝑻=1
  • 46. 𝑃𝑅=0.02 from the same table we get 𝐸𝑅 • 𝑃𝑅 =0.02 our 𝐸𝑇 =1 • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) = 1 1±0.12 1−1 +0.02(1−1) =1 • For 𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 1 from table 9.21 (slide number 75) the 𝑣= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹 = 900 0.95 =947
  • 48. Opposing direction • We are given Peak hourly volume in the opposite direction = 400 veh/h • We are give PHF=0.95 • 𝑣𝑖,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹= 𝑉𝑖 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 400 0.95×𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 • The 2 unknowns are 𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 & 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) • The 𝑃𝑇 = 0.12 and the 𝑃𝑅 =0.02
  • 49. • for 𝑷𝑻 = 0.12 we go to table 9.23 in slide number 77, remember our terrain is Rolling , in this table no interpolation, 𝑬𝑻=1.6
  • 50. 𝑃𝑅=0.02 from the same table we get 𝐸𝑅 • 𝑃𝑅 =0.02 our 𝐸𝑇 =1 • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) = 1 1±0.12 1.6−1 +0.02(1−1) =0.93 • For 𝑓𝑔,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 0.91 from table 9.21 the 𝑣= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹 = 400 0.95 = 421 • Remember for this table we interpolate.
  • 51. How to interpolate • Our directional demand flow was calculated to be 421 and it is between 400 and 500. The 400 has a value of 0.9 while the 500 has a value of 0.96. • X1=400, X2=421 which we want its Y2 , X3=500 • Y1=0.9 ,Y2=? , Y3=0.96 • Y2= (𝑋2−𝑋1)×(𝑌3−𝑌1) (𝑋3−𝑋1) + 𝑌1 = 0.9126 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑤𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑦 𝑖𝑡 𝑖𝑠 0.91 (interpolation to the nearest 0.01).
  • 53. Step 3: Estimate PTSF • 𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑= 𝐵𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑 + 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 × { 𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹±𝑣𝑜,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 }
  • 54. • First we get BPTS𝐹𝑑 • so a=-0.0027 (Table 9.26, Use 𝑣𝒐 𝑷𝑻𝑺𝑭= 497.52; interpolate to nearest 0.0001) (slide 80) • And b=0.897 (Table 9.26, Use 𝑣𝒐 𝑷𝑻𝑺𝑭 = 497.52; interpolate to nearest 0.001) same slide 80 • 𝐵𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑= 100 × (1 − 𝑒−0.0027(947.37)0.897 )=71.71%
  • 55. We do the interpolation between 400 and 600 because our opposing demand flow rate=498 from step 2
  • 56. 𝑣𝑇,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹= 𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹+ 𝑣𝑜,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹=947.37+497.52=144.89 pc/h • 𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 𝑣𝑇,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 = 947.37 144.89 =0.66=66% ≈ 70% •So the split is directional =70/30
  • 57. 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹? • From table 9.25 slide number 79, the no passing zone was given 40%, the computed 𝐯𝐓,𝐏𝐓𝐒𝐅=144.89 pc/h • 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹=17.2 (by interpolation)
  • 58.
  • 59. 𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑= 𝐵𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑 + 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 × { 𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 𝑣𝑑,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹±𝑣𝑜,𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹 } • 𝑃𝑇𝑆𝐹𝑑= 71.71+17.2× { 947.37 947.37±497.52 }=82.99% •
  • 60. Step 4 Determine Level of Service (LOS) • LOS = D (Table 9.11) slide 65
  • 61. Q2) • An existing Class III two-lane highway is to be analyzed to determine the level of service in the peak direction given the following information: Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction: 900 veh/h; Peak hourly volume in the opposing direction: 720 veh/h; Trucks: 10% of total volume; Recreational vehicles: 2% of total volume; PHF: 0.94; Lane width: 12 ft; Shoulder width: 2 ft; Access points per mile: 30; Terrain: level; Measured free flow speed: 45 mi/h; No passing zones: 60% of analysis segment length
  • 62. Step 1: specify input data • Class III Highway • Peak hourly volume in the analysis direction = 900 veh/h • Peak hourly volume in the opposing direction = 720 veh/h • PT = 0.10 • PR = 0.02 • PHF: 0.94 • Lane width = 12 ft • Shoulder width = 2 ft • Access points per mile = 30 • Terrain: level Measured FFS = 45 mi/h • No passing zones = 60%
  • 63. Step 2: Compute demand adjustments for ATS • Analysis Direction • Opposite Direction
  • 64. Main direction • 𝑣𝑑,𝐴𝑇𝑆= 𝑉𝑑 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 • The 2 unknowns are 𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆 & 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ,𝐴𝑇𝑆 • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) • 𝑃𝑇 = 0.10 so from table 9.16, where our terrain is level in slide 70 so our 𝐸𝑇= 1 , v= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹 = 900 0.94 =957 • 𝑃𝑅=0.02 from same table 𝐸𝑅=1
  • 65. 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 = 1 1+0.10 1.1−1 +0.02(1−1) =1
  • 66. Remember for 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 • For general terrain, upgrade and downgrades where trucks do travel at a crawling speed (lecture notes slide 38). • You can use table 9.16, 9.17 , 9.18 • For downgrades where trucks travel at crawling speed • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇𝐶 × 𝑃𝑇𝐶 𝐸𝑇𝐶−1 +(1−𝑃𝑇𝐶 )×𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1 • 𝑃𝑇𝐶= proportion of trucks at crawl speed, to 𝐸𝑇 use table 9.19
  • 67. • For 𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆= 1 from table 9.14 the 𝑣= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹 = 900 0.94 =957 pc/h • INTERPOLATE to nearest 0.01 • Level or rolling terrain and downgrade (table 9.14) • If Upgrades (G≥ 3% & L≥ 0.6 mi) (Table 9.15)
  • 70. Opposite direction • 𝑣𝑜,𝐴𝑇𝑆= 𝑉𝑜 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 • The 2 unknowns are 𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆 & 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ,𝐴𝑇𝑆 • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) • 𝑃𝑇 = 0.10 so from table 9.16, where our terrain is level in slide 70 so our 𝑬𝑻= 1.1 , v= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹 = 720 0.94 =766 (interpolate nearest 0.1 • 𝑃𝑅=0.02 from same table 𝐸𝑅=1
  • 71.
  • 72. • 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 = 1 1+𝑃𝑇 𝐸𝑇−1 + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅−1) = 𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 = 1 1+0.10 1.1−1 +0(1−1) =0.99 • For 𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆= 1 from table 9.14 the 𝑣= 𝑉 𝑃𝐻𝐹 = 720 0.94 =766 pc/h • INTERPOLATE to nearest 0.01 • 𝑣𝑜,𝐴𝑇𝑆= 𝑉𝑜 𝑃𝐻𝐹×𝑓𝑔,𝐴𝑇𝑆×𝑓𝐻𝑉,𝐴𝑇𝑆 = 720 0.94×1×0.99 =773.69pc/h
  • 73. Step 3 : Estimate ATS • 𝐴𝑇𝑆𝑑=FFS – 0.00776(𝑣𝐷,𝐴𝑇𝑆 + 𝑣0,𝐴𝑇𝑆) -𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝐴𝑇𝑆 • 𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝐴𝑇𝑆= adjustment factor for ATS determination for the percentage of no-passing zones in the analysis direction (Table 9.20) • 0.9 (Table 9.20; FFS = 45 mi/h; No passing zones = 60%; 𝑣0,𝐴𝑇𝑆=773.69 pc/h; interpolate to nearest 0.1) • 𝐴𝑇𝑆𝑑=FFS – 0.00776(𝑣𝐷,𝐴𝑇𝑆 + 𝑣0,𝐴𝑇𝑆) -𝑓𝑛𝑝,𝐴𝑇𝑆= • 𝑨𝑻𝑺𝒅=45 – 0.00776(957.57+773.69) – 0.9 = 30.67mi/h
  • 74. Table 9.20 has two tables, in this example we do not use this table
  • 76. Step 4 : Determine LOS • PFF= 𝐴𝑇𝑆 𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 30.67 45 = 0.68 = 68% • LOS= D (TABLE 9.11)