10 - 1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall10Human Resources, JobDesign, and WorkMeasurementPowerPoin...
10 - 2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline Global Company Profile: RustyWallace’s NASCAR Rac...
10 - 3© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline – Continued Job Design Labor Specialization Job...
10 - 4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline – Continued Methods Analysis The Visual Workplac...
10 - 5© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapter youshoul...
10 - 6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapter youshoul...
10 - 7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRusty Wallace’s NASCARRacing Team NASCAR racing became ve...
10 - 8© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRusty Wallace’s NASCARRacing Team Each position has very ...
10 - 9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRusty Wallace’s NASCARRacing Team
10 - 10© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallHuman Resource StrategyThe objective of a human resources...
10 - 11© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallHuman Resource Strategy1. People should be effectively ut...
10 - 12© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallConstraints on HumanResource StrategyFigure 10.1HUMANRESO...
10 - 13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Planning1. Follow demand exactly Matches direct la...
10 - 14© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Planning2. Hold employment constant Maintains trai...
10 - 15© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Schedules Standard work schedule Five eight-hour d...
10 - 16© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallJob Classification andWork Rules Specify who can do what...
10 - 17© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallJob Design Specifying the tasks thatconstitute a job for...
10 - 18© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Specialization The division of labor into unique t...
10 - 19© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallJob Expansion Adding more variety to jobs Intended to r...
10 - 20© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallJob EnlargementFigure 10.2Task #3(Lock printed circuitboa...
10 - 21© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallPsychological Componentsof Job DesignHuman resource strat...
10 - 22© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallHawthorne Studies They studied light levels, but discove...
10 - 23© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCore Job Characteristics1. Skill variety2. Job identity3....
10 - 24© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSpecializationEnlargementSelf-directedteamsEmpowermentEnr...
10 - 25© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSelf-Directed Teams Group of empowered individualsworkin...
10 - 26© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSelf-Directed Teams Ensure those who have legitimatecont...
10 - 27© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallBenefits of Teams andExpanded Job Designs Improved quali...
10 - 28© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall1. Higher capital cost2. Individuals may prefer simple jo...
10 - 29© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall1. Higher capital cost2. Individuals may prefer simple jo...
10 - 30© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMotivation and IncentiveSystems Bonuses - cash or stock ...
10 - 31© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallErgonomics and the WorkEnvironment Ergonomics is the stu...
10 - 32© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallErgonomics and WorkMethods Feedback to operators The wo...
10 - 33© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRecommended Levels ofIlluminationFigure 10.4A
10 - 34© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLevels of IlluminationTask Condition Type of Taskor AreaI...
10 - 35© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDecibel LevelsTable 10.4B
10 - 36© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMethods Analysis Focuses on how task is performed Used ...
10 - 37© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFlow DiagramStorage binsMachine 1Mach. 2Mach. 3 Mach. 4Fr...
10 - 38© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallStoragebinsMachine 1Machine 2Machine 3Machine 4Frompressm...
10 - 39© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcessChartFigure 10.5 (c)
10 - 40© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallActivity ChartFigure 10.6
10 - 41© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOperation ChartFigure 10.7
10 - 42© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual Workplace Use low-cost visual devices toshare...
10 - 43© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual Workplace Present the big picture Performanc...
10 - 44© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual WorkplaceVisual utensil holderencourageshousek...
10 - 45© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual WorkplaceVisual signals at themachine notifysu...
10 - 46© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual WorkplaceQuantities in bins indicateongoing da...
10 - 47© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Standards Effective manpower planning isdependent ...
10 - 48© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Standards Started early in the 20th century Impor...
10 - 49© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMeaningful Standards HelpDetermine1. Labor content of ite...
10 - 50© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor StandardsMay be set in four ways:1. Historical expe...
10 - 51© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallHistorical Experience How the task was performed lasttim...
10 - 52© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Studies Involves timing a sample of aworker’s perfo...
10 - 53© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Studies1. Define the task to be studied2. Divide the...
10 - 54© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Studies5. Compute average observed timeAverageobserv...
10 - 55© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Studies7. Add the normal times for eachelement to de...
10 - 56© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest Allowances Personal time allowance 4% - 7% of tota...
10 - 57© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest AllowancesTable 10.11. Constant allowance(A) Persona...
10 - 58© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest AllowancesFigure 10.1(C) Use of force or muscular en...
10 - 59© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest AllowancesFigure 10.1(E) Atmospheric conditions(heat...
10 - 60© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest AllowancesFigure 10.1(H) Mental strain:(i) Complex o...
10 - 61© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 1Average observed time = 4.0 minutesWo...
10 - 62© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 2Allowance factor = 15%PerformanceJob ...
10 - 63© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 23. Compute the normal time for each e...
10 - 64© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 25. Compute the standard time for the ...
10 - 65© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDetermine Sample Size1. How accurate we want to be2. The ...
10 - 66© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDetermine Sample SizeRequired sample size = n =2zshxwhere...
10 - 67© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDetermine Sample SizeRequired sample size = n =2zshxwhere...
10 - 68© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 3Desired accuracy with 5%Confidence le...
10 - 69© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 3n =2zseIf desired accuracy h is expre...
10 - 70© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallNew Tools With PDA software, you can studyelements, time...
10 - 71© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallPredetermined TimeStandards Divide manual work into smal...
10 - 72© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMTM TableFigure 10.9
10 - 73© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMTM ExampleWeight - less than 2 poundsConditions of GET -...
10 - 74© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling Estimates percent of time a workerspends o...
10 - 75© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling1. Take a preliminary sample to obtainestima...
10 - 76© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork SamplingDetermining the sample sizen =z2 p(1 - p)h2w...
10 - 77© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling ExampleWants employees idle 25% of the time...
10 - 78© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling ExampleNo. ofObservations Activity485 On th...
10 - 79© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling TimeStudiesSalespeopleFigure 10.10Telephone...
10 - 80© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling TimeStudiesProductivework67%Startup/exercis...
10 - 81© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling Advantages of work sampling Less expensiv...
10 - 82© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Disadvantages of work sampling Does not divide work el...
10 - 83© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallEthics and the WorkEnvironment Fairness, equity, and eth...
10 - 84© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be r...
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Heizer om10 ch10

  1. 1. 10 - 1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall10Human Resources, JobDesign, and WorkMeasurementPowerPoint presentation to accompanyHeizer and RenderOperations Management, 10ePrinciples of Operations Management, 8ePowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl
  2. 2. 10 - 2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline Global Company Profile: RustyWallace’s NASCAR Racing Team Human Resource Strategy forCompetitive Advantage Constraints on Human Resource Strategy Labor Planning Employment-Stability Policies Work Schedules Job Classifications and Work Rules
  3. 3. 10 - 3© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline – Continued Job Design Labor Specialization Job Expansion Psychological Components of JobDesign Self-Directed Teams Motivation and Incentive Systems Ergonomics and the WorkEnvironment
  4. 4. 10 - 4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline – Continued Methods Analysis The Visual Workplace Labor Standards Historical Experience Time Studies Predetermined Time Standards Work Sampling Ethics
  5. 5. 10 - 5© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapter youshould be able to:1. Describe labor planning policies2. Identify the major issues in job design3. Identify major ergonomic and workenvironment issues4. Use the tools of methods analysis
  6. 6. 10 - 6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapter youshould be able to:5. Identify four ways of establishinglabor standards6. Compute the normal and standardtimes in a time study7. Find the proper sample size for a timestudy
  7. 7. 10 - 7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRusty Wallace’s NASCARRacing Team NASCAR racing became verypopular in the 1990s with hugesponsorship and prize money High performance pit crews are akey element of a successful raceteam Pit crew members can earn$100,000 per year – for changingtires!
  8. 8. 10 - 8© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRusty Wallace’s NASCARRacing Team Each position has very specificwork standards Pit crews are highly organizedand go though rigorous physicaltraining Pit stops are videotaped to lookfor improvements
  9. 9. 10 - 9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRusty Wallace’s NASCARRacing Team
  10. 10. 10 - 10© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallHuman Resource StrategyThe objective of a human resourcestrategy is to manage labor anddesign jobs so people are effectivelyand efficiently utilized
  11. 11. 10 - 11© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallHuman Resource Strategy1. People should be effectively utilizedwithin the constraints of otheroperations management decisions2. People should have a reasonable qualityof work life in an atmosphere of mutualcommitment and trust
  12. 12. 10 - 12© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallConstraints on HumanResource StrategyFigure 10.1HUMANRESOURCESTRATEGYProduct strategy• Skills needed• Talents needed• Materials used• SafetySchedules• Time of day• Time of year(seasonal)• Stability ofschedulesWhenLocation strategy• Climate• Temperature• Noise• Light• Air qualityProcess strategy• Technology• Machinery andequipment used• SafetyIndividual differences• Strength andfatigue• Informationprocessing andresponseWhoLayout strategy• Fixed position• Process• Assembly line• Work cell• Product
  13. 13. 10 - 13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Planning1. Follow demand exactly Matches direct labor costs toproduction Incurs costs in hiring andtermination, unemploymentinsurance, and premium wages Labor is treated as a variable costEmployment Stability Policies
  14. 14. 10 - 14© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Planning2. Hold employment constant Maintains trained workforce Minimizes hiring, termination, andunemployment costs Employees may be underutilizedduring slack periods Labor is treated as a fixed costEmployment Stability Policies
  15. 15. 10 - 15© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Schedules Standard work schedule Five eight-hour days Flex-time Allows employees, within limits, todetermine their own schedules Flexible work week Fewer but longer days Part-time Fewer, possibly irregular, hours
  16. 16. 10 - 16© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallJob Classification andWork Rules Specify who can do what Specify when they can do it Specify under what conditionsthey can do it Often result of union contracts Restricts flexibility in assignmentsand consequently efficiency ofproduction
  17. 17. 10 - 17© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallJob Design Specifying the tasks thatconstitute a job for an individualor a group1. Job specialization2. Job expansion3. Psychological components4. Self-directed teams5. Motivation and incentive systems
  18. 18. 10 - 18© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Specialization The division of labor into unique tasks First suggested by Adam Smith in 17761. Development of dexterity2. Less loss of time3. Development of specialized tools Later Charles Babbage (1832) addedanother consideration1. Wages exactly fit the required skillrequired
  19. 19. 10 - 19© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallJob Expansion Adding more variety to jobs Intended to reduce boredomassociated with labor specialization Job enlargement Job rotation Job enrichment Employee empowerment
  20. 20. 10 - 20© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallJob EnlargementFigure 10.2Task #3(Lock printed circuitboard into fixture fornext operation)Present job(Manually insert andsolder six resistors)Task #2(Adhere labelsto printedcircuit board)Enlarged jobEnriched jobPlanning(Participate in a cross-function qualityimprovement team)Control(Test circuits afterassembly)
  21. 21. 10 - 21© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallPsychological Componentsof Job DesignHuman resource strategy requiresconsideration of the psychologicalcomponentsof job design
  22. 22. 10 - 22© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallHawthorne Studies They studied light levels, but discoveredproductivity improvement wasindependent from lighting levels Introduced psychology into the workplace The workplace social system and distinctroles played by individuals may be moreimportant than physical factors Individual differences may be dominant injob expectation and contribution
  23. 23. 10 - 23© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCore Job Characteristics1. Skill variety2. Job identity3. Job significance4. Autonomy5. FeedbackJobs should include the followingcharacteristics
  24. 24. 10 - 24© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSpecializationEnlargementSelf-directedteamsEmpowermentEnrichmentJob Design ContinuumFigure 10.3Job expansionSelf-direction
  25. 25. 10 - 25© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSelf-Directed Teams Group of empowered individualsworking together to reach acommon goal May be organized for long-term orshort-term objectives Effective because Provide employee empowerment Ensure core job characteristics Meet individual psychological needs
  26. 26. 10 - 26© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSelf-Directed Teams Ensure those who have legitimatecontributions are on the team Provide management support Ensure the necessary training Endorse clear objectives and goals Financial and non-financial rewards Supervisors must release controlTo maximize effectiveness, managers should
  27. 27. 10 - 27© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallBenefits of Teams andExpanded Job Designs Improved quality of work life Improved job satisfaction Increased motivation Allows employees to accept moreresponsibility Improved productivity and quality Reduced turnover and absenteeism
  28. 28. 10 - 28© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall1. Higher capital cost2. Individuals may prefer simple jobs3. Higher wages rates for greater skills4. Smaller labor pool5. Higher training costsLimitations of JobExpansion
  29. 29. 10 - 29© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall1. Higher capital cost2. Individuals may prefer simple jobs3. Higher wages rates for greater skills4. Smaller labor pool5. Higher training costsLimitations of JobExpansion
  30. 30. 10 - 30© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMotivation and IncentiveSystems Bonuses - cash or stock options Profit-sharing - profits for distribution toemployees Gain sharing - rewards forimprovements Incentive plans - typically based onproduction rates Knowledge-based systems - reward forknowledge or skills
  31. 31. 10 - 31© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallErgonomics and the WorkEnvironment Ergonomics is the study of theinterface between man andmachine Often calledhuman factors Operator inputto machines
  32. 32. 10 - 32© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallErgonomics and WorkMethods Feedback to operators The workenvironment Illumination Noise Temperature Humidity
  33. 33. 10 - 33© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRecommended Levels ofIlluminationFigure 10.4A
  34. 34. 10 - 34© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLevels of IlluminationTask Condition Type of Taskor AreaIlluminationLevelType ofIlluminationSmall detail,extremeaccuracySewing, inspectingdark materials100 Overheadceiling lightsand desk lampNormal detail,prolongedperiodsReading, partsassembly,general officework20-50 Overheadceiling lightsGood contrast,fairly largeobjectsRecreationalfacilities5-10 Overheadceiling lightsLarge objects Restaurants,stairways,warehouses2-5 Overheadceiling lights
  35. 35. 10 - 35© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDecibel LevelsTable 10.4B
  36. 36. 10 - 36© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMethods Analysis Focuses on how task is performed Used to analyze1. Movement of individuals or material Flow diagrams and process charts2. Activities of human and machineand crew activity Activity charts3. Body movement Operations charts
  37. 37. 10 - 37© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFlow DiagramStorage binsMachine 1Mach. 2Mach. 3 Mach. 4Frompressmach. PaintshopWeldingFigure 10.5 (a)
  38. 38. 10 - 38© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallStoragebinsMachine 1Machine 2Machine 3Machine 4Frompressmach.PaintshopWeldingFlow DiagramFigure 10.5 (b)
  39. 39. 10 - 39© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcessChartFigure 10.5 (c)
  40. 40. 10 - 40© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallActivity ChartFigure 10.6
  41. 41. 10 - 41© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOperation ChartFigure 10.7
  42. 42. 10 - 42© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual Workplace Use low-cost visual devices toshare information quickly andaccurately Displays and graphs replaceprintouts and paperwork Able to provide timely informationin a dynamic environment System should focus onimprovement
  43. 43. 10 - 43© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual Workplace Present the big picture Performance HousekeepingVisual signals can take many formsand serve many functions
  44. 44. 10 - 44© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual WorkplaceVisual utensil holderencourageshousekeepingA “3-minute service”clock reminds employeesof the goalFigure 10.8
  45. 45. 10 - 45© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual WorkplaceVisual signals at themachine notifysupport personnelVisual kanbans reduceinventory and foster JITAndonLine/machinestoppageParts/maintenanceneededAll systems goPart A Part B Part CReorderpointFigure 10.8
  46. 46. 10 - 46© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallThe Visual WorkplaceQuantities in bins indicateongoing daily requirementsand clipboards provideinformation on schedulechangesProcess specifications andoperating procedures areposted in each work areaFigure 10.8
  47. 47. 10 - 47© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Standards Effective manpower planning isdependent on a knowledge of thelabor required Labor standards are the amountof time required to perform a jobor part of a job Accurate labor standards helpdetermine labor requirements,costs, and fair work
  48. 48. 10 - 48© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor Standards Started early in the 20th century Important to both manufacturingand service organizations Necessary for determiningstaffing requirements Important to labor incentivesystems
  49. 49. 10 - 49© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMeaningful Standards HelpDetermine1. Labor content of items produced2. Staffing needs3. Cost and time estimates4. Crew size and work balance5. Expected production6. Basis of wage incentive plans7. Efficiency of employees
  50. 50. 10 - 50© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLabor StandardsMay be set in four ways:1. Historical experience2. Time studies3. Predetermined time standards4. Work sampling
  51. 51. 10 - 51© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallHistorical Experience How the task was performed lasttime Easy and inexpensive Data available from productionrecords or time cards Data is not objective and may beinaccurate Not recommended
  52. 52. 10 - 52© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Studies Involves timing a sample of aworker’s performance and usingit to set a standard Requires trained and experiencedobservers Cannot be set before the work isperformed
  53. 53. 10 - 53© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Studies1. Define the task to be studied2. Divide the task into preciseelements3. Decide how many times tomeasure the task4. Time and record element times andrating of performance
  54. 54. 10 - 54© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Studies5. Compute average observed timeAverageobservedtimeSum of the times recordedto perform each elementNumber of observations=6. Determine performance ratingand normal timeNormal time = xAverageobservedtimePerformancerating factor
  55. 55. 10 - 55© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Studies7. Add the normal times for eachelement to develop the total normaltime for the task8. Compute the standard timeStandard time =Total normal time1 - Allowance factor
  56. 56. 10 - 56© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest Allowances Personal time allowance 4% - 7% of total time for use ofrestroom, water fountain, etc. Delay allowance Based upon actual delays that occur Fatigue allowance Based on our knowledge of humanenergy expenditure
  57. 57. 10 - 57© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest AllowancesTable 10.11. Constant allowance(A) Personal allowance ……………... 5(B) Basic fatigue allowance ………… 42. Variable allowances:(A) Standing allowance ……………… 2(B) Abnormal position(i) Awkward (bending) ………… 2(ii) Very awkward (lying,stretching) …………………… 7
  58. 58. 10 - 58© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest AllowancesFigure 10.1(C) Use of force or muscular energy inlifting, pulling, pushingWeight lifted (pounds)20 …………………………………… 340……………………………………. 960……………………………………. 17(D) Bad light:(i) Well below recommended…. 2(ii) Quite inadequate……………. 5
  59. 59. 10 - 59© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest AllowancesFigure 10.1(E) Atmospheric conditions(heat and humidity) …………… 0-10(F) Close attention:(i) Fine or exacting……………….. 2(ii) Very fine or very exacting…… 5(G) Noise level:(i) Intermittent—loud…………….. 2(ii) Intermittent—very loudor high-pitched………………... 5
  60. 60. 10 - 60© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRest AllowancesFigure 10.1(H) Mental strain:(i) Complex or wide spanof attention.…………………….. 4(ii) Very complex………………….. 8(I) Tediousness:(i) Tedious…………..……………… 2(ii) Very tedious.…………………… 5
  61. 61. 10 - 61© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 1Average observed time = 4.0 minutesWorker rating = 85%Allowance factor = 13%Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating factor)= (4.0)(.85)= 3.4 minutesStandard time = = =Normal time1 - Allowance factor3.41 - .133.4.87= 3.9 minutes
  62. 62. 10 - 62© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 2Allowance factor = 15%PerformanceJob Element 1 2 3 4 5 Rating(A) Compose and type letter 8 10 9 21* 11 120%(B) Type envelope address 2 3 2 1 3 105%(C) Stuff, stamp, seal, and 2 1 5* 2 1 110%sort envelopesCycle Observed (in minutes)1. Delete unusual or nonrecurring observations (marked with *)2. Compute average times for each elementAverage time for A = (8 + 10 + 9 + 11)/4 = 9.5 minutesAverage time for B = (2 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 3)/5 = 2.2 minutesAverage time for C = (2 + 1 + 2 + 1)/4 = 1.5 minutes
  63. 63. 10 - 63© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 23. Compute the normal time for each elementNormal time for A = (9.5)(1.2) = 11.4 minutesNormal time for B = (2.2)(1.05) = 2.31 minutesNormal time for C = (1.5)(1.10) = 1.65 minutesNormal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating)4. Add the normal times to find the total normal timeTotal normal time = 11.40 + 2.31 + 1.65 = 15.36 minutes
  64. 64. 10 - 64© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 25. Compute the standard time for the jobStandard time =Total normal time1 - Allowance factor= = 18.07 minutes15.361 - .15
  65. 65. 10 - 65© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDetermine Sample Size1. How accurate we want to be2. The desired level of confidence3. How much variation exists withinthe job elements
  66. 66. 10 - 66© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDetermine Sample SizeRequired sample size = n =2zshxwhere h = accuracy level (acceptable error)desired in percent of the job elementexpressed as a decimalz = number of standard deviations requiredfor the desired level of confidences = standard deviation of the initial samplex = mean of the initial samplen = required sample size
  67. 67. 10 - 67© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDetermine Sample SizeRequired sample size = n =2zshxwhere h = accuracy level (acceptable error)desired in percent of the job elementexpressed as a decimalz = number of standard deviations requiredfor the desired level of confidences = standard deviation of the initial samplex = mean of the initial samplen = required sample sizeDesiredConfidence(%)z Value(standard deviation required fordesired level of confidence)90.0 1.6595.0 1.9695.45 2.0099.0 2.5899.73 3.00Common z ValuesTable 10.2
  68. 68. 10 - 68© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 3Desired accuracy with 5%Confidence level = 95%Sample standard deviation = 1.0Sample mean = 3.00n =2zshxn = = 170.74 ≈ 17121.96 x 1.0.05 x 3h = .05 x = 3.00 s = 1.0z = 1.96 (from Table S10.1 or Appendix I)
  69. 69. 10 - 69© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTime Study Example 3n =2zseIf desired accuracy h is expressed as an absoluteamount, substitute e for hx, where e is theabsolute amount of acceptable errorVariationsWhen the standard deviation s is not provided,it must be computeds = =∑(xi - x)2 ∑(Each sample observation - x)2n - 1 Number in sample - 1
  70. 70. 10 - 70© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallNew Tools With PDA software, you can studyelements, time, performance rate, andstatistical confidence intervals can becreated,edited,managed,and logged Reduces oreliminatesthe needfor data entry
  71. 71. 10 - 71© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallPredetermined TimeStandards Divide manual work into small basicelements that have established times Can be done in a laboratory away fromthe actual production operation Can be set beforethe work is actuallyperformed No performanceratings are necessary
  72. 72. 10 - 72© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMTM TableFigure 10.9
  73. 73. 10 - 73© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMTM ExampleWeight - less than 2 poundsConditions of GET - easyPlace accuracy - approximateDistance range - 8 to 20 inchesElement Description Element TimeGet tube from rack AA2 35Uncap, place on counter AA2 35Get centrifuge tube, place at sample table AD2 45Pour (3 seconds) PT 83Place tubes in rack (simo) PC2 40Total TMU 238.0006 x 238 = Total standard minutes = .14Table 10.4
  74. 74. 10 - 74© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling Estimates percent of time a workerspends on various tasks Requires random observations torecord worker activity Determines how employees allocatetheir time Can be used to set staffing levels,reassign duties, estimate costs, andset delay allowances
  75. 75. 10 - 75© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling1. Take a preliminary sample to obtainestimates of parameter values2. Compute the sample size required3. Prepare a schedule for randomobservations at appropriate times4. Observe and record worker activities5. Determine how workers spend theirtime
  76. 76. 10 - 76© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork SamplingDetermining the sample sizen =z2 p(1 - p)h2where n = required sample sizez = standard normal deviate fordesired confidence levelp = estimated value of sampleproportionh = acceptable error level in percent
  77. 77. 10 - 77© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling ExampleWants employees idle 25% of the timeSample should be accurate within 3%Wants to have 95.45% confidence in the resultsn =z2 p(1 - p)h2where n = required sample sizez = 2 for a 95.45% confidence levelp = estimate of idle proportion = 25% = .25h = acceptable error of 3% = .03n = = 833 observations(2)2 (.25)(.75)(.03)2
  78. 78. 10 - 78© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling ExampleNo. ofObservations Activity485 On the phone or meeting with a welfare client126 Idle62 Personal time23 Discussions with supervisor137 Filing, meeting, and computer data entry833All but idle and personal time are work relatedPercentage idle time = (126 + 62)/833 = 22.6%Since this is less than the target value of 25%,the workload needs to be adjusted
  79. 79. 10 - 79© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling TimeStudiesSalespeopleFigure 10.10Telephonesales12%Telephonewithin firm13%Lunch andpersonal10%Meetingsand other8%Paperwork17%Travel20%Sales inperson20%
  80. 80. 10 - 80© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling TimeStudiesProductivework67%Startup/exercise3%Breaks and lunch10%Dead timebetween tasks13%Cleanup3%Unscheduled tasksand downtime4%Assembly-LineEmployeesFigure 10.10
  81. 81. 10 - 81© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Sampling Advantages of work sampling Less expensive than time study Observers need little training Studies can be delayed or interruptedwith little impact on results Worker has littlechance to affectresults Less intrusive
  82. 82. 10 - 82© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Disadvantages of work sampling Does not divide work elements ascompletely as time study Can yield biased results if observerdoes not follow random pattern Less accurate, especially whenjob element times are shortWork Sampling
  83. 83. 10 - 83© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallEthics and the WorkEnvironment Fairness, equity, and ethics areimportant constraints of job design Important issues may relate to equalopportunity, equal pay for equalwork, and safe working conditions Helpful to work with governmentagencies, trade unions, insurers,and employees
  84. 84. 10 - 84© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.Printed in the United States of America.

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