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  • 1. Skill Development in Rural Areas through CBVT National Congress on Skill Development & Entrepreneurship – 2014 Mumbai R. Narasimham Chairman, Expert Committee for Developing courses in Vocational Rehab, Rehab Social Work etc… (Rehabilitation Council of India) CBVT @ Nat Cong 1
  • 2. Introduction  As per Census 2001 there is a varying urbanization in different parts of the country, leaving a 61.53% in the rural areas.  The problems faced by the disabled is compounded by multifarious handicaps such as hunger, disease, squalor, illiteracy and a daily battle for the basic necessities of life in the villages.  Despite the difference in the urbanization, a total of 74.8% of the disabled population lives in the rural areas. CBVT @ Nat Cong 2
  • 3. CBR a Necessity • Community Based Rehab as understood today is a necessity and not just a tool to get noticed by public for several reasons. • Most prominent among them being the lack of access for the pwd living in rural and far flung areas. • Services & skills for management of pwd are only available in urban & at the most in district level towns. • CBR is both simple & complex for the type of services they render. • Institutions have been providing episodic services on medical intervention, family guidance & counseling, and ability aids. • The present paper looks at another important component of economic rehab & empowerment of pwd living in the rural & semi urban areas. CBVT @ Nat Cong 3
  • 4. What is CBR?  CBR is in a way part of empowerment of the pwd living in far flung areas.  “CBR is a strategy within general community development for rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities and social inclusion of all children and adults with disabilities. CBR is implemented through the combined efforts of people with disabilities themselves, their families and communities, and the appropriate health, education, vocational and social services” 8 – World Health Organization (1994)  "A strategy within community development for the rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities and social integration of all people with disabilities" - United Nations  "CBR is a strategy for enhancing the quality of life of disabled people by improving service delivery, by providing more equitable opportunities and by promoting and protecting their human rights” - Einar Helander, Expert on CBR CBVT @ Nat Cong 4
  • 5. CBR - How • Many institutions follow community-oriented approaches. Services are provided at the level of community through an outreach clinic or camp based approach. • Program is guided by the institution and directed by the availability of the resources. Mostly they are disability specific. • The patients and community are only the beneficiaries. e.g. as and when appliances like wheelchair, tricycle, or calipers become available, they get distributed whether it is appropriate or not. However, these strategies are inadequate to respond to the needs and expectations of the disabled and their community. CBVT @ Nat Cong 5 Now the Issues
  • 6. Projected Population of pwd by 2016* Projected Population Disability Locomotor Visual Impairment Intellectual Disabilities (MR) Speech Impaired Hearing Impaired Total Male Female 75,87,297 44,74,268 19,23,258 5,94,523 15,14,811 9,57,878 Projected Number of pwd assuming 70% live in Areas Total Male Female Total Rounded to millions 84,43,096 8.45 17,62,447 1.76 17,30,883 1,20,61,565 53,11,108 31,31,988 25,17,781 13,46,281 4,16,166 24,72,689 10,60,368 6,70,515 1.73 9,68,628 8,12,893 17,81,521 6,78,040 5,69,025 12,47,065 1.25 16,89,962 15,97,794 32,87,756 11,82,793 11,18,455 23,01,248 2.30 1,36,83,956 84,37,356 2,21,21,312 95,78,590 59,06,149 1,54,84,739 About 15 million *Institute of Applied Manpower Research CBVT @ Nat Cong 6
  • 7. Literacy Levels of different categories NSSO (2002) Study (Per 1000 ) Disability Illiterate Primary Functional Illiteracy Middle Secondary & above Mental retardation 866 106 97.2% 24 3 Mental Illness 591 215 80.6% 102 89 Blindness 773 141 91.4% 45 41 Low vision 738 172 91.0% 45 43 Hearing 646 231 87.7% 70 50 Speech 670 235 90.5% 57 38 Locomotor 447 292 73.9% 136 124 All disabilities 547 254 80.1% 106 92 CBVT @ Nat Cong 7
  • 8. Education & Skills of pwd Education VRC Emp. Exch. 0.4% Camp in rural area 40.3% Illiterate < 8th Std 9.9% 25.7% 12.7% 42.1% Less than 8th 35.6% 13.1% 82.4% 8th to 10th SSC + 14.5% 49.9% 21.8% 65.1% 6.2% 11.4% Vocational 20.8% 30.2% Skills CBVT @ Nat Cong NSSO 3.2% 1.9%8
  • 9. Survey of DDRCs  In a Status survey conducted in 50 DDRCs on a stratified sampling method covering all the States/ UTs in the country for the Min. of SJE, I had the opportunity to visit more than 30 DDRCs and compiled information through other experienced Rehab Professionals who covered the other 20 DDRCs  It is found that the DDRCs have made a dent in reaching the rural disabled at grass root level.  Study has found that on an average 1697 pwd per year per DDRC were provided with different types of services during 2002 – 2007  A total of 97,757 with a statistical average of about 19551.4 ability aids per year have been distributed at an average of 3910.3 per Centre per year.  The largest constituent of beneficiaries is those receiving Hearing Aids followed by Others (mostly Calipers, crutches, special shoes etc...) and then Tricycles.  Hardly a total of 1,634 out of 3,81,748 constituting an insignificant percentage of the total pwd covered have been provided with vocational services. There is@ Nat Congneed in this area CBVT a dire 9 Districts covered in the Study
  • 10. Beneficiaries of DDRCs in the Country of Educational Status Beneficiaries Vocational Training Education Illiterate Number %age 64 32.5 4 2.1 81 41.1 149 75.7 Secondary 22 11.2 Sr Secondary 15 7.6 6 4% 2% 3.0 Literate <8 Less than 8th Graduate Post Graduate Above Secondary 5 92% 2.5 48 @ Nat 24.3 CBVT Cong 197 2% 10 None Acquired Skil s B. Ed Others
  • 11. School Dropout rates in Tamilnadu* Level Primary School (5th Std) Now (2007) 10 years ago 2.7% 15.85% 5.22% 32.54% High School 42.55% 63.87% +2 69.45% 81.40% Middle School (8th Std) *Muthukumaran Committee Even now only 30.55% go for higher education among non – disabled. We deal with adults who left schools 10 years ago – the 81.4% Workout for the pwd with reference to the Literacy levels – NSSO study reports only 9.2% go CBVT @ Nat Cong 11 beyond + 2
  • 12. Vocational Rehabilitation Vocational training & employment are the final and most vital component of social inclusion of the pwd. The Ministry of Labour is mandated to carry out these tasks among the population with as many as 5200 ITIs providing training in 128 technical and non technical trades with an annual intake of about 7.5 lakhs. There are 21 Vocational Rehabilitation Centres for Handicapped (VRCs) in the country. Other than these, penetration of skill training has been limited to sporadic efforts by the NGOs All these VRCs are in urban areas but they do carry out outreach services. CBVT @ Nat Cong 12
  • 13. Outreach Programs  Needless to say most of the Services for the pwd are in urban areas and the services to the rural areas are provided through Outreach Services.  Conducting Outreach Programs or under the name of Community Based Rehabilitation is not new. As early as the early 1940s, the Christian Medical College & Hospital at Vellore in South India has been taking their medical & preventive services to the rural areas in a radius of more than 50 miles, focusing mainly on communicable diseases & Leprosy which was endemic in that area then.  Subsequently NGOs working with the disabled also started the CBR work, but confined it to the disability they served and services are confined to basic techniques of therapy.  The concept of CBR in Vocational Rehabilitation was started in VRC Delhi (Estt 1971) in 1974 and is now a CBVT @ Nat Cong regular feature of its services in all VRCs. Evaluation in progress at Bijwasan 13
  • 14. Concept Development  Finding that the Rehab Camps yielded only limited success a new skill development program to train the disabled was initiated  The Author had opportunity to introduce community based vocational training (CBVT) while working in Ahmedabad at Pirana ( 18 Kms) in 1989.  A customized skill development program was developed in assembling and repair of 2 – Band Radios. (That was the Market then) 10 persons with Locomotor disabilities were included. The program was coordinated by the Dargah authorities  Since then several such programs were conducted by the Author in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka.  Now all the VRCs carry out CBVT programs as part of their regular service.  Over 250 modules have been developed. This is not an exhaustive list but covers many traditional, urban and rural based, technical, non technical, animal husbandry, poultry, farm equipment and agricultural operations.  Education is not a constraint. Training is provided suited to CBVT @ Nat Cong 14 abilities.
  • 15. Concept  The concept works on the premise that a job does not necessarily require long term training, but skills could be acquired in certain operations of the Job.  Even certain components of the Job/ Job operations can provide a livelihood  Even the highly qualified people use only a few of the theoretical and practical knowledge and skills acquired by them during their education or professional training.  The long term training and higher education may help them in gaining better access and immediate placement in a better status in a job.  However, since most of the pwd are less educated and live in inaccessible areas, it is necessary that the pwd are given vocational training in marketable skills.  Specific skills suited to the local employment market are developed and training is provided in one of the CBVT @ Nat Cong 15 operations of an occupation.
  • 16. Objectives  Provide vocational training suited to local employment market in one of the operations in a job profile through short term program  Training in these skills is best conducted by community members who, with minimal assistance, can easily transfer their skills and knowledge to people with disabilities.  Creation of micro and macro income-generation opportunities:  Help pwd access micro and macro incomegeneration activities, including obtaining financial credit through existing systems. CBVT @ Nat Cong 16
  • 17. Administrative aspect  Preliminary contacts with local NGO/ CBO and encourage them to conduct a Camp to screen suitable pwd training.  Study employment opportunities available in the area, general educational attainment in the community, availability of training facilities, skilled workers / craftsman and other infrastructure  Skills required to suit local market and can be acquired in a period of not more than 3 months identified  pwd who can undergo the identified skill training are selected. Selection based on physical and intellectual abilities. Education may not be the sole criterion, even though it may be one of them.  Syllabus with weekly and daily targets of skills to be achieved should be worked out. CBVT @ Nat Cong 17
  • 18. Adm - Contd  Select a local trainer/ skilled person/ artisan . Orient him through the regular trainer of the Institute in the management of the disabled, and techniques of transfer of skills.  Persuade the local N.G.O. to provide space to conduct the training for the period, pay honorarium to the local trainer and where feasible meet the cost of raw material required.  Provide all technical know-how in the conduct of the training and also Tools and Equipment, Scholarship, conducting the test and certification.  Provide post-training follow up to ensure placement services either in the form of wage paid employment or self-employment or any other Supported Employment  Also arrange either through donations or otherwise Toolkits to those completing theNat Cong training and also ability aids. CBVT @ 18
  • 19. Success Stories Skill Training in House Wiring & repair of domestic appliances – Dahanu Rd – Locomotor & Hearing impairments Training in Children’s garments – Amravati – Locomotor & Hearing Impairments Training in Radio Assembly – Wada – Locomotor disabilities Training in manufacture of Sanitary Pads and screen Printing – Bhiwandi Intellectual Impairment CBVT @ Nat Cong 19
  • 20. Post Training rehab During a survey carried out after about one year it was found almost 83% were found engaged in economic activities. Some were formed into Self Help Groups to take up production work Group Self employment opportunities were created and required assistance provided Specific training suited to local employers were provided. CBVT @ Nat Cong 20
  • 21. Group Employment – Devanahalli, Bangalore Rural dist Collaboration: Panchayat/ Block Dev Office No trained: 15 persons (Including 5 girls) No. of hours: 120 hrs Content: House wiring, fitting of fans, assembling decorative bulbs, use of amplifiers and other related work Output: 6 assisted in finding jobs with local contractors Another Six helped to form a group. Group Loan was procured for setting a Central Call Centre for electrical repair, hiring of Amplifiers, lighting for marriages/ functions CBVT @ Nat Cong 21
  • 22. Self Help Group, Kaiwara, Kolar Dist • Collaborator: NABARD, MS Ramiah Medical College, Kaiwara Samsthanam • No. Trained: 20 • No. of hours: 120 • Content: book binding, manufacture of note books, envelopes, spiral binding and rubber stamp making • Space & Infrastructure facilities by Kaiwara Samsthanam & M.S. Ramiah Medical College • Result: Formed Self Help Group. Machinery was provided by NABARD for initial start CBVT @ Nat Cong 22
  • 23. Modular Employment Skills • Dte Genl of Emp & Trg have identified more than 250 skills which can be acquired in 60 to 500 hrs under the Skill Development Program of the Govt. • While some of them can be accessed by the pwd also, major issue is disability, distance and destitution. • Almost all the Training Programs are in urban areas and the skills are also in urban based occupations – technical & non technical • The time frame provided is not adequate for some of the skills especially for pwmr • Skill training program for pwd especially for the rural and less literate has to be custom made • Repetition of the same training program may be avoided unless there is scope for economic rehabilitation. CBVT @ Nat Cong 23
  • 24. Conclusion  Services, especially vocational, are available in the rural areas also for the pwd. There are weaknesses and constraints in delivery.  Rehab professionals have to make spl efforts to swim along and gain access to these services.  We can organize CBVT programs in addition to the present educative and therapeutic services rendered in the CBR  CBVT has to be tailored to suit employment market in the area and learning constraints of each group of disability.  It should not be static. The examples of syllabus portrayed are suggestive and should be tailored to the needs of local market.  Present Employment Modular Skills, though good to some extent are repeated ad nauseum and are not accessible to pwd because of distances, disability & destitution  Majority of these training programs are conducted by Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) or other similar organizations.  The Institutions working for pwd may work in collaboration with them to design syllabus@for Cong CBVT programs these CBVT Nat 24
  • 25. Community Ownership Participating pwd Pervasive Attitude Strengthen families CBR Worker Internal & External Resources Perfect CBVT Program Stimulus Multi sectoral Linkages Select appropriate vocational skill Skill Training Employment/ Self Employment Opportunities CBVT @ Nat Cong Referral Services Assistive Technology 25
  • 26. CBVT in Flower Bouquet - VRC Guwahati • • • Number: 16 (Male & Female) Duration: 1 Month (120 hrs) Eligibility: 6th Standard, Edu not a constraint Disability : Locomotor & Hearing Impairment. Emp. Potentiality: Self Employment TOOLS & RAW MATERIAL Chisel , Knife, Bamboo Basket ( Different Varieties), Flowers (Varieties), Paste, Thermacol, Objective: Operations Bunches and Bouquets, Flower Basket, Flower Vase, Life size bouquet Skills: Concept on Floral Supplies and Equipment , Wire and Taping Technique , Floral Design Forms, Round Bouquet-Silk, Care and Handling of Fresh Flowers, Floral Containers, Flower and Foliage(Plant) Identification, FloralCong Pricing, Showpiece with Fresh CBVT @ Nat 26 Flowers
  • 27. Syllabus for CBVT in Repairing Of Domestic Appliances (Electrical) Sl. No 1. Introduction to electricity. 1 week 2. Safety ,precautions ,server tools, their uses. 1 week 3. Typical graphical symbols for electrical diagrams. 1 week 4. Types of electricity, define voltage, current and resistance, Ohm’s law, electrical power, energy and their measurements. What is electrical circuit, types, use of switches, holders, sockets and their types? Different types of conductors, common types of electrical wires and their uses Colour codes of wires and types of wire joints. Define cycle phase and frequency. Introduction to multimeter, Ohmmeter, Ammeter and Volt meter. Connecting and use of these meters. Soldering practice. What is earthing and why is it done. Study of capacitors and fuse wire. 1 week 5. 6. 7. 8. Topics CBVT @ Nat Cong Period 1 week 1 week 1 week 1 week 27
  • 28. Syllabus for CBVT in Repairing Of Domestic Appliances (Electrical) - contd 9. 2 weeks 13. Faults and Remedies: a) Electrical Iron (simple, automatic) b) Table fan and Table Lamp c) Ceiling fan, regulator. d) Domestic lights. e) House wiring, replacing fuse etc. Faults and Remedies: a) Electrical Bell / switch. b) Electrical heater, geyser. c) Tube light, street light and d) Staircase wiring. Assembly of bulbs in series and parallel and running lights decoration lighting. Test the single phase and three phase motor for open circuit. Short circuiting and testing of earth with the help of test Lamp and with Multimeter. Dismantling and assembly of a single phase A.C. Motor 14. Dismantling and assembly of three phase motor. 1 week 15. Revision and test 1. 16 TOTAL 10. 11. 12. CBVT @ Nat Cong 1 week 1 week 1 week 1 week week 28 15 weeks
  • 29. Module on Stitching of bags – for pwmr Sl No 1 Skills to be developed Pedaling the sewing machine 20 2 Pedaling with belt attached to Head 20 3 Fix Foot & Pedal (Move Paper Straight) 15 4 Move Cloth 15 5 15 7 Fix Needle & Stitch holes in paper & then cloth (No thread) Stitch Cloth with thread (threading the needle by others unless the Trainee can do it) Stitch bags 8 Stitch bags on motorized machines 15 9 Stitch body of nighties (No sleeves) 10 10 Revision & test 6 Number of Hours 20 15 5 Total 150 Since continuous stitching or pedaling will be initially uncomfortable it may be reduced to 4 hours CBVT @ Nat Cong 29 per day, the rest of the day being used for money concepts & simulated shopping. From Exercise 6 onwards they will work for at least 6 hours per day just as they would, in a work setting with the employer.
  • 30. Amantramaksharam Nasti: Nasti Moolam anaushadham: Ayogyoh Purusho Nasti: Yojakastatra Durlabhaha Every letter a Mantra; Every root a medicine; No person is totally useless; User is hard to locate CBVT @ Nat Cong 30
  • 31. R. Narasimham Consultant (Vocational Rehabilitation) Chennai / Hyderabad Phone: 040 – 4020 2698 Mobile: 98407 14181/ 80088 88747 Email- Website: CBVT @ Nat Cong 31