The Honorable Marcus Mosiah GarveyCompanion documents to this Learning Series:Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the WorldConstitution of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, ,1918 RBG Communiversity “If you have no confidence in self you are twice defeated in the race of life. With confidence you have won even before you have started”
Jamaican born nationalist leader, Marcus Garvey, attended school until he was only 14. In 1910, he traveled to Central America. He served as the editor for the daily newspaper, La Nacion while living in Colon, Panama. In 1912, he returned to Jamaica, but soon left for London to attend Birbeck College.
When he returned to Jamaica in 1914, Garvey and Amy Ashwood co-founded theUniversal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League. The association became known as the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).
Through this organization, Garvey sought to organize blacks throughout the world and create societies in Africa. He also wanted to establish an independent black economy based on capitalism.
In Jamaica, the UNIA failed to attract a substantial following so Garvey came to NewYork in 1916. He established branches of the UNIA throughout the northern cities. He also began publishing his newspaper, Negro World. His publication incited considerable attention. In Belize and other countries, it was considered seditious and was confiscated.
By 1919, his following had reached 4,000,000. That same year he established the shipping company, the Black Star Line and the Negro Factories Corporation. He alsoopened a chain of restaurants, grocery stores, laundries, a hotel, and a printing press.
Lessons from The Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey
The U.S. government began to notice Garvey’s activities. In 1919, the Bureau of Investigation started to monitor his actions. With the intent to eventually deport him, the bureau began to gather evidence of his actions that related to the Black Star Line.
During his peak in popularity, in 1920, he presided over the UNIA’s first international convention. The convention included delegates from 25 countries. Among the actionstaken was the adoption of The Declaration of Rights of theNegro People of the World and the election of Garvey as theProvisional President of Africa.
The RED, BLACK and GREEN Flag was unveiled to the world by the HonorableMarcus Mosiah Garvey and the members of the Universal NegroImprovement Association and African CommunitiesLeague, of the World at its first internationalconvention on August 13,1920. The UNIA-ACL knewthat Africans at home and abroad needed there ownflag as other flags around the world could notrepresent the collective of African people.
The PledgeI commit my body mind and Spirit to the protection defense and security of the Red, Blackand Green. I dedicate my life to the redemption of Mother Africa and the Liberation of herscattered Black children. I accept for myself and my descendants the teachings of UniversalAfrican Nationalism and I promise that our children will be instilled with the purpose andknowledge of themselves as African People in order that the cause of our struggle willneither falter nor fail until all Black people are free and united…
Despite his following, Garvey’s ideology of racial purity and separatism failed to gain the support of black leaders such as W.E.B. Du Bois.
In addition, in 1922, the Black Star Line was dissolved. Garvey’s other businessesalso failed. Garvey received an additional blow when he was indicted for mail fraud for the sale of Black Star Line stock. In 1923, he was convicted and sentenced to five years in prison. In 1925, he began serving his prison sentence.
After President Calvin Coolidge commuted his sentence in 1927, he was deported to Jamaica.
Our King died in with a broken heart in London, England in 1940.God and Nature first made us what we are, and then out of our own created genius we make ourselves what we want to be. Follow always that great law. Let the sky and God be our limit and Eternity our measurement.
Let it be your constant method to look into the design of peoples actions, and see what they would be at, as often as it is practicable; and to make this custom the more significant, practice it first upon yourself.
PDF e-Book and mp3 Downloads RBG BHM Special EducationPhilosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey
Afrikan-Centered Consciousness versus the NewWorld Order- Garveyism in the Age of Globalism