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BUSINESS RESEARCH-Leadership Ii

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Researches on leadership by eminnent scholars published in journals reduced to powerpoint presentations.

Researches on leadership by eminnent scholars published in journals reduced to powerpoint presentations.

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  • 1. BUSINESS JOURNALS REVIEW ON LEADERSHIP II Learning from Research 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 2. Leadership Course at PAF-KIET One of the project assigned to students of this course was to give an oral presentation on a research publication on leadership from HBR. This presentation includes some of these presentations. Good effort of students is appreciated. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 3. RESEARCH- ARTICLES
    • What we Know about Leadership. By Hogan & Curphy & Hogan. J, American Psychologist, Jun 1994
    • Meeting the Competence Needs of Global Leaders- A Partnership Approach. By Judi Brownell, HRM Journal, Fall 2006, Vol 45
    • A Leadership Challenge. By Kouzes & Posner
    • , HBR, Sept 1989
    06/10/09 05:54 PM , L E A D E R S H I P
  • 4. Sabah Tanvir 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 5. ARTICLE
    • What We Know About Leadership: Effectiveness and Personality
    • Robert Hogan, Gordon Curphy & Joyce Hogan
    • Deptt of Psychology, University of Tulsa,
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 6. Who shall be the leader? 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 7.
    • Who
    • should
    • be
    • the
    • leader?
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 8. . Volumes appear on the topic every year, and a recent review lists over 7,000 books, articles or presentations 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 9. What is leadership? 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 10. Pursue common goals 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 11. Leadership is persuasion, not domination 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 12.    What is that the leaders do? 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 13. Taxonomies of leadership behavior
    • Yukl identifies categories of leader behavior :
    • planning and organizing
    • problem solving
    • clarifying
    • recognizing
    • supporting
    • managing
    • developing
    • mentoring
    • rewarding
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 14.
    • Effectiveness concern judgments about a leader’s impact on an organization’s bottom line.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 15. Does Leadership Matter? 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 16. Some coaches can move from team to team transforming losers into winners
    • Lincoln Grant Ulysses
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 17. Leader characteristics are associated to enhance team performance
    • 1 st :
    • But the effectiveness is usually affected by the environment which are mostly out of leader’s control
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 18. Adolph Hitler in Germany
    • Joseph Stalin
    • in Russia
    • 2 nd
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 19.
    • Millions of people suffered and died as a consequence of megalomaniacal visions of these flawed geniuses and the baleful consequences of their rule is persistent even today.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 20. 3 rd : Leadership behavior are associated with subordinate’s performance and satisfaction 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 21. Reactions to inept leadership
    • Turnover
    • Insubordination
    • Industrial sabotage
    • Malingering
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 22.
    • 60% to 75% of the employees report that the worst or most stressful aspect of their job is the immediate supervisor
    • Good leaders may put pressure on their people, but abusive and incompetent management create billions of dollars a lost productivity each year.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 23. How Are Leaders Chosen? 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 24.
    • How Are Leaders Chosen?
    • measures of cognitive ability and normal personality
    • structured interviews
    • simulations
    • assessment centers
    • Predict leadership success
    • reasonably well
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 25.
    • First-line supervisors
    • Technical talent
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 26.
    • Middle managers
    • basis of likeability and perceived ability to work with senior management
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 27. Why aren’t psychologists more involved in the process of executive selection?
    • Our services appear expensive to organizations who overlook the costs of making poor selection decisions
    • We may lack sufficient status in an organization for our views to be considered
    • We often do not understand the political realities surrounding the selection.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 28. How Should Leaders Be Evaluated? 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 29.
    • Leadership effectiveness can be
    • organized
    • in terms of
    • five
    • categories
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 30. First category
    • Leaders are evaluated in terms of the actual performance of their team or organizational unit
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 31. second category
    • subordinates`, peers`, or supervisors` ratings are used to evaluate leaders
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 32. Third category
    • Evaluates the leader ship potential of stranger on the basis of their performance in interviews, simulations, assessment centers, or leaderless group discussions
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 33. Fourth category
    • self-rating of leadership have also been used as evaluation criteria
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 34. Why do we choose so many flawed leaders?
    • The hiring problem typically involves evaluating the leadership potential of strangers
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 35. Emergent Leadership 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 36. Research concerning the characteristics of persons who, in the absence of performance data,nonetheless seem leaderlike.
    • studies of relation between personality and indices of emergent leadership, and
    • research on implicit leadership theory.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 37. Stogdill (1948) reviewed research on personality and emergent leadership in a variety of unstructured groups
    • He concluded that measures of
    • Dominance
    • Extraversion
    • Sociability
    • ambition or achievement
    • Responsibility
    • Integrity
    • self-confidence
    • mood and emotional control
    • Diplomacy and cooperativeness
    • were positively related to emergent leadership.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 38. Stogdill´s (1974) Big-five model personality structure
    • Surgency
    • Agreeableness
    • Conscientiousness
    • Emotional stability
    • Intellect
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 39.
    • dominance, extraversion, and sociability reflect surgency responsibility, achievement, and integrity fall into the conscientiousness dimension.
    • self-confidence, mood and emotional control are part of emotional stability
    • diplomacy and cooperativeness resemble agreeableness
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 40. Implicit Leadership Theory
    • How we evaluate the leadership potential of strangers is called implicit leadership theory
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 41.
    • Most people seem to regard intelligence, honesty, sociability, understanding, aggressiveness, verbal skills, determination, and industriousness as important aspects of leadership, regardless of the team task or situation.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 42.
    • “ Why do we choose so many flawed leaders?”
    • The problem is that persons who seem leaderlike may not have the skills required to build and guide an effective team. The result is a leadership failure rate in the range of 50% to 60%.
    •  
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 43. How to forecast leadership?   06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 44. Personality and Rated Leader Effectiveness
    • Stogdill support the idea that there is a relationship between personality and leadership.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 45.         Bentz (1985, 1987, and 1990)
    • Bentz (1985, 1990) noted that executives promoted to the highest levels at Sears were
    • articulate and active (i.e., surgency)
    • independent, self-confident
    • emotionally balanced (i.e., emotional stability)
    • and hard working and responsible (i.e., conscientiousness).
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 46. Bray and Howard (1983) and associates reported similar findings with AT&T executives.
    • Most of those who advanced and were also effective-
    • had the desire for advancement, energy– activity level, and the readiness to make decisions (i.e., surgency)
    • resistance to stress and tolerance for uncertainty  (i.e., emotional stability)
    • inner work standards (i.e., conscientiousness)
    • range of interests (i.e., intellect
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 47. Personality and effective team performance. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 48. Charismatic leadership
    • they have a vision that others find convincing
    • they are able to recruit a group of people who share that vision and these people resemble a team
    • they develop a relationship with the team members and are able to persuade them to work for and support the vision.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 49. Chidester. 1991 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 50.
    • Crews with captains who were warm, friendly, self-confident, and able to stand up to pressure (i.e., agreeableness and emotional stability) made the fewest errors.
    • Conversely, crews with captains who were arrogant, hostile, boastful, egotistical, passive, aggressive, or dictatorial made the most error.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 51. Why do leaders fail? 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 52.
    • playing politics
    • moodiness
    • dishonesty
    • arrogant
    • Vindictive
    • Untrustworthy
    • Selfish
    • Emotional
    • Compulsive
    • Overcontroling
    • Insensitive
    • abrasive
    • aloof,
    • too ambitious
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 53. skills and effort 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 54. How Do Leaders Build Teams? 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 55. Hallam and Campbell (1992)
    • Eight problems for leadership that affect team performance
    • Task side :
    • successful leaders communicate a clear mission or sense of porpose, identify available resources and talent, develop the talent, plan and organize, coordinate work activities, and acquire needed resources.
    • Maintenance side :
    • they minimize and resolve conflicts among group members and they ensure that team members understand the team’s goals, constraints, resources and problems.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 56. Leader’s personality has predictable affects on team performance
    • Leaders with higher surgency scores communicate more with their teams
    • Conscientiousness is related to being perceived as trustworthy, playful, and organized
    • Agreeableness is related to communications, trust and morale.
    • Emotional stability is associated with seeming steady under pressure, able to resolve conflicts, and to handle negative feedback
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 57. Holland’s (1985) theory of occupational types
    • Holland proposed that people’s interests, talents, abilities, values and motives cluster in six broad types.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 58. Realistic types (e.g., engineers) are procedural; actions oriented, and concrete. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 59. Investigate types (e.g., scientists) are abstract, original and independent. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 60. Artistic types (e.g., painters, writers, philosophers) are unconventional, nonconformity, and imaginative. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 61. Social types (e.g., teachers, clergy, and personnel managers) are friendly, idealistic, and altruistic 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 62. Enterprising types (e.g., lawyers, and politicians) are outgoing assertive and manipulative. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 63. Conventional types (e.g., accountants, computer programmers) are conforming practical, and conservative 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 64.
    • People will join organizations whose activities and values are consistent with their own preferences, and that they leave organizations whose culture is inconsistent with their preferences.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 65. Meeting The Competency Needs of Global Leaders: A Partnership Approach Faiza Malik 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 66. The Author
    • Judi Brownell
    • Professor and Dean at the School of Hotel Administration
    • Ph.D., Syracuse University
    • M.S., State University of New York College at Cortland
    • B.S., Ithaca College
    • Teaches HRM, OB, Managerial Designs assessment centers for leadership development
    • Has online eCornell executive courses
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 67. The Article
    • The article suggests that global leaders can be developed through identifying and facilitating both common and distinctive competencies.
    • It has 3 sections:
    • Key benefits & challenges of competency- based approach
    • Key requirements of global leaders
    • A model of requirements
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 68. Competence 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 69. Competence (contd.)
    • Competency-Based Approach: Traits & behaviors exhibited more consistently by excellent leaders and that can be identified, taught and assessed.
    • Common Competencies: Fundamental knowledge and skills that constitute the focus of a business curriculum. (Communication, team dynamics, human relations).
    • Distinctive Competencies: A set of personal characteristics that are required for high performance in the global environment. (Compassion, global mindset, breakthrough thinking).
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 70. Competence-Based Leadership in Graduate Education
    • Leadership Development component of Graduate Management Program
      • Assessment Centers
      • Two day experience
      • Senior executives joined faculty
      • Student Consulting Teams
      • Real-time Feedback
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 71. Issues and Challenges of the Graduate Program
    • Consistency in assessing competence against performance standards
    • Assessment in a culturally diverse student population
    • Lack of individualization
    • Creating rigidities that make change difficult
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 72. Tomorrow's needs of Leadership: Distinctive Competency
    • Character: A key distinctive Competency
    • Character is an innate sense of fairness, honesty, respect for others, and humility.
    • Mintzberg suggests that “a large component of leader effectiveness is based on the individual’s insight, vision, intuition, and, most important, character ”.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 73. Developing Distinctive Competencies Model of Requirement: Educators & Human Resource Professionals’ partnership 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 74. Educators’ Responsibilities & Opportunities
    • Admission Process
    • Curriculum content & Industry guests
    • Out of class leadership experiences
    • Travel Abroad
    • Research partnerships
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 75. HR Professionals’ Responsibilities & Opportunities
    • Performance Management
    • Ethical codes of conduct
    • Role modeling
    • In-House team discussions
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 76. Conclusion by the Author
    • Business Graduates will have acquired a set of common leadership competencies but educators should assess and shape the character of those seeking leadership roles. Common competencies are inefficient in preparation of global leaders.
    • HR professionals should create healthy, high performing organizations so that character can be identified, elicited and assessed in the real world.
    • Distinctive Competencies are best assessed through experience in the field.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 77. Challenges of The Article
    • “ True character begins at home”
    • Cultural Diversity/travel abroad (not everyone can experience it to become a global leader)
    • Ethical conduct has a relative meaning in the capitalistic environment.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 78. In the Context of Pakistani Environment 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 79. The Leadership Challenge Authors James Kouzes & Barry Posner Presented by Ihsan-ul-haq 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 80. About the Authors
    • Two Premier Leadership Experts
    • Have spent time on Researching, Teaching & developing Leadership
    • About the Book
    • Based on Research project conducted to determine what Leaders did when they were at their “ personal best”.
    • By asking Leaders to describe their extraordinary experiences, the Authors found patterns of success , which they called the “Five Principles of Exemplary leadership”.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 81. “ Five Principles of Exemplary leadership”
    • Model the Way
    • Inspired a shared Vision
    • Challenge the Process
    • Enable Others to Act &
    • Encourage the Heart
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 82. Traits of a Good Leader
    • When asked values people must look for & admired in a leader the majority of respondents selected the following
    • Honest
    • Forward Looking
    • Competent
    • Inspiring
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 83. Honest (Truthful, Ethical, Principled, Integrity & Character)
    • Top most selected Characteristic
    • 90% of the constituent want their Leaders to be Honest
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 84. Forward Looking (Vision, Dream, Goals & Objectives)
    • More than 70% selected this trait
    • Leaders must know where they are going if they expect others to willingly join them on the journey
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 85. Competent
    • 3 rd most important trait
    • Show us Leader’s Capability & effectiveness to guide the whole organization
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 86. Inspiring (Enthusiastic, energetic & Positive)
    • Leader must be able to communicate the vision in ways that encourage others.
    • The Leaders must communicate with words, demeanor and actions.
    • Enthusiasm & Excitement are essential and they signal the leader’s personal commitment to pursuing dream.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 87. Credibility is the foundation of leadership
    • Leaders are credible when
    • They do what they say or in other words
    • “ Practice what they Preach”
    • “ Walk the Talk”
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 88. 1-Model the Way
    • Titles are granted, but it’s your behavior that wins you respect.
    • if you want to gain commitment and achieve the highest standards, you must be models of the behavior you expect of others.
    • “ You have to open up your heart and let people know what you really think and believe. This means talking about your values.”
    • Words and deeds must be consistent.
    • Modeling the way is essentially about earning the right and the respect to lead through direct individual involvement and action. People first follow the person, then the plan.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 89. 2-Inspire a Shared Vision….
    • Every organization, every social movement, begins with a dream. The dream or vision is the force that invents the future.
    • Leadership is a dialogue, not a monologue.
    • To enlist people in a vision, leaders must know their constituents and speak their language. People must believe that leaders understand their needs and have their interests at heart.
    • To enlist support, leaders must have intimate knowledge of people’s dreams, hopes, aspirations, visions, and values.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 90. Inspire a Shared Vision
    • Leaders breathe life into the hopes and dreams of others and enable them to see the exciting possibilities that the future holds. Leaders forge a unity of purpose by showing constituents how the dream is for the common good.
    • Leaders communicate their passion through vivid language and an expressive style.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 91. 3-Challenge the Process Leaders challenge the process. Leaders are pioneers—people who are willing to step out into the unknown. They search for opportunities to innovate, grow, and improve. The leader’s primary contribution is in the recognition of good ideas, the support of those ideas, and the willingness to challenge the system to get new products, processes, services, and systems adopted These all involve experimentation, risk, and failure. They proceed anyway. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 92. Challenge the Process…. “ leaders learn by leading, and they learn best by leading in the face of obstacles. As weather shapes mountains, problems shape leaders. Difficult bosses, lack of vision and virtue in the executive suite, circumstances beyond their control, and their own mistakes have been the leaders’ basic curriculum.” In other words, leaders are learners. They learn from their failures as well as their successes. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 93. 4-Enable Others To Act Grand dreams don’t become significant realities through the actions of a single person. Leadership is a team effort. Leaders make it possible for others to do good work. They know that those who are expected to produce the results must feel a sense of personal power and ownership. Leaders understand that the command-and-control techniques of the Industrial Revolution no longer apply. Leaders enable others to act not by hoarding the power they have but by giving it away. Leader makes people feel strong and capable—as if they can do more than they ever thought possible—they’ll give it their all and exceed their own expectations. 06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 94. 5-Encourage the Heart
    • The climb to the top is arduous and long. People become exhausted, frustrated, and disenchanted. They’re often tempted to give up. Leaders encourage the heart of their constituents to carry on.
    • Encouragement can come from dramatic gestures or simple actions.
    • It’s part of the leader’s job to show appreciation for people’s contributions and to create a culture of celebration.
    • EXAPMES
    • everything from handwritten thank-yous to marching bands and “This Is Your Life” ceremonies.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 95. Encourage the Heart….
    • Encouragement is curiously serious business. It’s how leaders visibly and behaviorally link rewards with performance.
    • When striving to raise quality, recover from disaster, start up a new service, or make dramatic change of any kind, leaders make sure people see the benefit of behavior that’s aligned with cherished values. And leaders also know that celebrations and rituals, when done with authenticity and from the heart, build a strong sense of collective identity and community spirit that can carry a group through extraordinarily tough times.
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P
  • 96. “ Five Principles of Exemplary leadership”
    • Model the Way
    • Inspired a shared Vision
    • Challenge the Process
    • Enable Others to Act &
    • Encourage the Heart
    06/10/09 05:54 PM L E A D E R S H I P