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Presentation of the study on Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides in AP

Presentation of the study on Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides in AP
12th November, 2012

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    121112 farmers suicides in andhra pradesh 121112 farmers suicides in andhra pradesh Presentation Transcript

    • Farmers Suicides in Andhra Pradesh Ramanjaneyulu and Veena RaoAction Aid Centre for Sustainable Agriculture AP Rytu Swarajya Vedhika
    • Jayati Gosh Commission,2004• The economic strategy of the past decade at both central government and state government levels – has systematically reduced the protection afforded to farmers and exposed them to market volatility and private profiteering without adequate regulation, – has reduced critical forms of public expenditure, – has destroyed important public institutions, and – did not adequately generate other non-agricultural economic activities.• While this is a generalised rural crisis, the burden has fallen disproportionately on small and marginal farmers, tenant farmers and rural labourers, particularly those in dryer tracts. The most extreme manifestation of the crisis is in the suicides by farmers.
    • Farmers suicides in Andhra Pradesh30002500200015001000 500 0 year 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2003 2004 2006 2007 2008 2009 2011 1997 2002 2005 2010 No. of suicides Total 33,326 in 17 years Source: NCRB 1995-2011
    • Reactions to agrarian crisisStates response What actually done• Draft Agricultural policy, 1998 • Technology as solutions: only• Jayati Gosh Commission, 2004 industry benefited• GO 421 • All govt schemes used to help• Justice Rama Chenna Reddy industry commission, 2006 • Export markets: traders• Technology Mission, 2005 benefited• IFPRI report, 2007 • Always blame centre on MSPs or regulation• Cooperative Farming Act 2008 • Land ownership concentrating• Mohan Kanda Committee, and Land use shift 2011
    • State Farmer Suicides Difference (2nd Avg-1st Avg) 1995-2002 2003-2010Andhra Pradesh 1590 2301 +711Assam 155 291 +135Karnataka 2259 2123 -136Kerala 1292 1071 -221MP+Chhattisgarh 2304 2829 +525Maharashtra 2508 3802 +1294Tamil Nadu 992 866 -126Uttar Pradesh 640 531 -109West Bengal 1426 990 -436The table only includes States whose annual averages have risen or fallen by over 100 farmfarm suicides between the to periods. It also treats Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh as oneunit for data purposes.Source: NCRB Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Reports 1995-2010
    • Farmers Suicides in AP (2010) Female Male Total upto 14 years 12 4 16 15-29 years 165 563 728 30-44 years 137 824 961 45-59 years 40 573 613 60 years & above 41 166 207 Total 395 2130 2525Source: NCRB, 2010 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture
    • Farmers Suicides Distribution, 2010 Female Male Total % upto 14 years 12 4 16 0.63 15-29 years 165 563 728 28.83 30-44 years 137 824 961 38.06 45-59 years 40 573 613 24.28 60 years & above 41 166 207 8.20 Total 395 2130 2525
    • Jayati Gosh Commission Recommendations• correct spatial inequities in access to irrigation and work towards sustainable water management• bring all cultivators into the ambit of institutional credit, including tenant farmers• shift policies to focus on dryland farming through technology, extension, price and other incentives• encourage cheaper and more sustainable input use, with greater public provision and regulation of private input supply and strong research and extension support• protect farmers from high volatility in output prices• emphasise rural economic diversification, to more value- added activities and non-agricultural activities.
    • Deep economic crisis• Reducing incomes• Yield stagnation• Increasing costs of cultivation• Increasing small holdings• Increasing tenancy• Reducing institutional creditAll the policy supports are skewed towards large farmers,large farms, few cash crops and high external input based production systems
    • Check list for verification of FARMER’s suicide cases IN ANDHRA PRADESH G.O No. 4211. First Information Report (FIR)2. Panchanama report3. Post Mortem Report (PMR)4. Forensic Science Lab Report (FSL report)5. Final report (These five documents are available from police station)6. Private loan documents7. Bank loan documents8. Land Pass Book9. Dependents certificate10. Ration card11. Three years agriculture pahani12. Mandal level verification committee report (MLVC). (Three Member Committee consists of Mandal Revenue Officer (MRO), Police Sub Inspector (SI) and Agriculture Officer (AO))13. Division Level Verification Committee Report (Three Member Committee consists of Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO), Deputy Superendent of Police (DSP) and Assistant Director of Agriculture (ADA))
    • List of Genuine Farmer Suicides by Government of Andhra Pradesh (January, 1997 to 2011)District 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 TotalAdilabad 9 18 23 25 25 25 2 68 60 83 48 42 18 6 0 452Ananthapur 9 9 27 35 60 22 13 59 70 65 90 95 40 41 19 654Chittor 0 6 2 4 1 4 7 33 21 26 24 17 9 0 0 154East Godavari 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 2 3 2 1 0 8 2 24Guntur 5 12 1 4 5 1 4 69 24 31 22 36 3 20 19 256Kadapa 0 0 0 0 1 5 3 18 17 9 26 21 10 4 1 115Karimnagar 12 15 15 36 38 36 11 96 73 48 55 64 42 0 0 541Khammam 1 7 0 9 4 7 2 37 23 22 7 12 2 0 0 133Krishna 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 23 13 6 4 2 4 6 2 65Kurnool 13 6 3 6 11 7 1 77 64 72 68 66 59 22 9 484Mahaboobnagar 4 15 20 9 22 17 4 112 57 35 30 29 17 4 0 375Medak 2 1 5 5 11 25 17 92 45 30 28 32 32 21 7 353Nalgonda 10 9 8 15 19 11 34 53 52 48 13 43 17 11 0 343Nellore 0 0 0 1 0 2 7 6 7 1 2 2 3 0 0 31Nizamabad 1 3 6 8 24 9 8 64 27 12 17 7 10 0 0 196Prakasham 0 4 4 1 1 0 0 44 9 8 10 8 0 9 6 104Rangareddy 0 4 2 1 6 5 2 56 40 19 21 18 25 0 0 199Srikakulam 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 11Vishakapatnam 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 5 2 1 1 2 3 0 23Vizianagaram 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2West Godavari 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 11Warangal 46 78 79 95 97 77 27 112 45 32 24 11 2 0 0 725Total 113 188 197 255 327 253 143 1045 655 552 493 509 297 158 66 5251
    • SERP Study, 2012• 5241: Total farmers suicides recognized as genuine• 4879: Total families the study team met• Caste wise distribution – Backward classes: 2594 – Other classes: 1362 – Scheduled castes: 590 – Scheduled tribes: 382• 3284: families receiving widow pension• 561: families do not have ration card• 2358: families not having pucca house, no sanction under INDIRAMMA housing scheme• 1109: families benefited under INDIRAMMA• 3787: families still struggling to earn their livelihoods• In the one lakh rupees paid as exgratia expenditure was • 46% to pay old loans • 22% agriculture investments • 17% miscellaneous expenditure – In the 50 thousand as loan resettlement 45% was to clear off bank loans
    • Class-wise Relative Shares of Operational Holdings in A.P(percentages)Source: From Various NSS rounds 1956-57 1980-81 2005-06 Holdings Area Holdings Area Holdings AreaMarginal Farmers 38 8 51 13 62 23(0-1 ha)Small Farmers 18 10 22 17 22 26(1-2 ha)Medium Farmers 33 44 25 50 16 45(2-10 ha)Large Farmers 9 38 2 20 <1 6( >10 ha)Source: From Various NSS rounds
    • Cropping Pattern Changes in Andhra Pradesh for Selected Years(million Hectares) 1970-73 1987-90 2004-07 2009-11Rice 3.1 3.9 3.6 4.3 (24.76) (30.65) (28.54) (31.15)Maize 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.8 (2.12) (2.33) (5.53) (6.16)Other coarse Grains 4.1 2.1 0.6 0.3 (32.73) (16.47) (5.05) (2.21)Total Cereals 7.6 6.3 5.6 5.6 (59.61) (49.46) (39.13) (40.57)Pulses 1.3 1.5 1.8 1.7 (10.79) (11.85) (14.39) (12.3)Total Foodgrains 8.9 7.8 6.9 7.4 (70.42) (61.31) (53.52) (53.6)Cotton 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.1 (2.47) (4.8) (8.23) (8.2)Oilseeds 2.2 3.8 2.6 2.7 (17.51) (24.74) (20.91) (19.5)Total Non- Foodgrains 3.7 4.9 5.9 4.7 (29.57) (38.69) (46.94) (34.05)Gross Cropped Area 12.7 12.8 12.8 13.8 (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) Source: DES. AP Govt
    • Cost of Cultivation per Acre in A.P. in Rabi 2010-11 in Sample Households (Rs)District East Krishna Karim Mahabub Medak Nalgonda Nizama Waran Av Godavari nagar Nagar bad gal CostCost A1 21643 24623 20196 20909 18162 19725.62 19507 22437 20380Cost A2 30084 25914 23184 23009 20112 22225 22007 24437 23872A2+FL 35413 32051 28105 27294 25844 25531 24091 30278 28576Cost B1 21645 20490 20248 20979 18231 19788 19563 22515 20432Cost B2 38085 31126 25736 25079 22181 24788 24563 26515 27259Cost C1 26973 26627 25169 25264 23963 23094 21647 28356 25137Cost C2 43414 37264 30657 29364 27913 28094 26647 32356 31964Cost C3 47755 40990 33723 32301 30704 30904 29312 35592 35160 Yield 26 21 27 17 27 25 28 27 Source: Field study; Cost A1: All paid-out costs except rent; Cost A2= Cost A1+Rent on leased- in land; Cost A2+FL = CostA2+Family Labour; Cost B1 = cost A1+ interest on fixed cost; Cost B2 = Cost A2+Imputed Rent on Own land; cost C1= costB1+imputed family labour, Cost C2=Cost B2+family labour, Cost C3 = Cost C2+ 10 percent managerial input.(Cost C2* is also defined to consider minimum wages in case they are higher than actual labour.) [source: Cost of Cultivation Manual, published by CACP, 2005]
    • Prices to Farmers during 2010-11 and 2011-12Crop 2010-11 Rs/Quintal 2011-12 Rs/QuintalCotton 6500 3600Turmeric 14000 4000Chillies 12000 5500Redgram 5000 3500Blackgram 5200 3500Bajra 4000 2000Jowar 2500 1800Onion 16000 2500Sweet Organge 75000 60000
    • Credit still a mirage• Decreasing rural branches, increasing share of loans of more than a crore, villages left to high cost Microfinance• No credit access to tenant farmers who form more than 25% of cultivators• During 2012-13 against the target of Rs. 37,127.77 crore (Rs. 23,827.50 cr kharif target) loans disbursed were 23,282.82 cr.• Target was also to cover 12 lakh tenant farmers (2000 cr) but only Rs. 183 cr was sanctioned.• Among the 12 lakh tenant farmers loan elgibility cards were given only to 3.88 lakhs (1.57 lakhs new and remaining 2.31 were renewed)• Only 85,000 tenant farmers have got access to credit• Total amount sanctioned as loan is Rs. 183.03 and more than half of it goes to West Godavari district
    • Lift Irrigation Schemes in AP • By 2012 AP needs 12,682 Megawatt power • 47 lakh ha would be brought under irrigation • Seven and half horse power motor will be used for every 10 acres and five lakh such motors have to be installed in the next four years • Needs 37.5 lakh HP electricity (2775 mega watt) • Major lift irrigation schemes needs 6407 mega watt • Minor lift irrigation schemes needs 500 mega watt • to produce and supply one mega watt power • Rs. 4 cr to create infrastructure to produce • Rs. 4.5 cr for transmission and distributionToday 3,000 mega watts power is supplied freely to agriculture for 29 lakh pump sets
    • CASE STUDIES: ANDHRA PRADESH DISTRICTS COVERED Ananthapur, Nalgonda, Khammam, Adilabad, Medak, Warangal, Mehbubnagar.
    • PROFILE OF THE SUICIDE FARMERS• 90% MALE ,10% female farmer• 30-45 YEARS 0• ONE FORWARD & OTHER BACKWARD CASTE GROUP.• TWO SCHEDULED TRIBES 2• ONE SCHEDULED CASTE BC• RELIGION: HINDU SC 1• AVERAGE FAMILY SIZE: 5 MEMBERS ST• OWN, SEMI-PUCCA & THATCHED HOUSES. OTHER 7• OWN AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTS I.E, TILLER.• WOMEN FARM LABOUR• RABI SEASON.• COMBINATION OF OWN LAND & LEASED• DEBT BURDEN RANGE BETWEEN RS. 30,000 TO 3,00000 /-.• MULTIPLE LIVELIHOODS (FARM LABOUR, DAIRY, SELLING VEGETABLES, NREGA)• NO LEGAL TITLE TO LAND OWNERSHIP AMONG SC & ST FARMERS.• NO CROP INSURANCE OR LIFE INSURANCE.• BENEFICIARIES OF INDIRAMMA HOUSING SCHEME.
    • PROFILE OF THE VILLAGES• DROUGHT PRONE REGIONS OF TELANGANA.• LAND OWNERSHIP PATTERN: OWN/ LEASED.• RAINFED AGRICULTURE/ SCARCITY OF GROUNDWATER.• MIGRATION.• POOR EXTENSION AGRICULTURE SERVICES.• SHIFTED TO COMMERCIAL CROPS & GAVE UP TRADITIONAL CROPS.• LIMITED ACCESS TO FORMAL CREDIT SOURCES.• LARGER ROLE OF PRIVATE MONEYLENDERS.• WEAKENING OF SOCIAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS.• ACCESS TO MARKET SERVICES IS POOR.
    • STATUS OF LAND/ CROPPING PATTERN• LAND HOLDING SIZE: 2AC – 5 AC.• TYPE OF LAND: DRY LAND• TYPE OF SOIL:• LAND LEASED: 3 AC – 10 AC ( WET LAND)• LEASE RENT: RS. 6,000/- TO RS. 13,000/- PER ACRE.• NO DOCUMENTATION OF THE LEASED LAND: SC & ST FARMERS.
    • PROFILE OF CROPPING PATTERN• 1980’S: TRADITIONAL, FOOD CROPS, VEGETABLES & COMMERCIAL CROPS.• 1990’S: FOOD CROPS, COMMERCIAL CROPS.• 2000: COMMERCIAL CROPS, GAVE UP FOOD CROPS.• 2000 ONWARDS: ENTRY OF BT. COTTON. 250% 10% 200% 30% Commercial Crops 150% 80% Vegetables 100% Food Crops Traditional crop 50% 100% 20% 70% 100% 20% 20% 10% 0% 0 0 0% 0 1980 1990 2000 2010
    • CROP YIELD• PADDY : 24 QUINTALS/ ACRE : 1980’S• PADDY: 18 QUINTALS/ ACRE: 1990’S.• PADDY: 14 -15 QUINTALS/ ACRE: 2000’S
    • COST OF CULTIVATION PESTICIDE, SEEDS, IRRIGATION, INTER- CULTIVATION, HIGH LABOUR COST (MANUAL WEEDING, MANUAL FERTILIZER APPLICATION, SPRAYING…..) TRANSPORTATION. EXAMPLE PADDY CASE• LABOUR COST: 1980’S: RS. 1.00 PER DAY.• 1990’S: RS. 5300/- (SOWING TO HARVEST).• 2000: RS. 13,000/- (SOWING TO HARVEST).
    • CAUSES NATURAL AND MAN MADE WEATHER VAGARIES SPELLS OF DROUGHT. SPELLS OF RAINFALL (UNSEASONAL RAINFALL…..JUST BEFORE HARVEST). LACK OF TIMELY POWER SUPPLY. SELECTION OF CROPS. LAND TENANCY RATES. SCARCITY OF GROUNDWATER. LACK OF TIMELY AND ADEQUATE CREDIT SUPPLY FROM FORMAL SOURCES. CROP FAILURE. LABOUR SUPPLY, HIGH LABOUR CHARGES INCREASED PRESSURE ON PAYING OTHER LIABILITIES ; NAMELY INDIRAMMA HOUSING. PERCIEVED FAMILY RESPONSIBILITY OF GIRL CHILD (TEENAGE DAUGHTERS). HEALTH ISSUES. 1.00 SOCIAL STATUS. Weather Vagaries 2.00 ENERGY SUBSIDIZATION : FAILURE OF BOREWELLS. 7.00 Irrigation 3.00 Credit Girl Child 4.00 Land Tenancy 6.00 Indirrama Housing 5.00 Health
    • PATTERN OF SUICIDE• CONSUMPTION OF PESTICIDE.• HANGED.• ELECTRICITY. 1 1 Pesticide consumption Electricity Hanged 8
    • IMPACT OF SUICIDES• LOSS OF BREAD WINNER IN THE FAMILY.• PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS TO FAMILY.• INCREASED SOCIAL STIGMA.• IMPACT ON CHILDREN’S EDUCATION.• LOSS OF ASSETS: DOMESTIC ANIMALS, AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTS.• MOVING FROM OWN FARM LABOUR STATUS TO PERMANENT LABOUR STATUS.• FAMILY MEMBERS ATTEMPTING SUICIDE.• CHILD LABOUR.• PHYSICAL HEALTH.
    • WAY FORWARD• PREVENTIVE MEASURES1. AGRICULTURE EXTENSION SERVICES.2. PROVIDE FINANCIAL LITERACY ( HOW TO USE CREDIT, WORK OUT ON COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF INVESTMENT, RISK COPING MECHANISM I.E., INSURANCE – CROP & LIFE, INCREASING SAVINGS).3. BUILDING SOCIAL SYSTEMS & STRENGTHENING THEM ( FARMER’S GROUPS EXPOSURE TO DIFFERENT COPING MECHANISMS, BEST AGRICULTURE PRACTICES).4. FOCUS ON CREATING ALTERNATE LIVELIHOODS.5. ENCOURAGE MULTIPLE CROPPING.6. GENERATE AWARENESS ON PESTICIDE USAGE.7. PROVIDE TIMELY GOVERNMENT INPUT SUBSIDY TO THE FARMERS.8. PROVIDE QUALITY OF SEEDS.9. GOVERNMENT IN ADVANCE SHOULD STATE THE PREMIUM PRICE FOR THE CROPS.
    • WAY FORWARD….• REHABILITATIVE MEASURES1. COUNSELLING TO FARMER’S FAMILY.2. FACILITATE IN ACCESSING BENEFITS OF VARIOUS GOVERNMENT SCHEMES.3. PROVIDING GUIDANCE ON BUILDING ALTERNATIVE LIVELIHOODS (NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT) TO FAMILY DEPENDENTS.4. PROVIDE HEALTH INSURANCE SERVICES.5. PROVIDE SEED SUPPORT.6. INTEREST FREE LOAN.7. PROVIDE COST OF CULTIVATION SUPPORT (MANURE).8. PROVIDE TANK SILT (RED SOILS).
    • Main Causes• Rising costs of cultivation; high dependence on external inputs• Unremunerative prices – do not cover costs of cultivation, let alone rising living costs• Unsustainable cropping patterns and production practices• Trade liberalization and export-import policies• Lack of support systems like credit, insurance, markets, storage, farmer collectives• Neglect of rainfed agriculture
    • What government can do?Immediate Measures• Immediate compensation for crop failure• Remunerative prices, direct procurement from farmers• Modify export/import policies and tariffs in favour of Indian farmers• Provide ex-gratia and loan repayment support for all families of farmer suicides in time-bound manner
    • What government can do?Addressing Root Causes• Price Compensation system for all food crops: when MSPs or market prices are less than Target Price (Cost of Cultivation + 50%), the difference should be paid directly to farmers• Guarantee minimum living incomes to all farmers• Promote sustainable agriculture which reduces cost of cultivation and crop risk• Comprehensive rainfed agriculture mission based on diverse cropping systems, protective irrigation and livestock systems
    • What government can do?Addressing Root Causes (contd)• Bank credit to all farmers with adequate scale of finance• Effective crop insurance to cover all crops and all farmers• Inclusion of tenant farmers in all support systems
    • What government can do?Parliamentarians should demonstrate their seriousintent of addressing agrarian crisis• Day-long joint session of Assembly/Parliament to discuss farmer suicides and agrarian crisis• Constitute a Parliamentarians’/MLAs’ Forum on Agrarian Distress to address the causes of the crisis