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Ron McMullin - AIPA

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Ron McMullin - AIPA

  1. 1. From Field to Shelf:Water solutions Across the Food Supply Chain Industry Best Practicesin Increasing Efficiency in Food Production Ron McMullin, Executive Director
  2. 2. Forms of Water
  3. 3. Forms of Water
  4. 4. Forms of Water
  5. 5. Forms of Water
  6. 6. Forms of Water
  7. 7. Forms of Water
  8. 8. Forms of Water
  9. 9. Forms of Water
  10. 10. Forms of Water
  11. 11. Southern Alberta ScenesMade Possible By Water
  12. 12. Forms of Water
  13. 13. One of the previous slides was not irrigation-based; which one was it?
  14. 14. Other Forms of Water(with a few solids added)
  15. 15. Forms of Water
  16. 16. How much water does it take to grow food?Lettuce (500 ml) 11 litresKetchup (30 ml) 11 litresWhole Wheat Bread (1 slice) 26 litresTomato (125 grams) 30 litresFresh Broccoli (75 grams) 42 litresOranges (130 grams) 53 litresMilk (250 ml) 180 litresCheese (28 grams) 210 litresEgg (1) 240 litresPlain Yogurt (500 ml) 333 litresChicken (227 grams) 1,250 litresHamburger (113 grams) 2,330 litresSteak (227 grams) 4,662 litres
  17. 17. Crops Grown Under Irrigation in Alberta• Alfalfa seed, canary seed, caraway seed, carrots, catnip, chick peas, dill, dry beans, dry peas, faba beans, fresh sweet corn, fresh peas, grass seed, hemp, lawn turf, lentils, market garden vegetables and small fruits, mint, monarda, nursery stock, onions, potatoes, pumpkins, safflower, seed potatoes, soy beans, sugar beets, sunflower, canola, flax, mustard, barley, grain corn, oats, triticale, wheat (5 kinds), 15 various forages for livestock.
  18. 18. Irrigation: variety, assurance, quality, and yield
  19. 19. Irrigation Best Practices• Irrigation has a major public trust – to make the best use of water licensed by the Government (people) of Alberta• Use less to produce more• Create more opportunities for society
  20. 20. Losses that can be reduced• Seepage from canals• Canal base-flow spills• Seepage, evaporation and spills from laterals (small delivery canals)• Runoff from gravity flooded fields• Non-uniform applications to crops• Evaporation of water being applied to crops
  21. 21. IRP Program• Commitment of Provincial Government and Irrigation Districts to make annual investment in improving the irrigation system• 75% government: 25% irrigation district• Government $24 M per year• Districts $8 M per year, plus many invest more of their own funds to speed up the rehabilitation; more than $26 M last year
  22. 22. Controlling Canal Seepage• Losses are 2 to 3 %; membrane liners save water
  23. 23. Controlling Canal Tailout and Bypass• Remote and accurate monitoring of flow in canals and laterals (8,000 km)• Automated gate operation and remote activation of gates to control flows• Required notice from farmers to turn water on and off at the farm
  24. 24. SCADA – Measuring/Controlling water deliveries
  25. 25. Systems• Must be calibrated• Report flows• Can adjust flows to match demand• Not total automation: flow adjustment much quicker and quite accurate but still need personal experience and verification
  26. 26. Benefits of better flow control• Reduced diversions• Less spill water, i.e., less return flow (water quality is always lower)
  27. 27. 120 100Equiv. Depth (mm) 80 60 40 20 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 YEAR Return flow reduction from districts
  28. 28. Pipelines
  29. 29. Pipelines Versus Open Chanels
  30. 30. PipelinesAdvantages include• No seepage• No evaporation• No water use by phreatophytic plants• On/off capability with appropriate valving
  31. 31. 2810 km of Pipelines; 630 km Canals Membrane-Lined
  32. 32. Water savings from Pipelines and Canal Rehabilitation• Seepage and evaporation losses about 3%• 43% of canal system in pipe and lined canal• At least 2/3 of greatest problem areas• Savings 42,000 ac-ft per year
  33. 33. Water savings – reduce evaporation, seepage, and leaching on-farm
  34. 34. Upping Efficiencyof On-Farm Water Application
  35. 35. Changes in On-farm Irrigation Systems over 10 Years Gravity Wheel-move High Pressure Pivots Low Pressure Pivots 2010 145,879 198,043 156,784 802,173 2001 206,956 335,740 223,510 447,710 Change -61,077 -137,697 -66,726 354,463 Water Saved Inches 7.5 3.5 2 TotalAcre-feet 38,173 40,162 11,121 89,456 (110 M m3)
  36. 36. Efficiency Investment Results• Total $$$ spent by Government of Canada, Government of Alberta, and the Irrigation Districts in collaborative programs equals $1.02 billion; farmers $0.6 billion• Canada’s irrigation, of which Alberta constitutes over 60%, is ranked 2nd in the world for its efficient systems (for countries with as much or more irrigated area)
  37. 37. Efficiency Investment Results• Since 1976, irrigation farmers in districts irrigate 46% more land and divert 10% less water.
  38. 38. 14.0 12.0 Productivity Index (kg/m3) 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 YearIncreasing productivity of potatoes, sugar beets, and soft white wheat
  39. 39. Riparian Health
  40. 40. Riparian Health
  41. 41. Social Commitments• AIPA Human Use Declaration: communities (people) will be given priority over irrigation in times of drought• Irrigation districts will make water available in the SouthGrow region for communities and economic development
  42. 42. Climate Change• Climate change is a big unkown• Dr. Stephan Kienzle’s research indicates we may have as much moisture fall in the mountains, but that the form and timing will change: likely more rainfall and less snow, so more rapid peaking of rivers and more rapid recession
  43. 43. When you are thirsty,you find a way to adapt,and get water

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