Food security in_india

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Food security in_india

  1. 1. The Right to Food in India
  2. 2. The Food Security Scenario in South Asia Food Country Food Exports Food Imports Food Balance ProductionBangladesh 26,924 1.6 2,827 -4,601 India 1,74,655 9,490 56 23,826 Nepal 5,839 11 39 57 Pakistan 24,936 2,966 288 3,818 Sri Lanka 1,938 9.8 1,307 252Source: FAO, 2004. Figures in thousand metric tones for 2002
  3. 3. Some Indicators for Child Wellbeing and malnutrition in South Asia Bangla- India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka deshImmunization(% of children under 3 years who have not received the stated vaccine)BCGDTP3 5 27 15 20 1MCV 15 20 35 3 36Pol3 23 27 33 4 44 15 20 35 3 30Child undernutrition(% of children with the stated condition)Underweight 48 46 48 38 29Stunting 43 46 51 37 14Wasting 13 16 10 13 14Infant and child mortality(per 1,000 live births)Infant mortality rate 56 62 59 80 12Under-five mortality rate 77 85 76 101 14
  4. 4. India’s Annual Growth Rate Year GDP Per capita income1951-79 3.6 1.31980-91 5.6 3.51992-06 6.5 4.7
  5. 5. Population, GDP and Foodgrain Production140012001000 Population 800 GDP 600 Foodgrain 400 Production 200 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2006
  6. 6. Growth of GDP in India 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1992- 1993- 1994- 1995- 1996- 1997- 1998- 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06annual increase 5.1 6.2 7.0 7.3 7.5 5.1 6.5 6.1 4.4 5.6 4.4 8.5 7.5 8.4
  7. 7. Worrying issues• News of starvation deaths & farmers’ suicides from many states• Stagnant agricultural production, and falling food availability• Unemployment has increased from 4 to 8% in ten years• Regional disparities are increasing• IMR stagnating around 60 per 1000, it is 46 in Bangladesh• Immunisation coverage fell from 60 to 40% in 5 yrs• More than 50% women are anemic• 46% children are malnourished• Declining child sex ratio during 1991-2001• There is no will to improve administration in poor states
  8. 8. Index number of Agricultural Production Index annual rate of growth1981-82 100 4.4%1990-91 148 2.8%1996-97 176 0.2%2004-05 179
  9. 9. Foodgrain Production (million tonnes) 215 205 195 185 175 165 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04Series1 199.4 192.3 203.6 209.8 196.8 211.9 174.2 210.8
  10. 10. Foodgrain exports in million tonnes 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 TotalTotal exports 4.685 12.385 10.308 0.753 28.131
  11. 11. % of Work Force dependent on Agriculture71 69.5 69.768 66.565 64.862 59.859 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
  12. 12. Poverty Percentage below povertyline1973 564 391994 351999 26?2004 28
  13. 13. number of poor people in millions350 53 65 70 78 67 Urban Rural 247 239 234 236 201 0 1971 1981 1991 2001 2006
  14. 14. Social groups 1993-94 1999-2000 Percentage Share in Percentage Share in Total Rural Below Total Rural Below Population Poverty Population Poverty Line LineScheduled 10.8 48.8 10.5 48.0tribesScheduled 21.1 45.7 20.4 38.4castesOthers 68.1 28.3 69.1 23.2All households 100.0 34.2 100.0 28.9
  15. 15. There should be no food insecurity in IndiaBoth GDP and foodgrain productionhave risen faster than the growth inpopulation over the last 50 yearsAnd yet chronic hunger and starvation persist in largesections of the population. There has been adeclining calorie consumption especially in thebottom 30% of the population.
  16. 16. Net availability of foodgrains per capita per day in gms500480460440420400 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001
  17. 17. Source: Report of Committee on Long Term Grain Policy, 2002
  18. 18. India has the largest food schemes in the World• Entitlement Feeding Programmes – ICDS (All Children under six, Pregnant and lactating mother) – MDMS (All Primary School children)• Food Subsidy Programmes – Targeted Public Distribution System (35 kgs/ month of subsidised food grains – Annapurna (10 kgs of free food grain for destitute poor)• Employment Programmes – National Rural Employment Scheme (100 days of employment at minimum wages)• Social Safety Net Programmes – National Old Age Pension Scheme (Monthly pension to BPL) – National Family Benefit Scheme (Compensation in case of death of bread winner to BPL families)
  19. 19. The Right to Food Case• PUCL petition on hunger in Rajasthan in the Supreme Court in 2001• Emergence of the Right to Food Campaign• Key Issues: – Making the Right to Food a Fundamental Right – Converting all existing schemes into entitlements – Tackling large scale malnutrition and chronic hunger – Securing employment as a fundamental right linked to the Right to Food• Longest continuing mandamus on the Right to Food in the World – 51 Interim Orders so far; more than 500 affidavits; nearly 70 Interim Applications
  20. 20. Highlights of Supreme Court Orders on the Right to Food• Converted all food and employment schemes into legal entitlements• Universalised food entitlement programmes for children (ICDS for children under six and Mid Day Meal Scheme for all primary school children)• Instituted the independent mechanism of Commissioners to the Supreme Court to monitor all food and employment programmes• Prevented the reduction of the “poverty line” from 36% to 26%• Hauled up Government periodically by serving notice of contempt of court on senior most Government functionaries (Chief Secretaries)
  21. 21. Office of the Commissioners to theSupreme Court (Writ 196/ 2001)• Appointed by the Supreme Court to monitor all food schemes in the Country• Mandate extends to: – Entitlement Feeding Programmes • MDMS, ICDS – Employment Programmes • NREGS, SGRY I & II, NFFWP, RSVY – Food Subsidy Programme • TPDS, Antodaya Anna Yojana (AAY), Annapurna Yojana – Social Security Programmes • Pensions (NOAPS, NMBS, NFBS)
  22. 22. How does the Office of theCommissioners function?• Honorary positions; work supported by funds mandated by the Supreme Court• Works through a secretariat (Delhi) and a network of Advisers across India• Make policy recommendations through: – Rigorous participatory research – Articulating alternative demands of State policy – Participating in policy bodies such as Planning Commission Steering Groups
  23. 23. How does the Office of theCommissioners function? (cont’d.)• Monitors programmes – Through analysis of macro-data – Addressing complaints at the micro-level• Holds the State accountable by: – Regular engagement with the GoI and State Governments – Joint Commission of Enquiries – Regular reports on non-compliance to the Supreme Court
  24. 24. Impact so far• Universalisation of MDMS (120 million children get school meals) and ICDS (Government would need to double the ICDS centres to 1.4 million centres covering 60 million children under the age of six)• Managed to restrict the lowering of BPL quotas by GoI from 36% to 26%• Increase in off-take of subsidised food-grains through the targeted public distribution system• Increased budgetary allocation for ICDS, Old Age Pensions (3 times the amount)• Passage of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act which guarantees 100 days of employment a year (at minimum wages)
  25. 25. Impact so far (cont’d.)• Provided Civil Society an anchor to engage/ confront the State and created spaces for civil society to engage in food/ employment programmes• Brought the discourse on food rights to the centre-stage of governance in the States and GoI• Has been largely effective in provision of gratuitous relief (Tea Garden Workers in West Bengal).• Created the environment for the passage of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
  26. 26. Off-take of BPL/ AAY Food Grains • Figure 3.1: Percentage off-take of BPL/AAY food grains from 2001-02 to 2004-05 100 90 Percentage offtake 80 81.9% 73.7% 70 64.2% 60 59.2% 50 40 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05Source: Various issues of Monthly food grain bulletin, Department of food and public distribution, GoI
  27. 27. Some Challenges that we face• Attempting reforms in an era of overall weakening governance and state commitment to social sectors• Has powers (including filing contempt charges against Chief Secretaries) which are best used by not being exercised• Operates in the domain of judicial activism• Challenge of individual redressal versus systemic policy engagement• Has proved to be marginally effective in harder areas of governance reforms

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