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Head neck 2nd pharynx

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  • 1. HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx
    • Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat
    • Nasal Cavity and Breathing
    • Mouth and Chewing
    • Throat and Swallowing
    • Larynx and Singing
  • 2. Sagittal Section Head
    • Cranial cavity
    • Brain/Spinal cord
    • Vertebral bodies
    • Epaxial muscles
    • Hard/soft palate
    • Oral cavity
    • Esophagus
    • Trachea
    • Epiglottis
    • Naso-
    • Oro-
    • Laringo-
    pharynx
  • 3. Nose/Nasal Cavity and Breathing
    • Function:
    • Inlet for air to lung
    • Warm/filter air
    • (mucous membranes on ethmoid conchae )
    • Smell
    • (nerve endings on nasal membranes)
    M&M, Fig. 21.1
  • 4. Conchae of Ethmod Bone
    • Scroll-like bones
    • Covered in mucous membrane for
      • Smell
      • Filter air
      • Warm air
    M&M, Fig. 7.10
  • 5. Sinuses
    • All connected to nasal cavity
    • All lined with mucous membranes
    • Cold/allergies—fill with mucous=sinus headache
    • Maxillary
    • Ethmoid
    • Frontal
    • Sphenoid
    M&M, Fig. 7.11
  • 6. Mouth/Oral Cavity and Chewing
    • COMPONENTS
    • Lips
    • Cheeks
    • Palate
    • Jaws and teeth
    • Salivary glands
    • FUNCTION
    • Bite and chew food
    • Form words
    • Taste
    • Kiss
    Vestibule—in front of teeth Oral cavity proper—behind teeth Lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium (almost no keratin)
  • 7. Lips
    • FUNCTION
    • Close mouth
    • Keep food in
    • Make speech sounds
    • Tactile
    • STRUCTURE
    • Core of sphinchter-shape skeletal muscle (orbicularis oris)
    • “ Red margin” transition from keratinized skin to oral mucosa
      • Red because clear color lets underlying vessels show through
      • No sweat or sebaceous glands, thus needs to be wet (or lip balm)
    M&M, Fig. 11.6
  • 8. Cheeks
    • FUNCTION
    • Form side of moth
    • STRUCTURE
    • Buccinator muscle—instrumental in swallowing, connects back to pharyngeal constrictors
    M&M, Fig. 11.6
  • 9. Palate
    • Hard palate anterior
      • Maxilla
      • Palatine
    • Soft palate is posterior extension, soft tissue
    • Palatoglossal arch
    • (palate to tongue)
    • Palatopharyngeal arch
    • (palate to pharynx)
    • Tonsils between arches
    • Uvula…???
    M&M, Fig. 22.7
  • 10. Jaws
    • FUNCTION
    • Hold teeth
    • Occlude in chewing
    • STRUCTURE
    • Upper jaw—maxillary bone
    • Lower jaw--mandible
    M&M, Fig. 7.3
  • 11. Teeth
    • Deciduous teeth—”milk” or “baby” teeth
    • Emerge 6 mos. – 2 yrs.
    • Replaced by permanent teeth 6-12 yrs.
    • Wisdom teeth (3 rd molar) erupts 17-25 yrs or remains in jaw
    • Key to healthy teeth and gums:
    • Flossing
    • Visiting dentist regularly (every 6 mos.) and starting at young age (3-4 yrs.)
  • 12. Structure of individual tooth—it’s alive!!
  • 13. Jaw muscles
    • Masseter, temporalis—elevate mandible (“close jaw”)
    • Medial pterygoid—lateral (side-to-side) chewing
    • Lateral pterygoid—translates mandible anteriorly (part of opening)
    • Digastric (not shown)—depresses mandible (“opens jaw”)
    • Chewing is circular motion
    M&M, Fig. 11.7
  • 14. Tongue
    • FUNCTION
    • Position food between teeth
    • Form words in speech
    • STRUCTURE
    • Intrinsic muscles (allow for shape change with fibers in various directions)
    • Extrinsic muscles—attach tongue to skeleton
      • Genioglossus
      • hyoglossus
    M&M, Fig. 22.7
  • 15. Salivary glands
    • Intrinsic—all over mucous membranes of tongue, palate, lips, lining of cheek
    • Extrinsic—secrete more saliva when eating (or anticipating)
      • Parotid
      • Submandibular
      • sublingual
    M&M, Fig. 22.10
  • 16. Saliva
    • Moistens mouth
    • Dissolves food to be tasted
    • Wets and binds food
    • Contains amylase to start starch digestion (saltine to sugar experiment)
    • Contains bicarbonate to neutralize cavity-causing acids produced by bacteria
    • Contains anti-bacterial and anti-viral enzymes and cyanide-like compound to kill harmful micro-organisms
    • Contains proteins that stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the mouth
  • 17. Throat/Pharynx and Swallowing
    • Back of mouth to larynx
    • Food and air mix and cross
    • When it goes wrong—choking!!
    • STRUCTURES
    • Entry—pharyngeal arches
    • Exit—glottis (epiglottis is lid)
    • Pharyngeal constrictors squeeze food through
    Food PHARYNX Air Trachea Esophagus
  • 18. Pharynx and Swallowing Focus on muscles and arrangement of mouth cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, trachea Pharynx/Swallowing in detail!!
  • 19. Descent of the larynx
  • 20. Larynx and Singing
    • FUNCTION
    • Channel air out of trachea
    • Vibrate to produce sound for speech/song
    • STRUCTURES
    • External skeleton or frame (cartilage)
    • Internal vocal cords and associated muscles
  • 21. Skeleton of larynx
    • Cricothyroid ligament is usual site of emergency tracheotomy (feel on self—SURFACE ANATOMY)
    M&M, Fig. 21.5
  • 22. Vocal cords M&M, Fig. 21.6
  • 23. COMING SOON!! Head/Neck III: Special Senses Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves