Head neck 2nd pharynx

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Head neck 2nd pharynx

  1. 1. HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx <ul><li>Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal Cavity and Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth and Chewing </li></ul><ul><li>Throat and Swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx and Singing </li></ul>
  2. 2. Sagittal Section Head <ul><li>Cranial cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Brain/Spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebral bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Epaxial muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Hard/soft palate </li></ul><ul><li>Oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>Naso- </li></ul><ul><li>Oro- </li></ul><ul><li>Laringo- </li></ul>pharynx
  3. 3. Nose/Nasal Cavity and Breathing <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Inlet for air to lung </li></ul><ul><li>Warm/filter air </li></ul><ul><li>(mucous membranes on ethmoid conchae ) </li></ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><li>(nerve endings on nasal membranes) </li></ul>M&M, Fig. 21.1
  4. 4. Conchae of Ethmod Bone <ul><li>Scroll-like bones </li></ul><ul><li>Covered in mucous membrane for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm air </li></ul></ul>M&M, Fig. 7.10
  5. 5. Sinuses <ul><li>All connected to nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>All lined with mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Cold/allergies—fill with mucous=sinus headache </li></ul><ul><li>Maxillary </li></ul><ul><li>Ethmoid </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><li>Sphenoid </li></ul>M&M, Fig. 7.11
  6. 6. Mouth/Oral Cavity and Chewing <ul><li>COMPONENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul><ul><li>Cheeks </li></ul><ul><li>Palate </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Bite and chew food </li></ul><ul><li>Form words </li></ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Kiss </li></ul>Vestibule—in front of teeth Oral cavity proper—behind teeth Lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium (almost no keratin)
  7. 7. Lips <ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Close mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Keep food in </li></ul><ul><li>Make speech sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Core of sphinchter-shape skeletal muscle (orbicularis oris) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Red margin” transition from keratinized skin to oral mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red because clear color lets underlying vessels show through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sweat or sebaceous glands, thus needs to be wet (or lip balm) </li></ul></ul>M&M, Fig. 11.6
  8. 8. Cheeks <ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Form side of moth </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Buccinator muscle—instrumental in swallowing, connects back to pharyngeal constrictors </li></ul>M&M, Fig. 11.6
  9. 9. Palate <ul><li>Hard palate anterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxilla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft palate is posterior extension, soft tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Palatoglossal arch </li></ul><ul><li>(palate to tongue) </li></ul><ul><li>Palatopharyngeal arch </li></ul><ul><li>(palate to pharynx) </li></ul><ul><li>Tonsils between arches </li></ul><ul><li>Uvula…??? </li></ul>M&M, Fig. 22.7
  10. 10. Jaws <ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Hold teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Occlude in chewing </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Upper jaw—maxillary bone </li></ul><ul><li>Lower jaw--mandible </li></ul>M&M, Fig. 7.3
  11. 11. Teeth <ul><li>Deciduous teeth—”milk” or “baby” teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Emerge 6 mos. – 2 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced by permanent teeth 6-12 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom teeth (3 rd molar) erupts 17-25 yrs or remains in jaw </li></ul><ul><li>Key to healthy teeth and gums: </li></ul><ul><li>Flossing </li></ul><ul><li>Visiting dentist regularly (every 6 mos.) and starting at young age (3-4 yrs.) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Structure of individual tooth—it’s alive!!
  13. 13. Jaw muscles <ul><li>Masseter, temporalis—elevate mandible (“close jaw”) </li></ul><ul><li>Medial pterygoid—lateral (side-to-side) chewing </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral pterygoid—translates mandible anteriorly (part of opening) </li></ul><ul><li>Digastric (not shown)—depresses mandible (“opens jaw”) </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing is circular motion </li></ul>M&M, Fig. 11.7
  14. 14. Tongue <ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Position food between teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Form words in speech </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic muscles (allow for shape change with fibers in various directions) </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic muscles—attach tongue to skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genioglossus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hyoglossus </li></ul></ul>M&M, Fig. 22.7
  15. 15. Salivary glands <ul><li>Intrinsic—all over mucous membranes of tongue, palate, lips, lining of cheek </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic—secrete more saliva when eating (or anticipating) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parotid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submandibular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sublingual </li></ul></ul>M&M, Fig. 22.10
  16. 16. Saliva <ul><li>Moistens mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolves food to be tasted </li></ul><ul><li>Wets and binds food </li></ul><ul><li>Contains amylase to start starch digestion (saltine to sugar experiment) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains bicarbonate to neutralize cavity-causing acids produced by bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Contains anti-bacterial and anti-viral enzymes and cyanide-like compound to kill harmful micro-organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Contains proteins that stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the mouth </li></ul>
  17. 17. Throat/Pharynx and Swallowing <ul><li>Back of mouth to larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Food and air mix and cross </li></ul><ul><li>When it goes wrong—choking!! </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><li>Entry—pharyngeal arches </li></ul><ul><li>Exit—glottis (epiglottis is lid) </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal constrictors squeeze food through </li></ul>Food PHARYNX Air Trachea Esophagus
  18. 18. Pharynx and Swallowing Focus on muscles and arrangement of mouth cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, trachea Pharynx/Swallowing in detail!!
  19. 19. Descent of the larynx
  20. 20. Larynx and Singing <ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Channel air out of trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrate to produce sound for speech/song </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><li>External skeleton or frame (cartilage) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal vocal cords and associated muscles </li></ul>
  21. 21. Skeleton of larynx <ul><li>Cricothyroid ligament is usual site of emergency tracheotomy (feel on self—SURFACE ANATOMY) </li></ul>M&M, Fig. 21.5
  22. 22. Vocal cords M&M, Fig. 21.6
  23. 23. COMING SOON!! Head/Neck III: Special Senses Head/Neck IV: Cranial Nerves

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