Histological structure of upper alimentary system

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histological structure of mouth, teeth, oesophagus, Gaster and duodenum

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Histological structure of upper alimentary system

  1. 1. The Histologic Structure of Upper Alimentary Tract I Wayan Sugiritama Medical Faculty of Udayana University 2008
  2. 2. HISTOLOGY OF UPPER ALIMENTARY TRAC T <ul><li>Digestive system composed of : </li></ul><ul><li>ORAL CAVITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Lips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Palate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALIMENTARY TRACK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Small intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Large Intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histologic Structure of Rectum and Anal Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ASSOCIATED GLAND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary Gland </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ORAL CAVITY <ul><li>The first steps of digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food moisten by saliva (Parotid, Submandibular & Sublingual, & minor salivary glands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground by teeth  smaller pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation digestion of carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Moistened the food + chewed  BOLUS </li></ul>
  4. 4. HISTOLOGIC STRUCTURE OF THE ORAL CAVITY <ul><li>The oral mucosa compose by </li></ul><ul><li>epithelium and connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><li>Masticatory mucosa: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>covers the surfaces involved in the processing of food (tongue, gingivae and hard palate). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strat. Sq. E. keratinized to different degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lining mucosa: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>covers the remaining surfaces of the oral cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-keratinised strati. sq. epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialized mucosa : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste buds </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. HISTOLOGIC STRUCTURE OF THE HARD AND SOFT PALATE <ul><li>Separate the oral </li></ul><ul><li>and nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Palate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratinized St. Sq. Epith. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense. Irreg. Coll. C.T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rests on bony tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft Palate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-keratinized St. Sq. Epith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreg. Coll. C.T. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor Salivary Glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uvula ~ Soft Palate </li></ul>
  6. 6. Histologic Structure of Lips <ul><li>The core: skeletal muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>External (skin) aspect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin skin, with sweat glands, hair follicles, & sebaceous gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vermilion zone : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin skin, capillary loops close to the skin  pink color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal (mucous) aspect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strat. Sq. non-keratinized epith. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pharynx <ul><li>Transition : oral cavity-respiratory-digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Lined by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strat. Sq. Epith. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliated Pseudostrat. Colum. Epith. (respiratory portion) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains the tonsil </li></ul>
  8. 8. Histologic Structure of Teeth <ul><li>Mineralized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enamel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consist 96% calcium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enamel rods coated with organic matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dentin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consist 70% calcium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dentinal tubules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cementum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consist 50% calcium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cementocytes within lacunae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulp </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose connective Tissue with nerve and blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Structure Associated with Teeth <ul><li>Periodontal Ligament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspend the tooth in its socket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense irregular connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alveolus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bony Socket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ginggiva (gums) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratinized St. Sq. Epith. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense collagenous connective tissue </li></ul></ul>Periodontal. L. ALVEOLUS CEMENTUM
  10. 10. Histologic Structure of Tongue <ul><li>Bulk of skeletal muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal surface : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior (2/3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lingual papillae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulcus terminalis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior (1/3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventral Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous membrane is smooth </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. LINGUAL PAPILLAE <ul><li>Filiform </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated conical shape </li></ul><ul><li>Keratinized. Strat. Sq. Ep. </li></ul><ul><li>(-) taste buds </li></ul><ul><li>Fungiform </li></ul><ul><li>Mushroom (slender stalk & broad cup) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonkeratinized Strat. Sq. Ept. </li></ul><ul><li>(+) taste buds </li></ul>
  12. 12. LINGUAL PAPILLAE <ul><li>Circumvallate </li></ul><ul><li>V-shape (7-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Submerge into the surface of tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Ducts of glands of Von Ebner </li></ul><ul><li>+ T aste B uds </li></ul><ul><li>Foliate </li></ul><ul><li>Appear as vertical furrows </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly develope </li></ul>
  13. 13. TASTE BUDS <ul><li>Intraepithelial sensory organs  perception of taste </li></ul><ul><li>± 3000 </li></ul><ul><li>Composed by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60-80 spindle shape cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basal cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The narrow end  taste pore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nerve fibers </li></ul>
  14. 14. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF ALIMENTARY TRACT <ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamina Propia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucularis mucosae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Submucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Muscularis externa </li></ul><ul><li>Adventitia </li></ul>
  15. 15. ESOPHAGUS <ul><li>Muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>Transport foodstuffs (BOLUS) from mouth to the stomach </li></ul>
  16. 16. Histologic Structure of Esophagus <ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strat. Sq. Non Keratinized E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamina Propia (unremarkable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>esophageal cardiac glands  mucus coat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscularis mucosae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Submucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense fibroelastic C.T. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophageal glands proper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serous  Pepsinogen & lysozyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscularis Externa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal & smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adventitia </li></ul>
  17. 17. STOMACH <ul><li>Responsible for the formation & processing of ingested food  CHYME </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HCL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepsin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rennin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastric lipase </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Histologic Structure of Stomach <ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simp. Colum. Epit.  PROTECTIVE MUCUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invaginate  Gastric pits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lamina propia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose C.T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch Tubular Glands  open into gastric pits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscularis mucosae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Submucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense irreg. coll. C.T. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscularis externa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three layer of smooth M. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. CARDIAC REGION OF STOMACH <ul><li>Simple tubular cardiac gland </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow of gastric pits </li></ul><ul><li>Base of glands is highly coiled </li></ul><ul><li>Cells population mostly surface lining epith </li></ul><ul><li>(-)chief cells </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus & lyzosyme </li></ul>
  20. 20. FUNDIC REGION OF STOMACH <ul><li>Branch Tubular gastric glands </li></ul><ul><li>Type of cells : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface lining cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> mucus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regenerative cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous neck cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> mucus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal (oxyntic) cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> HCL & intrinsic factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief (zymogenic) cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> pepsinogen & lipase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNES cells  </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. PYLORUS REGION OF STOMACH <ul><li>Deep of gastric pits </li></ul><ul><li>Short, higly convulated, branch gland </li></ul><ul><li>Predominant cells is mucous neck cells  mucus & lysozyme </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrin cells </li></ul><ul><li> gastrin  HCL production </li></ul><ul><li>D cells </li></ul><ul><li> somatostatin </li></ul>
  22. 22. Histologic Structure of Stomach
  23. 23. HISTOLOGIC STRUCTURE OF DUODENUM <ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Digest food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>absorb end product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plicae circulares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Villi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microvilli </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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