Cloud monitoring overview


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Cloud monitoring overview

  1. 1. Cloud Monitoring Overview Ramkumar Lakshminarayanan
  2. 2. InteroperabilityInteroperability means easy migration and integrationof applications and data between different vendors’clouds. Owing to different hypervisors (KVM, Hyper-V,ESX, ESXi), VM technologies, storage, configuringoperating systems, various security standards andmanagement interfaces, many cloud systems are notinteroperable.
  3. 3. InteroperabilityMany enterprises want interoperability between theirinhouse infrastructure and the cloud. The issue ofinteroperability need to be addressed to allowapplications to be ported between clouds, or usemultiple cloud multiple cloud infrastructures, beforecritical business applications are delivered from thecloud. Most clouds are completely opaque to theirusers .
  4. 4. InteroperabilityMost of the time, users are fine until there is accessissue.In such situations, frustration increase exponentiallywith time, partly because of the opacity.We need monitoring solution to avoid frustration.
  5. 5. Data MigrationData migration between data centers or cloudsystems are important concerns of taxonomy.While migrating data, some considerations should betaken into account like no data loss, availability,scalability, cost-efficiency, and load balancing.User should be able to move their data andapplications any time from one to anther seamlessly,without any one vendor controlling it.
  6. 6. Data MigrationSeamless transfer, as in mobile communication, isrequired cloud computing to work.Many enterprises do not move their mission criticaldata and applications to the cloud because of vendorlock-in, security, governance, and many morecomplications.
  7. 7. Management ServicesThe management services contain deployment,monitoring, reporting, service-level agreement, andmetering billing. We discuss these in detail.
  8. 8. Deployment and ConfigurationTo reduce the complexity and administrative burdenacross the cloud deployment, we need theautomation process life cycle.RightScale Cloud Management Platform addressesthree stages of the cloud application deploymentlifecycle, namely design, manage, and deploy.
  9. 9. Deployment and ConfigurationTools such as cfengine, Chef from Opscode-chef,rPath, and Puppet are available as configurationmanagement frameworks.These tools help software developers and engineersto manage server and application configuration bywriting code, rather than running commands by hand.
  10. 10. Monitoring and ReportingDeveloping, testing, debugging, and studying theperformance of cloud systems is quite complex.Management cost increases significantly as thenumber of sites increases.To address such problems, we need monitoring andreporting mechanisms.Monitoring basically monitor the SLA lifecycle. It alsodetermines when an SLA completes and reports tothe building service.There are some services that monitor the cloud andreports to the billing services.
  11. 11. Monitoring and ReportingThere are some services that monitor the cloudsystems and produce health reports such as HypericHQ.Hyperic lets sysadmins find, fix and preventperformance problems in custom web apps, whetherrunning on physical, virtual, or cloud infrastructure.
  12. 12. Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) ManagementUsers always want stable and reliable systemservice. Cloud architecture is considered to behighly available, up and running 24 h X 7 days.Many cloud service providers have made hugeinvestments to make their system reliable.However, most cloud vendors today do notprovide high availability assurance.If a service goes down, for whatever reason, whatcan a user do? How can users access theirdocuments stored in the cloud?In such a case, the provider should pay a fine tothe consumer as compensation to meet SLAs.
  13. 13. Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) ManagementAn SLA specifies the measurement, evaluation, andreporting of the agreed service level standards suchas:
  14. 14. Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) ManagementCurrently, Amazon offers a “99.9% Monthly UptimePercentage” SLA for Simple Storage Service(Amazon S3) and credit is limited to 10%.Amazon credits 25% of charges if the availabilitydrops is limited to 10%.Amazon credits 25% of charges if the availabilitydrops below 99.0%, whereas 3Tear Virtual PrivateData Center (VPDC) service will include a 99.999%availability SLA that is supposed to help assurecustomers about putting mission-critical apps andservices in the cloud.
  15. 15. Metering and BillingTransparent metering and billing will increase thetrust level of users towards cloud services.Pay-as-you-go subscription or pay-as-you-consumemodel of billing and metering are popular for cloud.This service gets the status of the SLA, and invokesthe credit service, which debits the user credit card oraccount and informs the user.
  16. 16. Metering and BillingThere are many pricing strategies such as RAMhours, CPU Capacity, Bandwidth(Inbound/Outbound Data Transfer), Storage(gigabytes of data), Software (License Fee), andSubscription-Based Pricing.There are some interesting new billing modelssuch GoGrid prepaid cloud hosting plan and IDCcloud billing research, which are great examplesof moving cloud pricing models towards telecommodels.
  17. 17. ProvisioningSelf-service application provisioning enablesapplication developers to set up applicationinfrastructure, such as Java application servers,database, and messaging servers, without anyhelp or assistance from infrastructure teams.Self-service application provisioning hides thecomplexity of the enterprise cloud fromapplication developers and empower them to setup and configure complex applicationinfrastructure with the click of a button.
  18. 18. ProvisioningBy building a self-service portal for on-demandprovisioning, we can reduce process overheads.Provisioning can help to manage resourcemanagement, workload management, andautorecovery and task and process automation.
  19. 19. SecurityCloud Providers provides security by Certifications and Accreditations. Physical Security. Secure Services. Data Privacy.
  20. 20. SecurityCorporate information is not only a competitive asset,but it often contains information of consumers andemployees that in the wrong hands, could create acivil liability and possibly criminal charges.The key challenges of cloud security are performance,risk management, governance, design, anddeployability.
  21. 21. Encryption/DecryptionCustomers who worry about the privacy of theirinformation should encrypt their data before movingit to the cloud.The provider should provide the utilities to simplifythe process of encrypting the files and storing them inthe cloud; similarly, for retrieval decryption will need.Cloud provider use the Advanced EncryptionStandard (AES) that may be AES-128, AES-192, or AES-256.
  22. 22. Privacy and Federated IdentityFederation is the act of combining data or identitiesacross multiple systems. Federation can be done by acloud provider or by a cloud broker.Each user can subscribe to a portal and be given anaccess card, which will be used to identify thesubscriber at this particular portal or other portal incollaboration.
  23. 23. Authorization and Authentication In public cloud, safeguards must be placed on machines to ensure proper authentication and authorization. Within the private cloud environment, one can track, pinpoint, control, and manage users who try to access machines with improper credential. Single sign-on is the basic requirement for a customer who accesses multiple cloud services.
  24. 24. Fault ToleranceIn case of failure, there will be a hot backup instanceof the application, which is ready to take over withoutdisruption.Cloud computing outages extend into the morerefined version of cloud service platform. Someoutages have been quite lengthy.
  25. 25. Fault ToleranceThe major problem for cloud computing is how tominimize outage/failover to provide reliable services.It is important to adopt the well-known Recovery-Oriented Computing (ROC) paradigm in large datacenter.Google uses Google File System (GFS) or distributeddisk storage; every piece of data is replicated threetimes. If one machine dies, a master redistributes thedata to a new server.
  26. 26. Classification and Comparison between Cloud Computing EcosystemsThis section provides a technical comparison of severaltechnologies and cloud providers. Table 2.2-2.3 comparebetween different infrastructure technologies and solutionproviders such as Amazon Web Service (AWS), GoGrid,Flexiscale, and Moso.
  27. 27. Classification and Comparison between Cloud Computing Ecosystems
  28. 28. Classification and Comparison between Cloud Computing Ecosystems
  29. 29. 2.4 Classification and Comparisonbetween Cloud Computing EcosystemsTables 2.4-2.6 compares different SaaS and PaaS serviceproviders such as Google AppEngine (GAE), GigaSpace,Azure, RightScale, SunCloud, and (SFDC)
  30. 30. 2.4 Classification and Comparisonbetween Cloud Computing Ecosystems
  31. 31. Classification and Comparison between Cloud Computing Ecosystems
  32. 32. Classification and Comparison between Cloud Computing Ecosystems
  33. 33. Classification and Comparison between Cloud Computing EcosystemsSimilarly, Tables 2.7-2.8 compare open source cloud-basedservices like Eucalyptus, Open Nebula, Nimbus, and Enomaly.
  34. 34. 2.4 Classification and Comparisonbetween Cloud Computing Ecosystems
  35. 35. Classification and Comparison between Cloud Computing Ecosystems
  36. 36. Cloud Computing Infrastructure Technology and Solution Provider In EC2 architecture, users are able to monitor and control their applications as an instance but not as a service. To achieve manageability, the following capabilities are required: application-defined SLAs, such as workload capacity and concurrent computational tasks, dynamic provision of additional services to handle additional workload. AWS is becoming popular as a de facto standard; many cloud systems are using a similar API. Eucalyptus is an open-source implementation of the AWS APIs.
  37. 37. Cloud Computing Infrastructure Technology and Solution Provider The biggest concern of current cloud computing system is auditing of the security controls and mechanism in terms of user level. Amazon S3 lacks in access control that support delegation and auditing, and makes implicit trust assumptions between S3 and client. Amazon’s work towards Statement on Auditing Standard No. 70: Service Organizations, Type II (SAS70 type II) certification may be helpful for those concerned with widely varying levels of security competency.
  38. 38. Cloud Computing PaaS and SaaS Provider Google App Engine (GAE) provides a useful basis for people useful basis for people and companies to make web application from scratch without needing to worry about infrastructure. GAE provides for automatic scaling and load balancing.
  39. 39. Cloud Computing PaaS and SaaS Provider GigaSpaces use an In-Memory Data-Grid (IMDG) technique to manage state data in a database, which bridges the bottleneck of scalability. It provides all the basic features of a high-end Data Grid as well as unique features, such as continuous query and seamless integration with external data sources, and makes it extremely easy to deploy, modify, and ensure high availability for applications running on Amazon EC2.
  40. 40. Cloud Computing PaaS and SaaS Provider GIgaSpaces’s Space-Based Architecture (SBA) approaches are based on the Tuple Space model that can meet the challenge of running low-latency transactional applications in a highly distributed environment such as Amazon EC2.
  41. 41. Open Source Based Cloud Computing ServicesThe role of open source cloud computing is to buildmechanisms around digital identify management,and outline technological building blocks that areneeded for controllable trust and identity verification.Nimbus supports the OASIS WSRF standard thatdefines a framework and uses we services to modeland access stateful resources.Enomaly cloud is focusing on the issue ofinteroperability, which is essential for enterprisecloud system. Most of the open source clouds areproviding IaaS.
  42. 42. Comments on Issues and Opportunities There are some issues related to mechanism such as security, privacy, (erosion of) data integrity, load balancing, interoperability, and scalable storage. Cloud computing services often provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers.
  43. 43. Comments on Issues and Opportunities Transmitting huge volumes of multimedia data across clouds will continue to be a challenge, and needs further research. Discovery and composition of the services between multiple clouds is also a promising arena for enterprise cloud.
  44. 44. Comments on Issues and Opportunities As the user requirement changes, functionality and privacy requirements may change, and so privacy requirements need to be reassessed at regular intervals. Policy design dynamic privacy design pattern may be a better technique for cloud computing. Cloud computing bring some novel attacks that have not figured in much of security discussion to date.
  45. 45. 2. 6 Comments on Issues and OpportunitiesAmazon AWS Import/Export support importingand exporting data into and out of Amazon S3buckets in the USA, but leaves complication inmigration of data between clouds.A major challenge of moving applications to thecloud is the need to master multipleprogramming language and operatingenvironment.
  46. 46. Comments on Issues and Opportunities Special attention is needed for government agencies to integrate their data from tradition to PaaS, a need to learn some new programming models residing in the cloud. Interoperability is another important issue for cloud. There is a need for data access interoperability, which is a unique programming interface to access diverse database (such as JDBS, ODBC, Ado.NET). There are lots of standardization issues; in the race to standardization, many organization and forums are working, but need to leverage the collaboration and discussion between them.
  47. 47. Comments on Issues and Opportunities Armbrust et al. also identified many issues for future research. There are some complications with current programming frameworks and programming languages for cloud computing such as Google AppEngine with its SQL-like syntax called “GQL”. Select statements in GQL can be performed on one table only. GQL does not support a join statement. The cloud developers will need more flexible query-oriented and API-oriented programming in future.
  48. 48. Comments on Issues and Opportunities The complexity will be there for developers to apply the disciplines of development across multiple platform technologies and computational models. The alignment of user needs with business strategy is also a challenging job for CIOs.
  49. 49. Questions ?