®     Introduction toAutomatic X-Ray Inspection         Systems
®           Program Overview•Main Features•How Does This Technology Work?•What Can This Technology Do?•Where Can These Sys...
®                  Main Features                      Stainless steel cabinet    Light Tower                              ...
®               Main FeaturesProduct flow                 Tank                X-Ray Beam    Detecto    r
®                         Main Features                                           TankTouch Screen                        ...
®How Does This Technology Work? What is Radiation? • Radiation is the transmission of energy by means of   particles or wa...
®How Does This Technology Work? What are X-Rays? X-Rays are • Invisible radiation (energy) capable of penetrating solid   ...
®How Does This Technology Work?            1.2 mm SS Sphere         in Hash Brown Potatoes
®How Does This Technology Work?How is X-Ray energy measured?• In Thousand Electron Volt or (KeV).It is best to select an X...
®   How Does This Technology Work ?     How are X-Rays generated?     • X-ray Tube generates radiation by acceleration of ...
®How Does This Technology Work?• The X-ray tube is housed within an enclosure that is fan  cooled (known as the Tank).
®How Does This Technology Work? Tube is submerged in oil to dissipate heat which increases life.
®How Does This Technology Work? What do we do with the X-rays? • The X-rays are channeled and contained in the   Collimato...
®How Does This Technology Work? What do we do with the X-rays? • The collimated fan beam is then directed toward the   Det...
®How Does This Technology Work?            Overview
®How Does This Technology Work?
®How Does This Technology Work?         .                          .5mm SS Metal with a 6 gray value is an anomaly Proprie...
®How Does This Technology Work?                          1mm SS in canned product       Metal in Metal Inspection
®How Does This Technology Work?How X-Rays Detect   Atomic Number/Weight   • Food/pharmaceuticals are primarily comprised o...
®
®  How Does This Technology Work?                                .Glass Shard In Cubed Potatoes                           ...
®What Can This Technology Do?  •   Contaminant Detection  •   Detect Missing Items  •   Mass control  •   Product Integrit...
®What Can This Technology Do?                                       1.2 mm SS                      .       Metal Inspectio...
®What Can This Technology Do?                                      Titleist Pro V        Whole Golf Ball Detected In      ...
®What Can This Technology Do?        Partial Golf Ball Detected In         Raw Potato Feed System
®What Can This Technology Do? Divided Packaging Integrity Check •Product fill in each zone •Pink stick •Contamination chec...
®What Can This Technology Do?       ®                                ®   Mass Control and Glass Inspection In Pet         ...
®  What Can This Technology Do?Glass Contaminate In Glass Baby Food Jar                                                Fil...
®What Can This Technology Do?  Model    FPM                     Units PM  XR-11     250                       200  XR-21  ...
®What Can This Technology Do? Factors that have traditionally affected metal detectors such as…..     • Ground Loops     •...
®Where Can These Systems Be        Installed?Conveyor Lines                 Pipeline Systems
®  How Much Do These Systems            Cost?Conveyor Package Systems$41,000-$90,000
®How Much Do These Systems          Cost?Pipeline Systems$80,000-$120,000
®How Much Do These Systems          Cost?Case Inspection System$102,000-$112,000
®                            Safety                       (Exposure Limits)X-ray emissions are measured in milliroentgen. ...
®                        Safety                   (Exposure Limits)For comparison….Cosmic radiationFlying in a commercial ...
®                Safety         (Equipment Operators)Are the operators of cabinet x-ray systems required towear a“radiatio...
®                Safety         (Equipment Safeguards)All cabinet X-Ray machines must comply with FDACFR 1020.40 Regulatio...
®                       SafetyEriez X-Ray systems do not contain radioactive materials,such as Uranium. When the power is ...
®Will X-Rays Degrade or Irradiate         My Product? NO. The radiation dose typically received by objects scanned by a ca...
® Regulatory ConsiderationsYou will need to:  • Register Equipment according to State and Local    regulations  • Develop ...
®         Utility Requirements•   Voltage:110/220 60 Hertz Vac single or three phase•   Current: 10 amp•   Wattage: 100-30...
®         System Specifications              (Detector)Eriez Linear X-Ray detector is an integrated detection   module wit...
®          System Specifications               (Detector)•   Dual channel radiographic trigger•   Scan rate fixed or synch...
®        System Specifications          (Required Length)•   XR-11-@60-inches•   XR-21-@72-inches•   XR-31-@72-inches•   X...
®         System Specifications            (Output Relays)MOS Relays• Solid State• Opto-Isolated• 24Vdc• Drive current of ...
®         System Specifications              (Detector)OperationalAmbient temperature0-40 CRelative humidity30-80 % (non c...
®         System Specifications                (Tank)• The XR high energy tanks are  cooled by circulating oil. They  are ...
®    System Specifications           (Tank)
®    System Specifications           (Tank)          Side-Down Shoot
®    System Specifications           (Tank)           Side Shoot
®    System Specifications           (Tank)            Top Down
®
®                   Summary•   Detection of Contaminants•   Mass control•   Product Integrity•   Fill level•   Insert dete...
®                   Summary•Real time analysis of product on packaging lines•Real time inspection of products to confirm m...
®                    Summary•User friendly•No frequent calibration•Automatically analysis and rejection•Auto Set-up•Adapti...
®                   Summary•Windows XP Professional Operating System•Ethernet interface to high speed wireless network•Opt...
®                   Summary• Proprietary X-Ray systems employ low energy X-  Rays which is the key to sensitivity, reliabi...
®    Questions?
®                        DefinitionsExposure is a term defining the amount of ionizing radiation thatstrikes living or ina...
®                     DefinitionsDose means the quantity of radiation or energy absorbed. Dosemay refer to the following: ...
®                       DefinitionsRoentgen (R) is a unit of exposure of ionizing radiation andindicates the strength of t...
®                      DefinitionsRoentgen absorbed dose (rad) is the basic unit of absorbedradiation dose. A dose of 1 ra...
®                   DefinitionsRoentgen Equivalent Man (rem) is the basic unit ofequivalent dose, and relates the absorbed...
®                        DefinitionsExposure is a term defining the amount of ionizing radiation thatstrikes living or ina...
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Intro to x ray

  1. 1. ® Introduction toAutomatic X-Ray Inspection Systems
  2. 2. ® Program Overview•Main Features•How Does This Technology Work?•What Can This Technology Do?•Where Can These Systems Be Installed?•How Much Do These Systems Cost?•What Are The Safety Concerns?•Will X-Rays Degrade or Irradiate My Product?•What Are The Regulatory Considerations?•System Specifications•Utility Requirements
  3. 3. ® Main Features Stainless steel cabinet Light Tower Tunnel Covers Touch Screen With Dual InterlocksEmergency Stop Signage Lead curtains Reject Device Conveyor System Which Complies To CFR 1020.40 Standards
  4. 4. ® Main FeaturesProduct flow Tank X-Ray Beam Detecto r
  5. 5. ® Main Features TankTouch Screen X-Gen Board Collimator I-O Board VFC Detector Industrial PC
  6. 6. ®How Does This Technology Work? What is Radiation? • Radiation is the transmission of energy by means of particles or waves.
  7. 7. ®How Does This Technology Work? What are X-Rays? X-Rays are • Invisible radiation (energy) capable of penetrating solid material. • Useful for seeing inside packages
  8. 8. ®How Does This Technology Work? 1.2 mm SS Sphere in Hash Brown Potatoes
  9. 9. ®How Does This Technology Work?How is X-Ray energy measured?• In Thousand Electron Volt or (KeV).It is best to select an X-Ray machine that operates at a verylow KeV (from 50-120).• Lower energy X-rays give you superior sensitivity/resolution• Reduce heat and increased tube life Tube
  10. 10. ® How Does This Technology Work ? How are X-Rays generated? • X-ray Tube generates radiation by acceleration of electrons to target material (Tungsten) in anode.Cathode (-)Emits negativelycharged electrons Anode (+)(Very High Voltage) Electrons strike, slow down and convert to X-ray Photons. Low Energy X-Ray Photons
  11. 11. ®How Does This Technology Work?• The X-ray tube is housed within an enclosure that is fan cooled (known as the Tank).
  12. 12. ®How Does This Technology Work? Tube is submerged in oil to dissipate heat which increases life.
  13. 13. ®How Does This Technology Work? What do we do with the X-rays? • The X-rays are channeled and contained in the Collimator into a thin fan beam to inspect the product on a belt or in a pipeline. Collimator
  14. 14. ®How Does This Technology Work? What do we do with the X-rays? • The collimated fan beam is then directed toward the Detector (a silicon array of photo-diodes).
  15. 15. ®How Does This Technology Work? Overview
  16. 16. ®How Does This Technology Work?
  17. 17. ®How Does This Technology Work? . .5mm SS Metal with a 6 gray value is an anomaly Proprietary X-Ray systems group each value of grey level by the number of pixels of that value (this is called histogramming). This is the technique that Eriez uses for contaminant detection.
  18. 18. ®How Does This Technology Work? 1mm SS in canned product Metal in Metal Inspection
  19. 19. ®How Does This Technology Work?How X-Rays Detect Atomic Number/Weight • Food/pharmaceuticals are primarily comprised of C (6), H (1), O(8) • Detectable contaminants need to have an atomic number higher than the base material.
  20. 20. ®
  21. 21. ® How Does This Technology Work? .Glass Shard In Cubed Potatoes Atomic Level
  22. 22. ®What Can This Technology Do? • Contaminant Detection • Detect Missing Items • Mass control • Product Integrity • Fill Level • Confirm Presence Of Leaflets • Confirm Count AT THE SAME TIME!
  23. 23. ®What Can This Technology Do? 1.2 mm SS . Metal Inspection In Metal Can
  24. 24. ®What Can This Technology Do? Titleist Pro V Whole Golf Ball Detected In Raw Potato Feed System
  25. 25. ®What Can This Technology Do? Partial Golf Ball Detected In Raw Potato Feed System
  26. 26. ®What Can This Technology Do? Divided Packaging Integrity Check •Product fill in each zone •Pink stick •Contamination check for each compartment
  27. 27. ®What Can This Technology Do? ® ® Mass Control and Glass Inspection In Pet Food
  28. 28. ® What Can This Technology Do?Glass Contaminate In Glass Baby Food Jar Fill Level Confirm Fill Level And Contaminate Inspect Concurrently
  29. 29. ®What Can This Technology Do? Model FPM Units PM XR-11 250 200 XR-21 400 800 XR-31 330 600 XR-41 250 450 XR-51 330 750 XR-81 150 50 XR-71 4in pipe = 5000 GPM 3in pipe = 2200 GPM 2.5in pipe = 1500 GPM System Capacities
  30. 30. ®What Can This Technology Do? Factors that have traditionally affected metal detectors such as….. • Ground Loops • Foil Packaging • Liquids • Conductive Products • Ambient Noise Do not effect X-Ray Machines!
  31. 31. ®Where Can These Systems Be Installed?Conveyor Lines Pipeline Systems
  32. 32. ® How Much Do These Systems Cost?Conveyor Package Systems$41,000-$90,000
  33. 33. ®How Much Do These Systems Cost?Pipeline Systems$80,000-$120,000
  34. 34. ®How Much Do These Systems Cost?Case Inspection System$102,000-$112,000
  35. 35. ® Safety (Exposure Limits)X-ray emissions are measured in milliroentgen. Note: 1 milliroentgen of exposure to x-rays will result in approximately 1 millirem of dose. FDA CFR 1020.4 mandates a maximum exposure limit from cabinet X-Ray machines at 0.5 milliroentgens/hr @ any point five centimeters from the external surface.
  36. 36. ® Safety (Exposure Limits)For comparison….Cosmic radiationFlying in a commercial jet at at 35,000 ft (.3-.4 milliroentgens)BackgroundLiving in geographical regions where heavy elements (Radon)present.**average person receives 360 mrem/year from background radiation
  37. 37. ® Safety (Equipment Operators)Are the operators of cabinet x-ray systems required towear a“radiation badge”?Personnel monitoring equipment is not required byFederal regulation for operators of cabinet x-ray systems.It is possible that some state regulations or the policies ofthe operators’ employer require use of personnelmonitoring equipment.
  38. 38. ® Safety (Equipment Safeguards)All cabinet X-Ray machines must comply with FDACFR 1020.40 Regulations including...•Dual circuit interlocks•Safety relay circuit < 20ms between circuits•“X-ray on” lamp failure monitoring•Signage•Emergency stops•Appropriate Shielding
  39. 39. ® SafetyEriez X-Ray systems do not contain radioactive materials,such as Uranium. When the power is shut off, no X-raysare present or generated.
  40. 40. ®Will X-Rays Degrade or Irradiate My Product? NO. The radiation dose typically received by objects scanned by a cabinet x-ray system is 1 millirad or less. The minimum dose used in food irradiation for food preservation or destruction of parasites or pathogens is 30,000 rad. see Title 21 CFR 179 of FDA guidelines for additional information.
  41. 41. ® Regulatory ConsiderationsYou will need to: • Register Equipment according to State and Local regulations • Develop Safety Program Audit • Develop Operating and Emergency Procedures • Develop Training Program • Record Retention • Designate a Radiation Safety Officer* *only applicable in some states
  42. 42. ® Utility Requirements• Voltage:110/220 60 Hertz Vac single or three phase• Current: 10 amp• Wattage: 100-300• Air Supply: 80-90 psi
  43. 43. ® System Specifications (Detector)Eriez Linear X-Ray detector is an integrated detection module with a linear diode array up to 1024mm in length. It has the following features :• Available in diode pitch of 1.6mm, 0.8mm, 0.4mm, 0.2mm• Data interface RS422 pixel rate of up to 4MHz• Scan rate from 50 to 4000 scans/sec• Output resolution of 8 to 12 bits as standard• Control interface USB 2.0 as standard, RS232 optionally
  44. 44. ® System Specifications (Detector)• Dual channel radiographic trigger• Scan rate fixed or synchronous to external clock• Pixel output normalised by internal DSP processor• Output translation tables provide gamma law• All cables exit from end of module for easy connection
  45. 45. ® System Specifications (Required Length)• XR-11-@60-inches• XR-21-@72-inches• XR-31-@72-inches• XR-41-@84-inches• XR-51-@72-inches• XR-71-@60-inches• XR-81-@120-inches
  46. 46. ® System Specifications (Output Relays)MOS Relays• Solid State• Opto-Isolated• 24Vdc• Drive current of 1.5 amps• Suitable for directly driving valve solenoids, lamps, etc.• Short circuit protected
  47. 47. ® System Specifications (Detector)OperationalAmbient temperature0-40 CRelative humidity30-80 % (non condensing)
  48. 48. ® System Specifications (Tank)• The XR high energy tanks are cooled by circulating oil. They are powered from 110/240Vac 50/60Hz.• The XR lower energy tanks are air cooled by integrated fans. They are powered from 24Vdc power supplies (not included).• The units are controlled by remote analog inputs or by RS232 communications.
  49. 49. ® System Specifications (Tank)
  50. 50. ® System Specifications (Tank) Side-Down Shoot
  51. 51. ® System Specifications (Tank) Side Shoot
  52. 52. ® System Specifications (Tank) Top Down
  53. 53. ®
  54. 54. ® Summary• Detection of Contaminants• Mass control• Product Integrity• Fill level• Insert detection
  55. 55. ® Summary•Real time analysis of product on packaging lines•Real time inspection of products to confirm mass•Detection and elimination of foreign bodies including metal, stone, glass, bone and certain plastics
  56. 56. ® Summary•User friendly•No frequent calibration•Automatically analysis and rejection•Auto Set-up•Adaptive software algorithms
  57. 57. ® Summary•Windows XP Professional Operating System•Ethernet interface to high speed wireless network•Optional wireless network•External USB connectors
  58. 58. ® Summary• Proprietary X-Ray systems employ low energy X- Rays which is the key to sensitivity, reliability, and efficiency.• Safe to operate
  59. 59. ® Questions?
  60. 60. ® DefinitionsExposure is a term defining the amount of ionizing radiation thatstrikes living or inanimate material. (This is a general definition. Inhealth physics, exposure is specifically defined as a measure ofionization in air caused by x-ray or gamma radiation only.)
  61. 61. ® DefinitionsDose means the quantity of radiation or energy absorbed. Dosemay refer to the following: •absorbed dose, the amount of energy deposited per unit mass. •equivalent dose, the absorbed dose adjusted for the relative biological effect of the type of radiation being measured.
  62. 62. ® DefinitionsRoentgen (R) is a unit of exposure of ionizing radiation andindicates the strength of the ionizing radiation. One Roentgen is theamount of x-ray needed to produce ions carrying 1 electrostatic unitof electrical charge in 1 cubic centimeter of dry air under standardconditions.
  63. 63. ® DefinitionsRoentgen absorbed dose (rad) is the basic unit of absorbedradiation dose. A dose of 1 rad to an object means each gram of theobject received 100 ergs of energy or 1 rad = 100 ergs/gram.
  64. 64. ® DefinitionsRoentgen Equivalent Man (rem) is the basic unit ofequivalent dose, and relates the absorbed dose in humantissue to the biological effect of the radiation.Not all radiation has the same biological effect, even for thesame amount of absorbed dose.
  65. 65. ® DefinitionsExposure is a term defining the amount of ionizing radiation thatstrikes living or inanimate material. (This is a general definition. Inhealth physics, exposure is specifically defined as a measure ofionization in air caused by x-ray or gamma radiation only.)

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