recruitment and performance appraisal at air india ltd


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recruitment and performance appraisal at air india ltd

  1. 1. A project report on recruitmentand performance appraisal at airindia ltd.
  2. 2. CONTENTS Acknowledgement Preface Executive summary Mission statement of Air IndiaChapter- 1: introduction of Air IndiaHistory ,infrastructure and networkSalient featuresCorporate objectivesProblems of Air India and future challengesDesignation and grades in Air IndiaS.W.OT. analysis Chapter – 2 : objectives and methodologySignificance and managerial usefulness of studyObjectives and methodologyScope Chapter – 3 : conceptual analysisChapter – 4 : questionnaire and data analysisChapter – 5 : findings and recommendationsBibliography
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to thank and owe my gratitude to AIR INDIA to allow meto undergo an internship program, for a period of 2 months, assigned bymy institute. For giving me an opportunity to work on this project titled,“RECRUITMENT AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL(TRAINEE DEVELOPMENT) and for her assistance and suggestion,which resulted in successful completion of this project.I want to thanks those people to whom whenever I approached for helpthey have given me their valuable time.Any shortcomings in the work are attributable solely to myinadequacies.However my most sincere thanks and regards are due to all theemployees of the personnel department who provided me all theessentials information and assistance that I needed throughout the periodof my internship.
  4. 4. PREFACEThe recruitment and promotion rules of air India were framed inexercise of the power conferred by rule and trend with 8 to 15 airindia ( flying crew ) service rule air India ( aircraft engg. Deptt. )sse4rvice rule and the air India employees other than flying crewand aircraft engg deptt service rules. The air corporation act. 1953has been repeated by air corporation (transfer of undertaking andrepeal ) act, 1994 and air India become public ltd. Company.Over the years, recruitment and promotion rules have beenamended from time to time. These studies contain the recruitmentand promotion rules in corporating such amendment. Consequentto the reorganization of various departments, the designations haveundergone change. The mode of filling up of vacancies have alsoundergone with various unions.Administrative instructions have been issued regarding asrecruitment and promotional rules from time to time.Mode of appointment, size of panels, validity of panels, zone ofconsideration, distribution of marks, provision of outstanding, thebar considered for higher post, intimation regarding interview, etc.
  5. 5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYNational aviation company of India limited (NACIL) Was incorporatedon march 30 2007 under the scheme of amalgamation of air Indialimited and Indian Airlines limited .My summer training at NACIL has been a period of great experienceand learning. It helped me gain an insight into the functioning of thepersonnel department .My study had special emphasis on understanding the scope ofprocurement department, RTI department, grievance cell, welfaredepartment at NACIL.I also had a chance to do a live project on the satisfaction of theemployees with the recruitment & training programs and performanceappraisal methods adopted by them.An attempt was also made to highlight the IR related issues faced by theemployees in the post merger scenario.The experience of the study will definitely help me in future endeavors.
  6. 6. MISSION STATEMENT OF AIR INDIA“ TO BECOME A WORLD CLASS AIRLINEANDTO PROVIDE THE FINEST SERVICE IN THEOPERATIONS”HUMAN RESOURCEThe company has been following Government’s directives with regardto representation of scheduled castes/tribes.As on march 31st2001, the strength of staff was 21173 of which 1176were scheduled tribes.MARKETINGThe company strives to improve its product on an ongoing basis andconstantly endeavors to adopt aggressive marketing strategies andinnovating pricing policies to achieve a better market and improvementin revenue realization.Jet airways hold an edge over AIR INDIA as far as in-flight services areconcerned due to superior quality of services.Price is no longer a DIFFERENTIATING factor as it is seen that “y-class” fares of jet airways and Air India are same but jet airways chargesa slightly higher fare.
  7. 7. SECURITY PROCEDURESTo ensure the security of aircraft and passengers, security regulationshave been made stringent than before.Some of the security procedures are listed below:Your ticket is checked at the time of entering at terminal building.At major airports, the baggage is passed through x-ray machinesPersons are checked through hand-held metal detectorsIn case of red –alert, a secondary security check is also carried outChecked baggage is to be personally identified by the passengersbefore it is loaded on the aircraft.AIRPORT MANAGEMENTThe airport authority of India manages most of the airports.Air India pays various charges like landing ,parking and route navigationfee etc. to the airport controlling agencies for using the airport.WELFARE ACTIVITIESThe company provides various welfare activities to its employees suchas medical facilities, subsidized canteens, educational scholarships,festival schemes etc.USE OF HINDIThe main motive of the company is to promote Hindi as the officiallanguage in order to fulfill its overall objectives and is continuing itsefforts in accordance with official implementation programs.
  8. 8. Chapter 1IntroductionCompany profile
  9. 9. COMPANY PROFILENational Aviation Company of India LimitedThe National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL) wasincorporated under the Companies Act 1956 on 30 March 2007 and isowned by the Government of India based at the Air India Building inNariman Point, Mumbai. The Company was created to facilitate themerger of the two main state-owned airlines in India: Air India, with itssubsidiary Air-India Express and Indian Airlines, together with itssubsidiary Alliance Air.Whilst the merger and integration process has started, and a few routeshave been rationalised, a lot remains to be done before the various unitsstart functioning as a cohesive airline.The current structure is:National Aviation Company of India Limitedo Air India Air-India Express Air India Cargoo Indian Airlines Air India Regional (formerly Alliance Air)Upon completion of the merger, there will be one primary airline, AirIndia, with two subsidiary carriers providing regional and low-cost,point-to-point services and a third subsidiary for cargo operations:Air Indiao Air India Expresso Air India Regionalo Air India CargoType Government-owned
  10. 10. IndustryAirlines & AviationAirline Catering &FoodserviceHotels &HospitalityFounded 30 March 2007HeadquartersAir India Building,Nariman Point, Mumbai,IndiaKey peopleArvind Jadhav, Chairman& Managing DirectorProductsAirlineGround HandlingServicesHotelsServicesRevenueRs 15257.47 Crores($3.31 billion)(2007-08)Net incomeRs 1619.12 Crores($351.98million)(07-08)Employees 32,000 (2009)SubsidiariesHotel Corporationof India LimitedAir India AirTransport ServicesLimited
  11. 11. Air IndiaEngineeringServices LimitedAir India ChartersLimitedIAL AirportServices LimitedAirline AlliedServices LimitedWebsite
  12. 12. Founder – Air IndiaJ.R.D.TATAAir India is Indias national flag carrier. Although air transport was bornin India on February 18, 1911 when Henri Piquet, flying a Humber bi-plane, carried mail from Allahabad to Naini Junction, some six milesaway, the scheduled services in India, in the real sense, began onOctober 15, 1932. It was on this day that J.R.D. Tata, the father of CivilAviation in India and founder of Air India, took off from Drigh RoadAirport, Karachi, in a tiny, light single-engined de Havilland Puss Mothon his flight to Mumbai (then known as Bombay) via Ahmedabad.He landed with his precious load of mail on a grass strip at Juhu. AtMumbai, Neville Vintcent, a former RAF pilot who had come to Indiafrom Britain three years earlier on a barn-storming tour, during which hehad surveyed a number of possible air routes, took over from J.R.D.Tataand flew the Puss Moth to Chennai (then Madras) via Bellary.
  13. 13. ProductsFleet positionAircraft number of aircraft seats(As on 31.03.2004)Airbus A-300 04 33+215Airbus A-320 41 20+125Boeing 737 11** 119Dornier 3Total 59* Including two A-300 B4 on lease and two aircraft VT-EWD and VT-ELW withdraw from services for disposal.* One aircraft (VT-EGD) crashed at Patna on 31stmarch 2004.
  14. 14. MAJOR PROBLEMS AHEAD OF AIR INDIADespite announcing walk-in interviews and fresh tie-ups with groundhandling agencies, the chaos of Air India entered into its 15th day andlikely to continue in coming days. The problem for Air India startedfrom October 31,2010 when they decided to shift arrival of 11 of itsdomestic to the newly built Terminal 3.The limited airline staff had to manage five terminals: domestic arrivaland departure at Terminal 1, international arrival and departure at T3and domestic arrival at T3. The staff was staggered leading to shortageof hands.Unmindful of the staff shortage problem, Air India also went ahead andstarted 15 non-stop flights for international destination from eight cities.From 486 flights in a week from Delhi, Air India has gone up to 770flights a week.“The flights were increased as we wanted to make Delhi our hub. Nowsince there is staff shortage, we have taken interviews of experiencedcrew so they can be immediately pressed into service afterhiring. Till then the problemwill remain,” an Air India official said.In the last 15 days, Air India has operated nearly 1,500 flights fromDelhi, of which over 1,000 failed to take off or land ontime. The shortage of ground staff led to chaos as passengers found itdifficult to trace their baggage.“Air India SATS used to handle ground operation for us. Once weannounced new flights, the company started facing staff shortage andfailed to recruit more staff.
  15. 15. OTHER AREAS OF PROBLEM ARE:Despite the company earned net profits from 1997 to2000,but now it is operating in heavy losses.After hijack in December 1999, there is a slowdown in thevolume of passengers.The government of India has announced the disinvest of theshares of the companyAIR INDIA was forced to maintain network throughout thecountry, out of which 70% of the routes were loss making.After the merger of Vayudhoot with Air India, it had to bearits losses, while absorbing 1000 of its employees.The frequent strikes of Air India employees have resulted inheavy losses.
  16. 16. Organization Chart of Air India Limited
  17. 17. SWOT ANALYSISFor a country of continental size like India, a strong reliable andefficient civil aviation sector goes a long way in promoting andsustaining tourism. Air India being the undoubted leader in this industrycannot operate in a vacuum.It needs to keep its eyes and ears open to survive in the liberalizedeconomy of our country, which has paved a way for any private airlinesto operate along with it.The internal and external environment contained various strengths,weakness, opportunities and threats which need to be identified well inadvance to take care of various situations that arise out of them.STRENGTHSThe major strength of Air India is its vast infrastructure build over lastfour decades.VAST COMPUTERISED NETWORKLARGEST NETWORKNET PROFITS AFTER A GAP OF 7 YEARSCREATION OF PROFIT CENTERSWEAKNESSESLACK OF PERSONALISED AND CUSTIMER FRIENDLYSERVICESOVERSTAFFING IN PREVIOUS YEARSUNDER UTILISATION OF HUMAN RESOURCESSTRINGENT RULESPROPOSED DISINVESTMENT
  18. 18. OPPORTUNITIESGROWTH OF AVIATION INDUSTRY-The recession inthe west, the gulf war and Surat outbreak war, all theseslowed tourist growth and consequently affected the airline’srevenue.Aviation industry is growing at the rate of 10% per annum.There is no doubt a good sign and Air India must exploit it.CLOSING DOWN OF VARIOUS PRIVATEAIRLINES-Private airlines started operation with great zealand enthusiasm after the revival of open sky policy but onlyafter few years we are seeing a slowdown. Air India shouldtake it as an opportunity and try to fill this space byexpanding its market share.CLEARENCE BY THE GOVERNMENT TO OPERATEON INTERNATIONAL ROUTES-Earlier Air India wasnot allowed to operate on international sectors.With the liberalization of Indian economy, Government ofIndia gave Air India a great signal to operate on long routes.This is a massive opportunity for Air India.THREATSCOMPETITION ITSELFINSTABILITY IN THE POLITICS OF INDIA
  20. 20.  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF THESTUDYResearch is composed of two syllables, a prefix re and a verb search? Remeans again, anew over again. Search means to examine closely andcarefully. The two words form a noun to describe a careful and systematicstudy in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts. Thusresearch may be defined as a search for knowledge or as anysystematic investigation with an open mind, to establish novel facts.In this project we have use Primary data. The Primary data has beencollected from various sources like Air India website, investigation,through questionnaires etc. Secondary data: - Secondary data is data that has been collected byothers for another purpose. It is important to us because it can saveconsiderable time and efforts in solving the research problem athand.1.) Secondary data is economy. As data are already available at lowcost.2.) It can be obtained quickly.
  21. 21.  Primary data: - It is the fresh type of data under which thedata is collected by the researcher own it is used for a specificpurpose. It is more time consuming but more accurate andreliable. Information that is obtained directly from first-handsources by means of surveys, observation or experimentation orthe information collected specifically for the purpose of theinvestigation at hand is known as primary data.We gave customers to fill up the response sheets.Research methodology is the procedures used in making systematicobservation or otherwise obtaining data, evidence or information as partof a research project or study. It is the market way of collecting dataunder the research methodology sample size, which data is used all suchconsidered. But myThere are two source of data collectionPrimary data Secondary data
  22. 22.  RESEARCH APPROACHThis research follows the inferential quantitative approach. Thequestionnaires circulated to collect the relevant information have beenanalyzed on the basis of rating given to each question and then,aggregate of rating of all questions of a group has been taken to findout percentage of each response to that group.SAMPLINGFor the purpose of conducting the survey, Stratified plan was deemedoptimum. A sample size of 50 was decided upon in agreement with theindustry guide. The sampling was done as below:Category Population (RegionalOffice)Sample Size(50)(II) 3/6-9 Grade 1500 approx 25(III) 9A-18 Grade 700 approx 25The survey covered 4 departments viz. Personnel, Commercial, Financeand Material Management. The population was divided into 2 strata accto their grades in the organization:
  23. 23. Category II- 3/6-9 Grade andCategory III- 9A-18 GradeQuestionnaire and data collectionResearch Instrument- QuestionnaireNo. of questions- 18 Primary data is collected Directly from the staff of differentprofile with questionnaire Secondary data used in the study collected from the companiesdocument records, further from the in- depth interviews withemployees.
  24. 24. OBJECTIVESFor the two months internship tenure, NACIL allowed me to study thefunctions and processes of the Personnel Department of the PSU; theproject objective is to study training needs of Air India limited. Theproject will broaden the knowledge about effectiveness of trainingprograms in Air India limited. Our major objective is to see the- what procedures they are usedfor recruitment of employees in their department (say technical ornon-technical, internal or external recruitment). To study the awareness and satisfaction level among employees. The procedure used by the company at the death of the employeeduring service provides appointment to his spouse is they satisfiedwith these rules and regulation. Study the major functions and processes of the PersonnelDepartment. This could serve as a manual to introduce theworkings of the Personnel Department to the ManagementTrainees etc. To study training needs of Air India limited. The project willbroaden the knowledge about effectiveness of training programs inAir India limited. Through this project it has estimated that howeffective are training programs in NACIL (I). After analyzing thetraining programs, the shortcomings in the training programs havefound out and corrective measures have been suggested to improveupon those shortcomings. To find out the present recruitment and selection policies, if anyprovide appropriate recommendation.
  25. 25.  Managerial Usefulness of the study The main study is to find out the strategies for recruitmentefficiency, which will definitely help the management indesigning the recruitment policies. The study will provide the management the requiredinformation about recruiting right person at right place.
  26. 26. SCOPEFor the purpose of this study, the training needs of the followingdepartments were undertaken1. Personnel Department2. Commercial Department3. Material and Management Department4. Finance Department For the purpose of this study, the scope was limited to thepersonal department of the northern regional office. The population universe for the awareness survey waslimited to the primarily 4 department based in the vicinity –personnel, commercial, operations and finance. Due to easyaccessibility and entrance allowed in these departments. The study helps us to know the Human Resource Policies. This study also helps us to learn work culture in anorganization.
  27. 27. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF THESTUDYResearch methods which are adopted are as follows:- Identifying the marketing problem Developing Marketing Research plan Designing Marketing Research plan Designing marketing research strategy Collection of Data Analysis of Collected Data Preparation of Research Report
  28. 28. RESEARCH DESIGNResearch design or model indicates a plan of action to be carried out inconnection with a proposed research work. It provides only a guideline for theresearcher to enable him to keep track of his actions and to know that he ismoving in the right direction in order to achieve his goal. The design may bespecific presentation of the various steps in the process of research.The type of research design adopted is Descriptive Research. The researchobjectives in this type of research are generally describing the characteristicsof consumer segment, via, demographic, socio-economic, geographic,psychographic and benefits sought. Descriptive studies can also portray buyerperceptions of brands; audience profiles for media types, via, TV, radio,newspaper, journals and magazines, etc. they can also portray buying powerof consumers, availability of distributors, product consumption patterns, pricesensitivity of consumers, market share, etc.Descriptive research often makes use of survey research design which consistsof a cross-sectional research design that is, collecting data on few factors froma number of cases at one point of time. This is the most popular type ofresearch design and is useful in describing the characteristics of consumersand determining the frequency of marketing phenomenon. Consumer researchdesign adopted is quantitative.
  30. 30. AN OVERVIEWThe main focus of our project report is to find out:The training patterns that are being employed in Air IndiaThe sources of recruitment that are being searched for hiringemployeesAre the employees happy with training techniquesThe performance appraisal patterns employed in Air IndiaAre the employees getting motivated with these performanceappraisal methodsAmount of harmony in the organizationPsyche of employees working in the organizationTo give suggestions on the bases of the study
  31. 31. Organization structures of NacilNorthern region Southern region Western region East regionREGIONAL DIRECTORGeneral Manager General Manager General Manager General Manager(Personnel) (Finance) (Commercial) (Medical)Organizational structure of the personnel department of the Nacil (NorthernRegion)
  32. 32. Q1-What is recruitment?Ans- Recruitments are an important part of a business human resourceplanning. In all business, people are vital resources and they need to bemanaged as such. The overall aim of the recruitment and selectionprocess is to be obtaining the number and quality of employees thatare required in order for the business to achieve objectives.Q2- What is internal recruitment?Ans- This refers to the felling of job vacancies from within thebusinesses employees are selected rather than employing some onefrom outside. A business might decide that it already has the rightThe Recruitment policy is concerned withquantity and quality of manpower, it establishbroad guidelines for Staffingprocess……………………………………..DALE YODERRecruitment is a process of searching forperspective employee and stimulating them toapply forjobs……………………………………………………..FLIPPO
  33. 33. people with the right skill to do the job, particularly if its training anddevelopment programmes have been effective.Q3- How it is done?Ans- Internal vacancies are usually advertised with in the business via avariety of media:1. Staff notice board2. Internets3. In house magazines/news letter4. Staff meetingsQ3-Advantages of recruitment?Ans- 1. Gives existing employees greater opportunity to advance theircarriers in their business.2. May help to retains staff that might otherwise leave.3. Require a short induction training period.4. Employer should know more about the internal candidate’sThere are three main stages in recruitment.
  34. 34. Identify and define the requirementsAttract potential employeesSelect employeesIdentify and define the requirements. This involves thepreparation of job description, job specification and personspecification.Attract potential employees. There are various methods for doingthis which are described in a separate revision note.Select employee. The appropriate people from the jobapplications it is important to appreciate that recruitment is staffdepartures(e.g. Retirements, sacking, resignation)Changes in business requirements (e.g. newproduct)
  35. 35. Changes in business location relocation oftentrigger the need for substantial recruitments.Promotions, Recruitments is becoming more andmore important in business. In particularly, thisreflects the increasing need for a well motivatedand flexible work that requires less managementsupervision.Q3- What is external Recruitment?Ans-This refers to the feeling of job vacancies from at side thebusiness. Most business engages in external recruitment fairlyfrequently, particularly those that are growing strongly or thatoperates in industries with staff turnover.Q4-How is it done?Ans-There are several ways of looking for staff outside thebusiness:Employment/Recruitment agencies: - These businessesspecialize in recruitment for specific sectors (e.g. finance,travel, secretarial). They usually provide a shortlist ofcandidate based on the people registered with the agency.They also supply temporary or interimemployees. The main advantages with using the agenciesare the specialist skill they bring and the agencies are thespecialist skill they bring and the speed with which they
  36. 36. normally provide candidate. They also reduced theadministrative burden of recruitment. The cost is the highagency fees charged often up to 30% of the first year of anyone employed.Recruitment consultancies:-“Up market” Recruitment agentwho provide a more specialized approach to the recruitmentof key employees and senior management. They tend toapproach individual with a good reputation rather thanRely on long list of registered applicants often using privilegedindustry contact to drawn up a sort list. The cost of using ahead hunter or recruitment consultant is high.
  37. 37. Disadvantages of internal recruitments:- Limits the number of potential for a job. External candidate might be bettersuited/qualified for the job. Another vacancy will be created that has to befilled. Existing staff may feel they have the automatedright to be promoted, whether or not they arecompetent. Basic step of employee’s recruitment:- Complete application packages must be submittedprior to the advertised closing date and time to beconsidered otherwise they will be excluded fromconsideration. Acknowledgement is sent to allapplicants within a week of closing date of theapplication-filling period. This will be the onlynotification for candidate not moving forward tothe testing/interview phase of the recruitment. If a position a part of union bargaining unit,internal applicant who meets minimumrequirements will be interviewed first. Externalapplication will be screened to ensure they meetthe requirements for applicable position. The most
  38. 38. qualified will be invited to participate in theinterview phase of the recruitment. Notification ofthe time and location of a test and interview willoccur three to seven working days in advance bythe phone, e-mail or regular mail. Reference check will be conducted after thetesting and interviewing for the final candidates. When the candidate is recommended forselection, approval from management must beobtained before a job offer is made. Background/security checks and approvals frommanagement must be obtained before a job offeris made. Candidate that participate in the testing/interviewphase that are not selected are notified upon theconclusion of the recruitment. Advantages of external recruitment:-These are mainly the opposite the disadvantages ofinternal recruitment. The main one being that a wideraudience can be reached which increases the chance thatthe business will be able to recruit the skills it need.Promotion to selection grade will be on the basis ofrigorous selection on merit from amongst the employeesin grades or interlink grades below the grades concernedand shall be limited to the number of posts declared as
  39. 39. such on the cadres according to the sectioned strengthfrom time to time.All cases of difference of opinion between the competentauthority empowered to make appointments to thePromotion Boards shall be referred to the next higherauthority is a sitting member of Promotion Board inwhich case the recommendation of the Promotion boardshall be final.Compensation based Recruitments:-At the death of the employee during service, theprovision to provide appointment to hisspouse/children under the rules and regulations ofthe company. A certain procedure is followed toappoint the candidate as such circumstances.APA Rating for employee in grade 3/9 beingconsidered under 30% selection vacancies. Thevalue of APA marks are as followed:- Outstanding APA = 10 marks/year Very Good APA = 08 marks/year Good APA = 06 marks/year Average APA = 10 marks/year Poor APA = 00 marks/year
  40. 40. WHAT IS “PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL”?Performance Appraisal is defined as the process of assessing theperformance and progress of an employee or a group of employees on agiven job and his / their potential for future development. It consists ofall formal procedures used in working organizations and potential ofemployees. According to Flippo, “Performance Appraisal is thesystematic, periodic and an important rating of an employee’s excellencein matters pertaining to his present job and potential for a better job.”CHARACTERISTICS1. Performance Appraisal is a process.2. It is the systematic examination of the strengths and weakness ofan employee in terms of his job.3. It is scientific and objective study. Formal procedures are used inthe study.4. It is an ongoing and continuous process wherein the evaluationsare arranged periodically according to a definite plan.5. The main purpose of Performance Appraisal is to secureinformation necessary for making objective and correct decisionan employee.
  41. 41. PROCESSThe process of performance appraisal:1. Establishing performance standards2. Communicating the Standards3. Measuring Performance4. Comparing the actual with the standards5. Discussing the appraisal6.Taking Corrective ActionLIMITATIONS1. Errors in Rating2. Lack of reliability3. Negative approach4. Multiple objectives5. Lack of knowledge
  42. 42. METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALThe foregoing list of major program pitfalls represents a formidablechallenge, even considering the available battery of appraisal techniques.But attempting to avoid these pitfalls by doing away with appraisalsthemselves is like trying to solve the problems of life by committingsuicide. The more logical task is to identify those appraisal practices thatare (a) most likely to achieve a particular objective and (b) leastvulnerable to the obstacles already discussed.Before relating the specific techniques to the goals of performanceappraisal stated at the outset of the article, I shall briefly review each,taking them more or less in an order of increasing complexity.The best-known techniques will be treated most briefly.ESSAY APPRAISALIn its simplest form, this technique asks the rater to write a paragraph ormore covering an individuals strengths, weaknesses, potential, and soon. In most selection situations, particularly those involvingprofessional, sales, or managerial positions, essay appraisals fromformer employers, teachers, or associates carry significant weight..
  43. 43. GRAPHIC RATING SCALEThis technique may not yield the depth of an essay appraisal, but it ismore consistent and reliable. Typically, a graphic scale assesses a personon the quality and quantity of his work (is he outstanding, aboveaverage, average, or unsatisfactory?) and on a variety of other factorsthat vary with the job but usually include personal traits like reliabilityand cooperation. It may also include specific performance items like oraland written communication.FIELD REVIEWThe field review is one of several techniques for doing this. A memberof the personnel or central administrative staff meets with small groupsof raters from each supervisory unit and goes over each employeesrating with them to (a) identify areas of inter-rater disagreement, (b) helpthe group arrive at a consensus, and (c) determine that each raterconceives the standards similarly. .FORCED-CHOICE RATINGLike the field review, this technique was developed to reduce bias andestablish objective standards of comparison between individuals, but itdoes not involve the intervention of a third party.
  44. 44. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVESTo avoid, or to deal with, the feeling that they are being judged byunfairly high standards, employees in some organizations are beingasked to set - or help set - their own performance goals. Within the pastfive or six years, MBO has become something of a fad and is so familiarto most managers that I will not dwell on it here.RANKING METHODSFor comparative purposes, particularly when it is necessary to comparepeople who work for different supervisors, individual statements,ratings, or appraisal forms are not particularly useful. Instead, it isnecessary to recognize that comparisons involve an overall subjectivejudgment to which a host of additional facts and impressions mustsomehow be added. There is no single form or way to do this.The best approach appears to be a ranking technique involving pooledjudgment.ASSESSMENT CENTERSSo far, we have been talking about assessing past performance. Whatabout the assessment of future performance or potential? In anyplacement decision and even more so in promotion decisions, some
  45. 45. prediction of future performance is necessary. How can this kind ofprediction be made most validly and most fairly?360 DEGREE FEEDBACKMany firms have expanded the idea of upward feedback into what thecall 360-degree feedback. The feedback is generally used for trainingand development, rather than for pay increases.Most 360 Degree Feedback system contains several common features.Appropriate parties – peers, supervisors, subordinates and customers, forinstance – complete survey, questionnaires on an individual. 360 degreefeedback is also known as the multi-rater feedback, whereby ratings arenot given just by the next manager up in the organizational hierarchy,but also by peers and subordinates. Appropriates customer ratings arealso included, along with the element of self appraisal. Once gathered in,the assessment from the various quarters are compared with one anotherand the results communicated to the manager concerned.Another technique that is useful for coaching purposes is, of course,MBO. Like the critical incident method, it focuses on actual behaviorand actual results, which can be discussed objectively andconstructively, with little or no need for a supervisor to "play God."
  47. 47. QUESTIONNAIREQ.1 Potential candidates in your organization are generated through the following ex(tick and rank them based on the number and quality of candidates generated also roui) Direct consultantsii) Job portalsiii) Employee referraliv) Through temporary staffingv) Head hurtingvi) Body shoppingvii) Any other sources, please specifyQ.2) Are technical and professional interviews conducted separately in the organizai) yesii) noQ.3.a) Do you conduct background checks?i) yesii) nob) If yes, is it for all levels of employees or only for senior position?c) Is a backgrounQ.4) Do you bear any expenses of the SC/ST for the final interview? If yes please spa) yes
  48. 48. b) noQ5) Do you also bear the transfer expenses of the outstation candidate( with in Indiaa) yesb) noQ6) If yes, which of the following expenses are covered of the outstation candidate,a) travelb) transportation of household goodsc) accommodationsd) all of the aboveQ.7) What are the monetary limits for the followingexpenses?a) travelb) transportation of household goodsc) accommodationsQ.8) Ideally, how much time does the hiring process take i.e, right from the test/ intestage?.............................................................................................................................Q.9) Do you get an employment agreement signed by the freshers? If yes what is theagreement?.....................................................................................................................
  49. 49. Q.10) The durations of the probationary period for a new joinee in your organizationa)6 monthsb)1 yearc)2 yearsQ.11) the performance appraisal method followed in the organization isa) balanced scorecard methodb) MBOc) any other method , please specifyQ12)An individual employee is evaluated on the basis of his/hera) technicalb) behaviourc) adaptability in the organizationd) any other , please specifyQ.13) The appraisal is conducteda)once in 6 monthsb)once in a yearQ.14)Is the appraisal feedback communicated to the respective employee?a)Yesb)no
  50. 50. Q.15)is the post appraisal feedback viewed seriously to the employee?a)yesb)noQ.16)are the employees satisfied with the appraisal system adopted currently?a)yesb)noQ.17) Are the employees satisfied with the appraisal system adopted currently?a)yesb)noQ.18)how often does your performance assessment match to your expectations?a)never b)rarely c)sometimes d)often e)everytimeQ.19)according to you how often should the performance review take place?a)once in a weekb)once in amonthc)every 3 monthsd)every 6 monthse)once in a year
  51. 51. DATA ANALYSISQues 1. Potential candidates in your organization are generated through the follow(tick and rank them based on the number and quality of candidates generated)Ques 2. Are technical and professional interviews conducted separately?recruitmentemploymentexchangesnewspaperinternal hiringother sourcesyesno
  52. 52. Ques 3. A) Do you conduct background checks?B) If yes, is it for all levels of employees or only for senior position? Whether backgrAns. Yes background checks are for all levels of employees including senior positionQues 4. Do you bear any expenses of the SC/ST for the final interview? If yes pleaseyesno
  53. 53. Yes, travel expenses are paid.Ques 5. Do you also bear the transfer expenses of the outstation candidate( with inQues 6. If yes, which of the following expenses are covered of the outstation candidAns. Not applicable1st Qtr2nd QtrTransfer Expensesyesno
  54. 54. Ques 7. What are the monetary limits for the followingexpenses?Ans. a) travelBusfare , second class train fare are providedb) accommodationsHousing colonies are providedQues 8. Ideally, how much time does the hiring process take i.e, right from the testAns. Less than a week for test/interviews/offer letterBut otherwise upto a monthQues 9. Do you get an employment agreement signed by the freshers? If yes what iAns. It differs from categoru to category.It is called SERVICE BONDQues 10. The durations of the probationary period for a new joinee in your organiza
  55. 55. Probationary period is generally between 3 to 9 months .Ques 11. The performance appraisal method followed in the organization is:Any other include TWO TIER System.Probationary period6 months1 year2 yearAppraisal Methodbalanced scorecard methodMBOany other
  56. 56. Ques 12. An individual employee is evaluated on the basis of his/herAns. Parameters are laid down in the appraisal form covers technical and behavioratechnicalbehaviouradaptibilityany other
  57. 57. Ques 13. The appraisal is conducted:Ans:Ques 14. Is the appraisal feedback communicated to the respective employee?Ans. The feedback is only communicated if and only if there is an adverse entity in wthe appraisal is shown and discussed with the individual.annually6 months
  58. 58. Ques 15. Is the post appraisal feedback viewed seriously to the employee?yesno
  59. 59. Ques 16. Are the employees satisfied with appraisal system adopted currently?yesno
  60. 60. Ques 17. How often does your performance assessment match to your expectationSalesneverrarelysometimesofteneverytime
  61. 61. Ques 18. According to you how often should the performance review take place?Salesonce a weekonce in a monthevery 3 monthsevery 6 monthsannually