Advertising through sport: Master's Thesis (final version)

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Presentation about my Master's Thesis in my Master Communication Management @ University of Ghent.

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Advertising through sport: Master's Thesis (final version)

  1. 1. Summary Master’s Thesis:A scientific study concerning the consumer’s attitude toward advertising through sport Masters Thesis 1
  2. 2. 1 2Intro Metho3 4Results Talk Masters Thesis 2
  3. 3. Intro1.1 Advertising through sportProblemIncreasingly negative consumer’s attitude toward advertising Why? Too much, too aggresifSolutionUse sport as advertising platform to foster positive consumer’sattitudes toward advertising Why? Broad range and high brand exposure via sportsEffectSport has become an important advertising platform Masters Thesis 3
  4. 4. Intro1.2 Problem with previously researchOnly about RECALL and RECOGNITION= exposureLack of insight in consumer’s PERCEPTION towardadvertising through sport= cognitive structureRecent scientific research provides a new frameworkfor defining purchase intentions and buying behaviour Masters Thesis 4
  5. 5. Intro1.3 Theoretical model of attitude towardadvertising through sport (Pyun & James, 2011) 1 Multiple belief constructs 3 4 2 Potential moderating effect 3 Beliefs and attitude toward advertising through sport 4 Attitude toward 1 advertising through sport and Aad 2 Masters Thesis 5
  6. 6. Intro1.4 Key theories• Reasoned action theory (Fishbein, 1963)• Primair structure of beliefs and attitudes toward advertising (Pollay & Mittal, 1993)• Categorisation theory (Mervis & Rosh, 1981)• Conceptual framework of Aad (Lutz, 1985) Masters Thesis 6
  7. 7. Intro1.5 Beliefs Product information• “Advertising is an usefull source of information”Social role and image• “ Advertising sells a lifestyle to the consumers” Hedonism/Pleasure• “Likeability of advertising”Good for the economy• “Local and global market economy are improved by advertising”Annoyance/Irritation• “Ads that bother or irrate you” Materialism• Buying goods is the way to happiness” Falsity/No-Sense• “Ads mislead the consumers” Masters Thesis 7
  8. 8. Intro1.6 Interesting but…... no segmentation between consumers! Masters Thesis 8
  9. 9. Intro1.7 Ad Masters Thesis 9
  10. 10. Intro1.8 Model of Sport Participation (Scheeder,2007) Masters Thesis 10
  11. 11. Intro1.9 Research question for my MasterThesis “What’s the effect of consumer’ssport participation (or age or gender) on their attitude toward advertising through sport?” Masters Thesis 11
  12. 12. 1 2Intro Metho3 4Results Talk Masters Thesis 12
  13. 13. Metho 2.1 Questionnaire• Validated questionnaire from study of Pyun & James (2011) – Based on explorative research: • Explorative factor analysis : structure of relation between different variables • Confirmatory factor analysis: optimizing model • Structural equation model: relation between constructs of beliefs and attituds• Online questionnaire on enquêtemaken.be• Available from 8/03/2012 until 20/03/2012 Masters Thesis 13
  14. 14. Metho [2.1 Questionnaire]• All closed-ended questions• Set-up: – 2 items about demografic data (gender and age) – 1 item about active sport participation (h/w) – 1 item about passive sport participation (h/w) – 45 items on 7 points Likert-scale measuring concepts of model• Analysis with SPSS Statistics 20 Masters Thesis 14
  15. 15. Metho2.2 Segmentation Depending on results Sports participation • No sports participation • Only passive sports participation • Only active sports participation Attitude toward • Passive and active sports participation Ad Gender Attitude toward • Men • Women advertising through sport Age • 15 – 20 7 beliefs • 21 – 30 • 31 – 40 • 41 – 50 • 51 – 60 • 60 + Masters Thesis 15
  16. 16. Metho 2.3 Important note• Definition ‘Advertising through sport’ “Any paid, non-personal message conveyed through some type of mass communication channel in relation to all types of sporting events” Masters Thesis 16
  17. 17. 1 2Intro Metho3 4Results Talk Masters Thesis 17
  18. 18. Results 3.1 Sample description Age Gender Age 8 17 Women 107 42Gender Age Frequency 47 103 Men 137 27 15 - 20 0 50 100 150 21 - 30 Number 31 - 40 Frequency 41 - 50 51 - 60 60+ 244 valid respondents Masters Thesis 18
  19. 19. Results3.2 Intern consistency conceptsConcept Number of items Cronbach’s alfa (initially)Belief 1: product information 5 0,859Belief 2: social role and image 8 0,865Belief 3: hedonism & pleasure 4 0,814Belief 4: irritation 3 0,626 0,712Belief 5: good for the economy 3 0,698 0,768Belief 6: materialism 5 0,747Belief 7: falsity 5 0,766Attitude toward advertising through 9 0,891 0,911sportGlobal attitude toward advertising 3 0,796 Masters Thesis > 0,70 19
  20. 20. Results3.3 Multiple regression analysis The 7 beliefs explain 77,0 % of the variance in attitude toward advertising through sport. Model R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of the Durbin - Watson Square Estimate 2,033 1 ,878a Masters Thesis ,770 ,764 ,46962 20
  21. 21. Results [3.3 Multiple regression analysis] Standardized coëfficients Standardized coëfficients of beliefsMaterialism -0,176Irritation -0,133Falsity -0,119 BeliefProductInformation 0,081Good for the 0,109economySocial role 0,117and ImagePleasure 0,401 -0,3 -0,2 -0,1 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 Masters Thesis Standardized coëfficients 21
  22. 22. Results3.4 Single regression analysis Attitude toward advertising throuhg sport explains 29,5 % of the variance in attitude toward the Ad. Model R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of the Durbin - Watson Square Estimate 1 ,543a ,295 Masters Thesis ,292 ,95011 22 1,868
  23. 23. Results3.5 Correlation analysis Correlations Passief sporten Actief sporten Pearson Correlation 1 ,323**Passief sporten Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 N 244 244 Pearson Correlation ,323** 1Actief sporten Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 N 244 244**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).Correlatie of 0,323 means limited coherence:positive for the segmentation. Masters Thesis 23
  24. 24. Results3.6 Segmentation Statistics Passive sport Active sport Valid 244 244N Missing 0 0Mean 4,605 3,876Median 2,000 3,000 Passive sport participation Active sport participation (> 2 hours/week) (> 3 hours/week)Group 1Group 2 XGroup 3 XGroup 4 X X Masters Thesis 24
  25. 25. Results [3.6 Segmentation] Dividing up Cum f. Group 1 82 33,6 % Group 2 51 PAtt_sport 54,5 % Group 3 43 A 72,1 % Group 4 68 A&P 100 % 0 20 40 60 80 100 Frequency Masters Thesis 25
  26. 26. Results 3.7 Attitude toward advertising through sport Attitude toward advertising through sportGroup 11(N=82)Group (N=82) 4,2622Group 22(N=51)Group (N=51) 4,5613 PGroup 3 (N=43)Group 3 (N=43) 4,5436 AGroup 4 (N=68)Group 4 (N=68) 5,0790 A&P AverageAverage (N=244) 4,6019 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score Masters Thesis 26
  27. 27. Results[3.7 Attitude toward advertising throughsport] ANOVAAtt_adv_sport Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.Between Groups 25,174 3 8,391 9,998 ,000Within Groups 201,430 240 ,839Total 226,605 243There are significant differences between the groups. Masters Thesis 27
  28. 28. Results[3.7 Attitude toward advertising throughsport] Differences with group 4 Multiple ComparisonsDependent Variable: Att_adv_sport Scheffe(I) Att_sport (J) Att_sport Mean Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval Difference (I- Lower Bound Upper Bound J) 2,00 -,29908 ,16338 ,343 -,7591 ,16091,00 3,00 -,28141 ,17249 ,448 -,7671 ,2042 4,00 -,81685* ,15026 ,000 -1,2399 -,3938 1,00 ,29908 ,16338 ,343 -,1609 ,75912,00 3,00 ,01767 ,18967 1,000 -,5163 ,5517 4,00 -,51777* ,16970 ,027 -,9956 -,0400 1,00 ,28141 ,17249 ,448 -,2042 ,76713,00 2,00 -,01767 ,18967 1,000 -,5517 ,5163 4,00 -,53544* ,17850 ,031 -1,0380 -,0329 1,00 ,81685* ,15026 ,000 ,3938 1,23994,00 2,00 ,51777* ,16970 ,027 ,0400 ,9956 3,00 ,53544* ,17850 ,031 ,0329 1,0380 Masters Thesis 28
  29. 29. Results [3.7 Attitude toward advertising through sport] Difference with group 4Group 1 (N=82)Group 2 (N=51) PGroup 3 (N=43) A 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 Masters Thesis 29 Difference score with group 4
  30. 30. Results 3.8 Attitude toward Ad Attitude toward advertising in generalGroup 1 (N=82)Group 3,8537Group 2 (N=51)Group 2 (N=51) 3,9608 PGroup 3 (N=43) 3,7287 AGroup 3 (N=43)Group 4 (N=68) 4,2206 A&PGroup 4 (N=68) AverageAverage (N=244) 3,9563 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score Masters Thesis 30
  31. 31. Results[3.8 Attitude toward Ad] ANOVAAtt_adv Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.Between Groups 7,842 3 2,614 2,078 ,104Within Groups 301,913 240 1,258Total 309,756 243There are no significant differences between the groups. Masters Thesis 31
  32. 32. Results 3.9 Benchmarking attitude – sport vs Ad Minimum BenchmarkingGroup 1 Group 1 3,8537 Group 1 (N=82) 4,2622 Group 2 3,9608 PGroup 2 Group 2 (N=51) 4,5613 Group 3 3,7287 AGroup 3 Group 3 (N=43) 4,5436 Group 4 4,2206 A&PGroup 4 Group 4 (N=68) 5,0790 Average 3,9563Average Average 4,6019 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score Masters Thesis Ad Sport 32
  33. 33. Results 3.9 Benchmarking attitude – sport vs Ad Group 1 (N=82) 0,4085 Group 2 (N=51) 0,6005 P Group 3 (N=43) 0,8149 A Group 4 (N=68) 0,8584 A&PAverage (N=244) 0,6456 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 Difference Masters Thesis
  34. 34. Results 3.10 Beliefs• There were many differences between the groups but only on the 5% significance level for the following beliefs: – Product Information – Social role and Image – Hedonisme/Pleasure Masters Thesis 34
  35. 35. Results 3.10.1 Product Information Product InformationGroup 1 (N=82) 3,4000Group 3 (N=43) 3,2837 AGroup 4 (N=68) 3,9765 A&P 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Masters Thesis Score 35
  36. 36. Results 3.10.2 Social role and Image Social role and ImageGroup 3 (N=43) 3,2837 A A&PGroup 4 (N=68) 3,9765 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Masters Thesis Score 36
  37. 37. Results 3.10.3 Hedonism/Pleasure Hedonism/PleasureGroup 1 (N=82) 4,1372Group 4 (N=68) 5,0000 A&P 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Masters Thesis Score 37
  38. 38. Results3.11 Gender and Age Limited significant differences between men and women Men are more convinced then women that advertising through sport delivers them a certain image/lifestyle. Limited significant differences between the age groups 50-60 year old people have a less positive attitude toward advertising through sport then 20-30 year old people and 40-50 year old people. Masters Thesis 38
  39. 39. 1 2Intro Metho3 4Results Talk Masters Thesis 39
  40. 40. TalkQuick reminder: “What’s the effect of consumer’ssport participation (or age or gender) on their attitude toward advertising through sport?” Masters Thesis 40
  41. 41. Talk 4.1 General• The respondents have a positive attitude toward advertising through sport.• The respondents have a more positive attitude toward advertising through sport compared to their attitude toward Ad. Masters Thesis 41
  42. 42. Talk [4.1 General]• Hedonism/Pleasure is the most important belief concerning attitude toward advertising through sport (= literature).• Product information is the less important belief concerning attitude toward advertising through sport (= literature).• Advertisers through sport may not focus on the specific buying aspect (= materialsm). Masters Thesis 42
  43. 43. Talk 4.2 Segmentation – Targeting - PositioningVariable Groups Gender AgeMaterialismFalsityProduct Information G1  G4 G3  G4Good for the economySocial role and Image G3  G4 Women  MenPleasure G1  G4Attitude toward G1  G4 51-60y  21-30yadvertising through G2  G4 51-60y  41-50ysport G3  G4Attitude toward Ad Masters Thesis 43
  44. 44. Talk [4.2 Segmentation – Targeting - Positioning]• When you want to target the A+P group with advertising through sport then you have to focus on Product Information, Social role & Image and Pleasure.• When you want to target men with advertising through sport then you have to focus on Social role and Image.• [When you want to target people of 50-60 years then you can’t focus on advertising through sport.] Masters Thesis 44
  45. 45. Talk 4.3 Limitations• Sample• Understanding concept ‘Advertising through sport’ Masters Thesis 45
  46. 46. Talk 4.4 Further researchPractical implications for Role of different actors Other segmentation of advertisers through in advertising through respondents sport sport• Effect of different • Motivation for sport • Federations advertising formats participation • Individual athletes• Develop specific • Geografic • State advertisements that • Psychografic • Sports organisations focus on different • Demografic •… beliefs •…•… Masters Thesis 46
  47. 47. Blondeel Pieterjan Bachelor’s Degree Sports Management @ KHBOMaster’s Degree Communications Management @ University of Ghent More info: 47

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