Master's Thesis Presentation

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Master's Thesis Presentation

  1. 1. A COMPACT CITY FOR A SHRINKING & AGING POPULATION:REBUILDING KAMAISHI CITY AFTER MARCH 2011Ella Chau Yin Chi’s Thesis Presentation 2012
  2. 2. March 2011 Shrinking & Agingearthquake-tsunami Population Disaster Main Current and Past Issues of Kamaishi
  3. 3. preserved building after tsunamiTsunami Effect Area of East Kamaishi buildings before tsunami Main issues of Kamaishi
  4. 4. Thesis Motivation
  5. 5. Successful socio-economic recovery for East-Kamaishi: a compact urban development Urban Planning = + place-based community participation Thesis Hypothesis
  6. 6. Successful socio-economic recovery for East-Kamaishi:Issues in shrinking population- shopping street- elderly needs Literature Review of planning for Case Studies from Kobe: shrinking population models: a compact 1. ‘Urban Islands’ 1. Shin-nagata Station urban developmentUrban Planning = + place-based 2. Noda North District community participation 2. ‘Smart Shrinking’ Thesis Structure
  7. 7. Shopping Streets Elderly Needs 1.Comfort 2.Security 3.Urban culture 4.Job opportunities *Healthy Neighbourhood- change of family structure- central education system- raise of capitalism (centralism and shopping mall) Understanding Issues ‘Shrinking and Aging Societies’
  8. 8. ‘Urban Islands’ ‘Smart Shrinking’ Model Name ‘Urban Islands’ ‘Smart Shrinking’Case Example Oswald Mathiass Ungers’ Green Urban Archipelago for West Berlin Terry Schwarz’s Cleveland ‘Smart Shrinking’ developmentRelated Concepts New Urbanism compact city development Place-based participatory planningPlanning Approach - traditional top-down planning pre-conceived by urban planners or designers - new type of bottom-up planning initiated by the community - sees development as a solution to a current situation - sees development as a constant self-renewing processPros - opportunity for infrastructure right-sizing to reduce cost - preserve and enhance social capital, history, culture and memory of a place - preserve traditional urban characteristic for potential culture development - empowers community self-development - attract funding for re-development from marketing the city - holistic planning that is sensitive to the needs of a diverse stakeholders - faster planning process - focus in local economies and social equityCons - difficult to attract funding with a shrinking population - likely to become less dense and rural - in sensitive to the needs of a diverse stakeholders - slower planning process depending on the level of participation - lack of focus in local economies and social equity ‘Urban Islands’ vs ‘Smart Shrinking’ Model
  9. 9. ‘Urban Islands’ ‘Smart Shrinking’ Model Name ‘Urban Islands’ ‘Smart Shrinking’Case Example Oswald Mathiass Ungers’ Green Urban Archipelago for West Berlin Terry Schwarz’s Cleveland ‘Smart Shrinking’ developmentRelated Concepts New Urbanism compact city development Place-based participatory planningPlanning Approach - traditional top-down planning pre-conceived by urban planners or designers - new type of bottom-up planning initiated by the community - sees development as a solution to a current situation - sees development as a constant self-renewing processPros - opportunity for infrastructure right-sizing to reduce cost - preserve and enhance social capital, history, culture and memory of a place - preserve traditional urban characteristic for potential culture development - empowers community self-development - attract funding for re-development from marketing the city - holistic planning that is sensitive to the needs of a diverse stakeholders - faster planning process - focus in local economies and social equityCons - difficult to attract funding with a shrinking population - likely to become less dense and rural - in sensitive to the needs of a diverse stakeholders - slower planning process depending on the level of participation - lack of focus in local economies and social equity ‘Urban Islands’ vs ‘Smart Shrinking’ Model
  10. 10. New Urbanism Place-based Participatory Spatial Relationship Planning Process Model Name ‘Urban Islands’ ‘Smart Shrinking’Case Example Oswald Mathiass Ungers’ Green Urban Archipelago for West Berlin Terry Schwarz’s Cleveland ‘Smart Shrinking’ developmentRelated Concepts New Urbanism compact city development Place-based participatory planningPlanning Approach - traditional top-down planning pre-conceived by urban planners or designers - new type of bottom-up planning initiated by the community - sees development as a solution to a current situation - sees development as a constant self-renewing processPros - opportunity for infrastructure right-sizing to reduce cost - preserve and enhance social capital, history, culture and memory of a place - preserve traditional urban characteristic for potential culture development - empowers community self-development - attract funding for re-development from marketing the city - holistic planning that is sensitive to the needs of a diverse stakeholders - faster planning process - focus in local economies and social equityCons - difficult to attract funding with a shrinking population - likely to become less dense and rural - in sensitive to the needs of a diverse stakeholders - slower planning process depending on the level of participation - lack of focus in local economies and social equity New Urbanism Spatial Relationship & Place-based Participatory Planning Process
  11. 11. Planning Models in Japan Post-disaster Context
  12. 12. Shin-nagata Station South District Noda North District 1. Methods - Urban Redevelopment & Land Readjustments 2. Process - Level of Community Development Council / Mazichukuri Organisation Planning Models in Japan Post-disaster Context
  13. 13. 1. Methods2. Process Methods and Process in Case Study
  14. 14. CASE 1: Shin-nagata Station South District CASE 2: Noda North District Urban Redevelopment Land Readjustment Comparing Planning Methods
  15. 15. CASE 1: Shin-nagata Station South DistrictBefore Urban Redevelopment After Urban Redevelopment Shin-nagata Station South District Urban Redevelopment Planning Methods
  16. 16. CASE 2: Noda North DistrictBefore Land Readjustment After Land Readjustment Noda North District Land Readjustment Planning Methods
  17. 17. CASE 2: Noda North DistrictBefore Land Readjustment After Land Readjustment Noda North District Land Readjustment Planning Methods
  18. 18. CASE 1: Shin-nagata Station South District CASE 2: Noda North District Urban Redevelopment Land Readjustment 5. independent community initiatives 5. independent community initiatives 4. acting together 4. acting together 3. deciding together 3. deciding together 2. consultation 2. consultation 1. information 1. information According to Rabinowitz’s level of participation (2012) Comparing Level of Participation in Planning Process
  19. 19. CASE 1: Shin-nagata Station South DistrictUrban Redevelopment Governor of Hyogo Prefecture Consultation Agreement Public Notification and Urban plan decided and made Drafting of Urban Plan (by City) Inspection of draft open to the public Submission Recommendation Submission Collecting residents’ Kobe City Urban opinions by means of public Written Opinions Planning Commission hearings, etc. System of Planning Process
  20. 20. CASE 2: Noda North DistrictLand Readjustment System of Planning Process
  21. 21. CASE 1: Shin-nagata Station South District CASE 2: Noda North District Urban Redevelopment Land Readjustment Model Name ‘Urban Islands’ Model Name ‘Smart Shrinking’ Related Concepts New Urbanism compact city development Related Concepts Place-based participatory planning Planning - traditional top-down planning pre-conceived by urban planners or Planning - new type of bottom-up planning initiated by the community Approach designers Approach - sees development as a constant self-renewing process - sees development as a solution to a current situation Pros - preserve and enhance social capital, history, culture and memory of Pros - opportunity for infrastructure right-sizing to reduce cost a place - preserve traditional urban characteristic for potential culture - empowers community self-development development - holistic planning that is sensitive to the needs of a diverse - attract funding for re-development from marketing the city stakeholders - faster planning process - focus in local economies and social equity Cons - difficult to attract funding with a shrinking population - in sensitive to the needs of a diverse stakeholders Cons - likely to become less dense and rural - lack of focus in local economies and social equity - slower planning process depending on the level of participation Pros: provide public infrastructure Pros: coherent public infrastructure and green for the elderly population space is provided Cons: lack of inclusion of local Small Cons: Takes a longer planning time business in development Comparing Case Studies and Planning Models
  22. 22. CASE 1: Shin-nagata Station South District CASE 2: Noda North District Urban Redevelopment Land Readjustment Model Name ‘Urban Islands’ Model Name ‘Smart Shrinking’ Related Concepts New Urbanism compact city development Related Concepts Place-based participatory planning Planning - traditional top-down planning pre-conceived by urban planners or Planning - new type of bottom-up planning initiated by the community Approach designers Approach - sees development as a constant self-renewing process - sees development as a solution to a current situation Pros - preserve and enhance social capital, history, culture and memory of Pros - opportunity for infrastructure right-sizing to reduce cost a place - preserve traditional urban characteristic for potential culture - empowers community self-development development - holistic planning that is sensitive to the needs of a diverse - attract funding for re-development from marketing the city stakeholders - faster planning process - focus in local economies and social equity Cons - difficult to attract funding with a shrinking population - in sensitive to the needs of a diverse stakeholders Cons - likely to become less dense and rural - lack of focus in local economies and social equity - slower planning process depending on the level of participation Pros: provide public infrastructure Pros: coherent public infrastructure and green for the elderly population space is provided Cons: lack of inclusion of local Small Cons: Takes a longer planning time business in development SAME COST $$ Comparing Case Studies and Planning Models
  23. 23. CASE 1: Shin-nagata Station South District CASE 2: Noda North District Urban Redevelopment Land Readjustment New Urbanism Place-based Participatory Spatial Relationship Planning Process In Japan Post-disaster Context
  24. 24. Machizukuri Organisation ecological environment Small Independent Community = Compact Townneighbourhood local economy community Small Independent Community (SIC) - Compact Town
  25. 25. ecological neighbourhood local environment community economy small independent small independent community community small independent small independent small independent community community community neighbourhood local ecological neighbourhood community economy environment community small independent small independent small independent community community community small independent small independent community community ecological neighbourhood local environment community economyA compact urban development + Place-based community participation = Japan’s new Compact City Japan’s Compact City
  26. 26. Findings in Kamaishi (from interviews) Recommendations1. land subsidence 1. create a smaller urban footprint (urban islands - compact development)2. emerging new 2. eco-model city - SIC compact city to maintainidentity of eco- the number of elderly people (compactmodel city development & place-based participation)3. active operation 3. establish community based organisationof the local Small similar to the Machizukuri organisation inBusiness Association Kobe. Experts role is to assist these organisation in their decision making (place-based participation) Recommendations for Current Situation
  27. 27. East-Kamaishi Land-use Draft Plan
  28. 28. 1. The segregation of land-uses and the large size of the urban-footprint.2. The spatial disconnect between elderly public housing and the commercial area.3.The spatial disconnect between the green belt and planned residential areas and the town centre.4.The approval of a shopping mall for Kamaishi was not a result of the place-based participatory planning. This iscounterproductive to the goals of promoting the local socio-economy and shopping street which form thekernel of a compact city. Critique of East-Kamaishi Land-use Draft Plan
  29. 29. The successful socio-economic recovery of East-Kamaishirequires a compact urban development formed by smallindependent communities. A machizukuri type organisationcould be established to develop a place-based communityparticipation process for the redevelopment of East-Kamaishi. Concluding Statement
  30. 30. Questions & Answers

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