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1. 1. Grading PracticesTIRP 4/13/13Barbara Toney
2. 2. What’s the goal?• Create a system that works for YOU and is theeasiest for you to implement.• Remember: “If Mama ain’t happy, ain’tnobody happy!”
3. 3. Week9/12-MaterialcoveredQuizzes,paperscollectedAsm’ts anddue datesHandoutsPassed outUpcomingTest dates9/12Monp.15-16 Quiz overbrainCh 18 due9/14Ch 18questionsTest on9/169/13TuesTest on9/169/14WedsCh 18 due Test on9/169/15ThursReviewFor testTest on9/169/16FriTest Ch 17
4. 4. Paper grading tips• Homework- finished and on time- full credit• Kids self-check homework• Explain to kids why you are assigning thehomework and why it’s important for them todo it.
5. 5. Must know!• What is your district/school policy on grades,makeup work, homework. Know it!• Feel out what the principal feels about % ofAs, Bs, etc.• Be aware principals often check teachersgrades (they get a master list)• Make sure you send written grading policyhome for parents to sign and return.
6. 6. • Let kids know exactly what will be on the test.• Call home if a kid misses a test- that day!• What opportunities do you give them to learnfrom their mistakes? 2ndchances?
7. 7. Grading PracticesDouglas Reeves, Ph.D.Deland Middle School2008-2009
8. 8. Calculate the Final Grade for this Student• C, C, MA (Missing Assignment), D, C, B, MA, MA, B,A• Group 1: A=100, B=90, C=80, D=70• Group 2: A=4, B=3, C=2, D=1• Group 3: Choose your own system but you musthave a letter grade
9. 9. Grading• Grades = Feedback to Improve Performance!• If you have high levels of success and low failure rates, yourpolicy is sound and should be left alone.• If you have low levels of success and high failure rates, whatyou are doing is not working.• The “Real World” is not “You have one chance at it and you’redone”.• We seldom use “average” for anything else except grades.• Grades must never be used as punishment. It doesn’t work!• Rewards for work done daily are far greater than punishmentfor work done late.• The Driver’s License Test example – chance to “re-do/re-take”
10. 10. Toxic (Ineffective) Grading Policies• The use of “zeroes” for missing work. Consequenceshould be to complete the work!• The practice of using the “average” of all scoresduring the grading period, a formula that presumesthat the learning early in the semester is asimportant as learning at the end of the semester.(Marzano 2000; O’Connor, 2007)• The use of the “grading period killer” – the singleproject, test, lab, paper, or other assignment that willmake or break students.
11. 11. Toxic Grading Practices and AlternativesToxic• “Zeroes” for missingwork• Average/Mean• Grading Period Killer:One Test or ProjectAlternative• “Get ‘Er Done, Just Do It”,complete/submit missingwork• Best representation of work(Re-do, Re-submit)• Resilience, PersonalResponsibility (Don’t letthem off the hook!)
12. 12. The Power of Zeroes Rick Wormeli, Middle Ground• Convert “zeroes” to “50s”• Conversion necessary so that any “calculating” ismathematically justified.• Not using “zeroes” is a more accurate picture of thestudents’ ability.• “Zero” has an undeserved and devastating effect onstudents and their grades – so much that no matterwhat student does, the “zero” distorts the final gradeas a true indicator of mastery.• Mathematically and ethically – unacceptable!
13. 13. Negative Impact of “Zero” on a 100-PointGrading Scale• 0, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100 = 83% = B• 50, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100 = 92% = A•
14. 14. What is the point of homework?
15. 15. Accurate Grading Policies Rick Stiggins• Determine grades using the median (middlegrade) – not the mean/average.• Look for the most consistent level ofperformance, not all performances.• We should not hold a student’s earlierdigressions in the grading period or yearagainst them.
16. 16. Did You Know………..• Two common causes of course failures –1)missing homework; 2)poorperformance on a single majorassignment. Adjusting your policy wouldhave a huge impact on student failures.(Reeves)
17. 17. What should NOT be included in a grade?• Effort• Participation• Attitude• Behavior• Homework• Group work
18. 18. Re-Do, Re-Take, Re-Test, Re-Submit!“The consequence for a student who failsto meet a standard is not a low grade butrather the opportunity—indeed, therequirement—to resubmit his or herwork. “-- Douglas Reeves
19. 19. • Grades will be based upon STUDENTACHIEVEMENT• Grades will be based upon MASTERY OFCONCEPTS AND SKILLS• Students should have MULTIPLEOPPORTUNITIES to demonstrate mastery
20. 20. Research Based Findings• (Gettinger, 1988) analyzed well-managed classrooms thatfunctioned smoothly with few disruptions and were well organized.• He then analyzed less effective classrooms that experiencedfrequent disruptions due to a large amount of time spent ondiscipline and transitions that were lengthy and chaotic.• Gettinger expected to find that the teachers of the well-managedclassrooms would possess more effective disciplinary techniques.Surprisingly, he found that both were approximately equal indealing with student misbehavior.• The variance was that the successful classroom managers weremore efficient at minimizing behavioral problems by interveningbefore the misbehavior escalated.
21. 21. Volusia County’s Approach To ClassroomManagementBy following the effective, research-based practices outlined in CHAMPs, teachers develop methods forclearly communicating their expectations on every classroom activity and transition. Expectations toclarify are:Conversation (Can students talk to each other during this activity?)Help (How do students get the teacher’s attention and theirquestions answered?)Activity (What is the task/objective? What is the end product?)Movement (Can students move about during this activity?)Participation (How do students show they are fully participating?What does work behavior look/sound like?)(Sprick, Garrison,and Howard 1998)
22. 22. Our Teachers Deal with the FollowingBehaviors in the Classroom• Class or school rule violation• Disruption or disturbance of a school activity(minor)• Dress code violation• Horseplay• Minor disruption or disturbance of a schoolactivity, class or campus• Tardiness• All level one offenses in the student code ofconduct