Review of BloomReview of BloomBenjamin Bloom◦ 1913-1999◦ Professor and Psychologist◦ University of Chicago◦ Did most of his work in the middle of the lastcentury◦ 1948-53, he and colleagues developedBloom’s taxonomy
Bloom’s WorkBloom’s WorkBloom’s research concluded that:◦ Teachers used questions from the knowledgecategory 80-90% of the time◦ Knowledge questions are not bad, but usingthem all of the time is bad◦ Teachers should try to use higher order levelof questioning to encourage higher orderlevel of thinking skills◦ These questions require “more brain power”and a more elaborate and extensive answer
KnowledgeKnowledgeRecall of dataMemorization, listing, defining, namingCan be a foundation for much learningProvides a basis for higher levels ofthinking but is rote in nature
From GoldilocksFrom GoldilocksWho was Goldilocks?Where did she live? With whom?What did her mother tell her not to do?All Goldilocks examples are from thewebsite “Teacher’s Corner”
ComprehensionComprehensionAbility to grasp ideasExplain or restate ideasTranslateInterpret
GoldilocksGoldilocksThis story was about_________?(Topic)The story tells us _________? (MainIdea)What did goldilocks look like?What kind of girl was she?
ApplicationApplicationUsing the material in new situationsUsing information, ideas, and skills tosolve problemsSelecting information and applying itappropriately
GoldilocksGoldilocksHow were the bears like real people?Draw a picture of what the bear’s house,the path in the forest, etc.Why did goldilocks go into the house?
AnalysisAnalysisSuggests separating items or material intocomponent partsSeparating ideas and information intocomponent partsThen showing relationships betweenparts
GoldilocksGoldilocksHow did each bear react to whatGoldilocks did?How would you react?Compare Goldilocks to one of yourfriends
SynthesisSynthesisPutting together separate ideas into newwholesPutting separate ideas into new andunique formThis is where innovation takes place
GoldilocksGoldilocksDo you know any other stories aboutboys or girls who escaped from danger?List the events of the story in sequenceDraw a cartoon story about bears. Dothey act like humans?
EvaluationEvaluationAbility to judge the worth of materialagainst stated criteriaInvolves reviewing and assertingevidence. Facts, and ideas, then makingappropriate statements and judgementsThe highest level in this arrangement
GoldilocksGoldilocksWhy were the bears angry withGoldilocks?Would you have gone into the bear’shouse? Why or why not?Why would a grown up write a story likethis for children:What do you think she learned by goinginto that house?
Which of these 4 cities do you thinkWhich of these 4 cities do you thinkis the highest risk for a terroristis the highest risk for a terroristattack? Explain your reasoning.attack? Explain your reasoning.New York CitySan FranciscoColorado SpringsWashington, DC
Getting attention, The hookGetting attention, The hookWhat background information do youhave to have before you can answer thisquestion?Next step: “OK, you’ve justified youranswers with the knowledge youcurrently possess. Let’s do some researchto find out if your arguments hold up.”
Which of these 3 cities do youWhich of these 3 cities do youthink is most in danger of a forestthink is most in danger of a forestfire?fire?PuebloAspenColorado Springs
Acquiring New KnowledgeAcquiring New KnowledgeThe only way to work in backgroundknowledge into the classroom is tochange how we allocate time.If 100% of time is spent on the currentunit there’s no time to create backgroundinfo.
Acquiring New KnowledgeAcquiring New KnowledgeOne solution is 10%-80%-10%10% priming for upcoming units80% on current learning10% revising and bringing up priorlearningTie this in with 10-24-7
WIIFMWIIFMWhat will I learn or be able to do byend of lesson?Why do I need to learn this concept orskill? How will it help me now andfuture?What do I already know about this?How have I experienced it before? Howdoes this connect with what I alreadyknow?
Examples of pre-exposureExamples of pre-exposureSummer reading listCourse overviewPosters with upcoming informationAdvance OrganizersAn experience of their own
Priming and Activating PriorPriming and Activating PriorKnowledgeKnowledgeBuild background knowledge in smallchunks so so how they fit into biggerpicture.This is part of 10%
The AmazingThe AmazingAdventures of TeddyAdventures of Teddyand Big Billand Big Bill
Taft vs. TR: What Do You Think?1.Which one would you rather haveas your president? Why?2.Which man seems to have agreater interest in social programs,such as helping poor people?1.Which man is more trustworthy?
Learning StylesLearning StylesThere are at least fifty major theoriesregarding learning styles.How many learning styles are there?What we know for sure is that studentslearn in different ways, teachers teach indifferent ways and there are oftenmismatched students and teachers.For our purposes we are going to discussthree: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic
Examples of Learning TheoriesExamples of Learning Theories Multiple Intelligences Behaviorism Piaget’s Developmental Theory Neuroscience Brain-based Learning Learning Styles Right Brain, Left Brain Thinking Communities of Practice Control Theory Constructivism Social Cognition Observational Learning
The Visual LearnerThe Visual Learner Visual Verbal Learning style◦ Best when information is presented visually andin a written language format◦ Benefits from an instructor who uses achalkboard, overhead, PowerPoint, provideshandouts, outlines◦ Tends to like to study by him/herself in a quietroom◦ Tend to use textbooks◦ Often see information “in your mind’s eye” whenyou are trying to remember something◦ Takes notes in class◦ Likes to “watch” the class
The Visual LearnerThe Visual LearnerTeaching the Visual/Verbal Learner◦ Make use of “color coding”. Use highlighters anddifferent colors to categorize written information◦ When teaching information presented indiagrams or illustrations, write out explanationsfor the information◦ When teaching mathematical or technicalinformation, write out in sentences and keyphrases the presented information. When aproblem involves a sequence of steps, write themout in detail◦ Use printouts or outlines for review
The Visual LearnerThe Visual Learner The Visual Non-verbal Learner◦ Learns best when information is presented in apicture or design format◦ Benefits from instructors who use visual aidssuch as film, video, maps, and charts◦ Benefits from pictures and diagrams in books◦ Tends to like to work in a quiet room and maynot like to work in study groups◦ When remembering something, can oftenvisualize a picture of it in the mind◦ May have an artistic side that enjoys activitieshaving to do with visual art and design
The Visual LearnerThe Visual Learner Teaching the Visual Non-verbal Learner◦ When teaching mathematical or technicalinformation, make charts to organize theinformation. When a math problem involves asequence of steps, draw a series of boxes, eachcontaining the appropriate bit of information insequence◦ As much as possible, translate words and ideasinto symbols, pictures, and diagrams◦ Color—highlighters, color code information,flashcards (with color)◦ Limit the amount of information per card so thatthe learner can “picture” the information in themind
The Kinesthetic LearnerThe Kinesthetic LearnerThe Kinesthetic or Tactile Learner◦ Learns best when physically engaged in a “handson” activity.◦ Benefits from lab situations where materials canbe manipulated to learn new information◦ Benefit from instructors who encourage in-classdemonstrations◦ Benefits from field work outside of classroom◦ Move from station to station◦ Likes to assist in creating charts and diagrams onlarge paper
The Kinesthetic LearnerThe Kinesthetic Learner Teaching the Kinesthetic-Tactile Learner◦ Sit near the front of the room and take notesthroughout the class period◦ When studying, likes to walk back and forth withtextbook , notes, or flashcards in hand and read theinformation out loud◦ Provide something to hold or touch, a model, a labexperience◦ Field trips◦ To learn a sequence of steps, such as a mathsequence, have steps on 3x5 cards and have studentarrange them in sequence on a table top◦ Practice putting the cards in order until it becomesautomatic◦ Use graphic organizers, tables and charts
The Auditory LearnerThe Auditory LearnerThe Auditory/Verbal Learner◦ Learns best when information is presented inoral language format◦ Benefits from listening to lecture◦ Benefits from participating in group discussions◦ Audio tapes◦ When trying to remember something “can oftenhear the way the teacher said something”◦ Learns well when interacting with others in alistening/speaking exchange
The Auditory LearnerThe Auditory LearnerTeaching the Auditory/Verbal Learner◦ Study groups or a study buddy◦ When studying by him/herself often talks outloud to aid recall◦ Read notes or text outloud◦ Likes to tape lectures for replay◦ Group activities that involve discussion ofideas◦ Oral question and answer session
Multiple IntelligencesMultiple IntelligencesTheory developed by Dr. HowardGardner, professor of education atHarvard University in 1983.It suggests the traditional notion ofintelligence, based on IQ testing is toolimited.He proposes eight different intelligencesto account for a broader range of humanpotential.
Multiple IntelligencesMultiple IntelligencesDr. Gardner says our schools and culturefocus mostly on linguistic and logicalmathematical intelligence. We esteem thehighly articulate or logical people of ourculture.He says we should also value the artist, thearchitect, musician, naturalist, designer,dancer, therapist, entrepreneurs, and otherswho enrich the world in which we live.Many children are gifted in these otherareas.
Multiple IntelligencesMultiple Intelligences Many gifted children do not receivereinforcement or encouragement to developthose gifts. Many gifted children end up labeled as underachievers, learning disabled, etc. when theirunique ways of thinking and learning are notaddressed in a heavily linguistic or mathematicalclassroom. The theory of Multiple Intelligences proposesthat teachers be trained to present lessons in awide variety of ways including music, cooperativelearning, art activities, role play, inner reflection,and multimedia.
Multiple IntelligencesMultiple IntelligencesThe good news is that more and moreschools and teachers are redesigning theway children are being taught.The bad news is that there are many whostill use the same limiting worksheets,lectures and textbooks.Many adults find themselves in jobs thatdo not make optimal use of their mosthighly developed intelligences.
Bodily-Kinesthetic IntelligenceBodily-Kinesthetic IntelligenceEntails the potential of using one’s wholebody or parts of the body to solveproblems. It is the ability to use mentalabilities to coordinate bodily movements.Gardner sees mental and physical activityas related.Physical exercise, Mime, Sports, CreativeDance, Role Play, Physical Gestures,Drama, Martial Arts,
Linguistic IntelligenceLinguistic IntelligenceInvolves sensitivity to spoken and writtenlanguage, the ability to learn languages, andthe capacity to use language to accomplishgoals. This intelligence includes the ability toeffectively use language to express oneselfrhetorically or poetically; and language as ameans to remember information.Reading, vocabulary, formal speech, journal,creative writing, poetry, verbal debate, storytelling, impromptu speaking.
Interpersonal IntelligenceInterpersonal IntelligenceConcerned with the capacity tounderstand the intentions, motivationsand desires of other people. It allowspeople to work effectively with others.Educators, salespeople, leaders, andcounselors need a well developedinterpersonal intelligence.Giving feedback, cooperative learning,collaborative skills, receiving feedback,group projects
Intrapersonal IntelligenceIntrapersonal IntelligenceEntails the capacity to understand oneself, toappreciate one’s feelings, fears andmotivations. In Howard Gardner’s view itinvolves having an effective working modelof ourselves, and to be able to use suchinformation to regulate our lives.Silent reflection, emotional processing,focusing and concentration skills, higherorder reasoning, complex guided imagery
Musical/Rhythmic IntelligenceMusical/Rhythmic IntelligenceInvolves skill in the performance,composition, and appreciation of musicalpatterns. It encompasses the capacity torecognize and compose musical pitches,tones, and rhythms. According to Gardnermusical intelligence runs in an almoststructural parallel to linguistic intelligence.Rhythmic patterns, vocal sounds and tones,music composition, percussion vibrations,singing, music performance
Visual/Spatial IntelligenceVisual/Spatial IntelligenceInvolves the potential to recognize anduse the patterns of wide space and moreconfined areas. It is the ability to createvisual representations and understandinformation from visual and mentalpictures.Active imagination, drawing, painting,designing, pretending, sculpting, pictures,color schemes, visual patterns
Naturalist IntelligenceNaturalist IntelligenceThe ability to understand the patterns ofthe natural world. This intelligence wasadded to the theory in 1997. Thisintelligence has to do with the ability torelate to animals, grow plants, and have asensitivity to their place in theenvironment.Collecting and analyzing, outdooreducational activities, recognizing andclassifying, kinesthetic activity
Logical-Mathematical IntelligenceLogical-Mathematical IntelligenceConsists of the capacity to analyze problemslogically, carry out mathematical operations,and investigate issues scientifically. InGardner’s words, it entails the ability todetect patterns, reason deductively andthink logically.Abstract symbols, number sequences,calculation, deciphering codes, problemsolving, pattern games, forcing relationships
Multiple IntelligencesMultiple IntelligencesWe are not one type of intelligence but ablend of all of the intelligences in uniquecombinations. We have strengths incertain areas and weaknesses in others.Our students are also a blend of theseintelligences and we try to design ourlessons to accommodate the learningstyles of all or our students.