P.D.H.P.E Assessment Task Teeth Injuries By Ellen Daly
Explain the nature of the medical condition or injury
There are 4 main types of teeth injuries;
Chipped and fractured Teeth
Teeth injuries can be caused by falling over and hitting a sharp object or the ground, or by playing a contact sport and either getting hit in the head with a ball or colliding heads with another person.
Loosened Teeth This occurs when teeth that moved about excessively whilst staying in their correct location in the mouth. Chipped or fractured teeth A chipped tooth occurs when a bit of the tooth falls off. This can sometimes expose pulp. Fractured teeth happen when a tooth in the back part of the mouth is cracked/ fractured. Fractured teeth are more serious compared to cracked teeth because cracked teeth can be covered by a filling but fractured teeth usually result in the casualty having to get root canal surgery. Picture came from source 5
Dislodged Teeth Dislodged teeth occur when teeth are pushed up into the socket. This is a serious tooth injury and dental/medical treatment should be sought quickly. Avulsed Teeth Is when the tooth has been completely knocked out. Dental treatment needs to be organised immediately. It is important to seek medical treatment within two hours of the teeth falling out. This will give the dentist/ surgeon the best chance of saving the tooth. Until you arrive at the hospital the teeth show be placed the teeth in milk. Picture came from source 5 Picture came from source 5
Identify the signs and symptoms associated with each injury or condition.
Profuse bleeding in the mouth
Loss of teeth or fragments of teeth missing
Severe pain in the mouth area
First Aid procedure for Serious Teeth Injuries- avulsion and dislodged teeth. The other injuries can also be classified as serious under certain circumstances.
Call 000 if the tooth has been knocked out. If a car is available, drive the casualty to hospital after the following steps have been taken.
Wear gloves if available. This will protect you from a blood borne infection.
Check for dangers to yourself, the casualty and others.
Clear the area. This can be a traumatic experience for the casualty and you don't want them to go into shock.
Control the bleeding if any by applying pressure to the mouth or gums using cold water. This will also help to reduce swelling.
If teeth has been chipped or knocked out all fragments need to be recovered. Make sure you wear gloves whilst touching teeth. (Never touch the tooth by the root ( yellow part) always handle by the crown).
Clean teeth with milk. Don't wipe the tooth, just pour the milk over it.
If all fragments have been found try and place the tooth in its socket. If it does not fit place the tooth or fragment in a glass of milk and get the patient to hospital/ dentist.
If not all the fragments of the teeth have been found it is important to tell doctors to order a chest x-ray to make sure the casualty didn’t swallow any teeth fragments.
It is important for the casualty to get to hospital as soon as possible for the tooth to be re-inserted. If you leave it too long the roots will die and they won’t be able to re-insert it or it could infect the mouth if it is dislodged in the mouth.
Pictures of Serious Teeth Injuries Picture came from source 4
First Aid treatment for a casualty with minor teeth injuries- loosened teeth and chipped/ fractured teeth. With these injuries it is important that the casualty still gets a check-up with the dentist as soon as possible. This does not need to be in a matter of hours unless the injury is severe.
Clear the area and do a quick check of the casualty to assess whether you think the injury is serious or not.
Check for bleeding. If the casualty is bleeding in the mouth get them to apply pressure. If after 10 minutes the bleeding is still heavy, get medical attention.
Diagrams of teeth Injuries Picture came from source 4
When dealing with teeth injuries it is important to stop the bleeding and preserve the teeth. If unsure whether the injury is severe or not it is best to get the casualty to the dentist straight away.
Teeth injuries can worsen if not treated as soon as possible especially when teeth are knocked out.
Never handle the tooth by its roots. Always handle it by the crown.
If you take charge of the situation it is important you stay calm.
If the tooth injury occurred as a result of sport and the athletes tooth was knocked out, never let them play on. First they will have blood everywhere and secondly it may cause a blood borne infection. They need to get to the dentist/ hospital as soon as possible as this will maximise the preservation of the tooth.
Bibliography 1. Lucile Packard Children's Hospital. (2008) “Tooth Injury” .(online) http://www.lpch.org/healthLibrary/ParentCareTopics/MouthTeethThroatSymptoms/ToothInjury.html Retrieved: 28.8.09 2. Sports medicine Australia. (2008) “Teeth Injuries” .(Online) http://www.sma.org.au/sportstrainers/hints/teeth.asp Retrieved: 20.8.08 3. John Banky. (No Date) “ Sports Dental Injuries”. (Online) http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/dental-injuries.htm Retrieved: 28.8.08 4. J. O. Andreasen, Lars Andersson .(No Date) “Traumatic injuries to the teeth”.(online) http://books.google.com.au/books?id=geE1Zeui1bMC&pg=PA872&lpg=PA872&dq=teeth+injuries&source=web&ots=AlHhHkjLZC&sig=0cs7v2wNIWT37_MIeJioeiBdJRo&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA198,M1 Retrieved: 28.8.08 5. Kim Auchinachie. (2007) “Traumatic dental injuries”. (Online) http://www.endodont.com/injury-avulsed.php Retrieved: 29.8.08