What Is Digestive System ?• The digestive system, also called gastrointestinal (GI) tract or gut, is the continuous, muscular digestive tube that winds through the body. It breaks down food into smaller fragments and absords the nutrients for the body.
Diagnostic Procedure.• This is a test performed on patients, principally from the laboratory and medical imaging. Examples of diagnostic procedure include :• Clinical laboratory test (Serum bilirubin, Fecal occult blood, etc.)• Diagnostic Imaging (bite-wing x-ray, intravenous cholecystography, etc.)• Endoscopic procedures ( gastroscopy, colonoscopy, laparoscopy, etc.)
What is colonoscopy?• It is the endoscopic examination of the large and distal part of the small intestine with a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. This will provide a visual diagnosis and grant the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected lesions.• Conditions that calls for colonoscopies• Gastrointestinal hemorrhage• Inflammatory bowel disease• Colon cancer• Unexplained drop in hermatocrit
Colonoscopy Procedure:• Patient must be free of solid matter for the test to be performed properly.• Patient is given laxative or sodium phosphate a day before the colonoscopy.• Digital rectal examination is performed• Endoscope is then passed through the anus up the rectum, the colon, and finally the terminal ileum.• Bowel is occasionally insufflated with air to maximize visibility.• Contrast-dye such as indigo carmine may be sprayed through the endoscope onto the intestinal walls to enhance visualize any abnormalities in mucosal morphology.
Advantage• Advantage of colonoscopy over x- imaging or other, is the ability to perform therapeutic interventions during the test. A aftereffect of colonoscopy is a bout of flatulence and minor pain.
Serum bilirubin.• Is a blood test to determine the amount of the waste product bilirubin in the blood stream. High levels indicate liver disease.• Clinical Importance of Serum Bilirubin.• Indication of the severity of hepatic dysfunction.• Correlation of bilirubin concentration with jaundice.• Urine bilirubin• Value of fractionating the bilirubin• Significance of the height of the serum bilirubin.
How The Test is Performed• Blood sample is collected through venipuncture• Patient should not eat nor drink for at least 4 hours before the test• Patient should avoid drugs that may change the bilirubin level.
Therapeutic Procedure.• This is a procedure in which the patient experiences relief from a symptom, a stop to the progression of a disease. Examples of therapeutic procedures are :• Dental procedures- extraction, root canal.• Medical Procedure- gavage, lavage• Surgical procedure- anastomosis, bariatric, colostomy, hernioplasty, and liver transplant.
Lavage• This is using nasogastric tube to wash out hollow cavity or organs. The importance of the procedure is to take unwanted substance such as poisons or drug over dose.• Specific Types of Lavage• Gastric lavage• Ductal lavage• Peritoneal lavage• Bronchi alveolar lavage
Equipment:• TUM E- Vac- KIT, Activated Charcoal, Protective equipment, Oral airways, and suction equipment.
Procedure for Gastric Lavage.• To facilitate passage of tube and prevent aspiration, patient should be placed on left side.• Remove denture and partial plates• Have emesis basin and tissues readily available.• Properly set up and use the TUM-VAC gastric lavage system to slowly remove unwanted stomach content.
Hernioplasty• This a surgical repair of a hernia. If the Hernia is bulging out of the abdominal wall (direct hernia), the bulge is pushed back into place.• Procedure Inguinal Hernioplasty• A long incision is made over the hernia the hernia and the intestinal content or pushed back into the abdomen.• The abdominal wall is reinforced with stiches or a mesh to cover the entire inguinal area.• The patch is secured with suture, clips or staples.