Aleutia solar container classroom presentation

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Aleutia solar container classroom presentation

  1. 1. I.C.T. Classrooms Project | Research Summary E S A L A Projects
  2. 2. Contents Introduction Collaborators Ghana 03 04 Cultural Summary & Economy Government Initiative Curriculum & Teaching in Ghana Curriculum Local Architecture An Overview Locally Resourced Building Materials Modern Building Materials Local Labours Climate Climate Profile in Ghana Climatic Data & Analysis Requirements, Dimensions & Usage Stats Technology Design Strategies Precedents Conclusion 05 07 15 Passive Cooling Strategies & Hybrid Approach Investigation 14 Container 12 13 09 10 11 11 16 17 19
  3. 3. 3 Introduction The initial project is aimed at late primary and early secondary school children (10-16 years of age). The current required deliverable is a prototypical scheme that will be constructed in the grounds of Ghana’s House of Parliament as a showcase for decision makers on innovative, rapid deployment, ICT training facilities for Ghana’s schools. This working report is a documentation of the team’s research, strategies and design developments for the project. The compiled information, investigations and research highlight issues to be addressed via architecture. Then, the following design strategies and responses could be determined as solutions to such issues. Generally, the report is expected to provide the fundamental references and backgrounds, likewise as the project guidelines that enable the team to progress the developing scheme effectively and efficiently. The team’s first phase of research based in the context of Ghana initiates the structure of this report. First, the country’s governmental initiative in education is documented, followed by its education curriculum outlining current teaching methods, class hours and issues. Secondly, an analysis of local resources and environment is undertaken for the developmnent of passive design strategies. The available technologies by the company Aleutia for the ICT classrooms are listed in this report as well. Precedents are compiled for design references. Thus, the report structure should provide further guidance in the design phase. Introduction The ICT Classroom Project began as a collaboration between ESALA – a pro bono architecture design team at the University of Edinburgh, Learning Planet – an educational NGO providing design and infrastructure assistance to remote or disadvantaged communities, and Aleutia – an innovative low-power computing manufacturer specializing in the developing world. The Design Team’s task is to help plan and design a successful, self-powered, instant ICT classroom prototype, based on 40-foot or 20foot shipping containers. The classroom must function as an affordable, rapid to deploy, flexible & inspiring learning environment for ICT education and other developmental needs. It’s aimed at both urban and rural areas where access to such education and infrastructure is poor or non-existent.
  4. 4. 4 Collaborators: Partners in Ghana and deployment of reliable, low energy, low cost, high performance, self-powered IT, Aleutia hope to to provide technological accessibility to under-privileged children in urban and rural areas, right across the continent. Learning Planet ZoomLion are a subsidiary company of the Jospong Group in Ghana and will play a part in helping the manufacture of the ICT prototype to be displayed to members of the government. ZoomLion are predominantly a waste management company, however through close work with the government expanding Ghana’s hygiene infrastructure they have started to expand into other areas that help community development in Ghana and parts of western Africa. With a special interest in eco-friendly design, their projects have included organizing a Costal ‘Eco-brigade’ as well as a National Forest Plantation Development project to control deforestation. One of their strong beliefs is that an important part of developing a strong infrastructure is creating local jobs that contribute to community development. Aleutia Learning planet helps remote or disadvantaged communities create safe, stimulating, sustainable environments where both children and adults can learn and develop new skills. Working in collaboration they design, co-finance and construct schools, equip them with clean energy and utilities, provide on-going teacher-training with local partners, and provide engineering and other technical expertise. Learning Planet successfuly brought high-speed internet and the first computers to 5000 people in rural Nepal in 2012/ 2013 and will bring a further 14 remote schools online by December. In 2011, Learning Planet began partnering with Aleutia - a company that shared their goals and vision - to help bring the right hardware into some challenging environments. The success of this collaboration catalysed the initiation of the ICT Classroom Project. Aleutia specialises in manufacturing low power computers for use in extreme climates and conditions, with a unique emphasis on design for use in the developing world. They will act as hardware provider for the ICT classroom, which will house a new iteration of their self-contained ‘Solar Classroom in a box’. By innovating the development Collaborators | Partners in Ghana ZoomLion
  5. 5. 5 Cultural Summary and Economy According to the IMF (International Monetary Fund) the country is thought to have a stable economy, as the prices of gold and cocoa are relatively high. In addition, Ghana announced the discovery of oil in 2007, which is presenting new challenges to the government despite its obvious economic advantages. Health Social Anthropology Ghana is a sub-Saharan former British colony which gained independence in the late 1950’s. With an estimated 25 million citizens the country has a wide variety of backgrounds spread evenly over both rural (48%) and urban areas (52%). While Ghana still has major health issues, since independence the government has been able to improve nutrition, maternal health and childcare. Through providing sanitation, medication and education, the government has been able to control endemic diseases such as malaria and pneumonia which previously had high death tolls. However the majority of communities are still without adequate sanitation or water-supply facilities and as a result are unable to improve upon their public health. The majority of the country’s population are Christian (63%) although the country also has a small percentage of Muslim (16%) and indigenous (21%) religions. In total, Ghana has over 50 ethnic groups, all of which maintain important traditions and individual identities which all contribute to Ghana’s national culture. Many areas of Ghana are ethnically conscious, in particular northern Ghana where tensions have been known to rise with violent outcomes. In the past, the government has been particularly careful to downplay ethnic differences; this is something that has been aided by the adoption of English as their common language. The Ghanaian government has now taken steps to address these cultural differences in an effort to unify the many ethnic groups in Ghana to strengthen their national identity and enable an environment for national development. Economic In general Ghana has three major geographic regions; the coast, the forest and the northern savanna although the boundaries of these regions are difficult to define. The majority of the country’s farming and extraction of natural resources comes form Upper East Upper West Northern Brong-Ahafo Volta Eastern Ashanti Western Central Greater Accra Literacy in Ghana Upper Upper East West Northern Brong-Ahafo Ashanti Western Volta Eastern Central Greater Accra Literate Non-literate Left: Zoning in map shows illiteracy status for population 11 years and older in Ghana by region and district with the Northern region being most illterate while Greater Accra being the least illiterate. Right: Literacy status for population 11 years and older by region and district 2010. Source: www.statsghana.gov.gh Ghana | Summary & Governmental Initiative the forest region in Ghana. The savanna region is regarded as the least economically developed area, however new irrigation such as manmade Lake Volta has opened the land up to use for livestock and farming of cereal crops.
  6. 6. 6 National Commission on Culture The government in Ghana has set up the National Commission on Culture and hopes to preserve and protect Ghanaian heritage and culture. They hope to ensure that traditional customs and values are adapted and developed in their growing and modernizing society. Through the development of cultural institutions and programs they seek to promote traditional values such as dignity, honesty, peace and attitudes towards nature. In responding to modern developments while maintaining tradition they hope to generate wealth and alleviate poverty. The Ghana Open Government Partnership Initiative The Ghanaian government recognizes that corruption is one of the countries biggest problems and hopes to address the issue with the utilization of new technologies to “empower people and promote transparency in government”. The initiative aims to increase access to new technology, providing services such as Internet access and mobile technology, providing an opportunity for information sharing, public participation, and collaboration. In doing this Ghanaian people can be made aware of the roles their government plays and will be better equipped to make informed decisions. This initiative develops secure online spaces and makes technology affordable while also providing support for the citizens of Ghana to use it. While promoting technology, the government also “understand that technology is a complement, not a substitute, for clear, useable, and useful information”, demonstrating recognition for a greater need for educational material. Conclusion Through researching the local governments and their current initiatives, it becomes clear that our learning container can be used to benefit the community as a whole by making wider education available to people of all ages in the communities, particularly in rural areas. The utilization of media such as film has proven effective for governmental initiatives in the past and also demonstrates a desire for new media and entertainment in rural communities. The container could not only be used to inform but also could provide a method of allowing communication between the people and its government, enabling them to become more responsive to the changing needs of their people. The idea of “scaling up” also becomes a recurrent theme with governmental initiatives. Emphasis has been placed upon the younger generations and providing them with a means of progression and modernization with a view to benefit the future economy and establish a developed technological, educational and economic infrastructure. Ghana | Summary & Governmental Initiative Government Initiatives
  7. 7. 7 Curriculum & Teaching Ghana Our country of focus, Ghana, has already produced its own ‘ICT in Education Policy’, which was implemented in 2007 after a recognition of the subjects ability to support the governments aim to transform the country into an information rich and knowledge based economy and society. The policy states a requirement for ICT to be used to teach and learn at all levels of the education system, leading to its inclusion in the basic school curriculum where ICT is now examinable. Schools that have incorporated ICT into their curriculum have faced and are facing a number of challenges (not without success) along the way and this sections aim is to highlight those that will have significant influence on the design of an ICT classroom. A New Teaching Environment The introduction of ICT into the school curriculum follows a governmental desire to provide its people with an education that goes beyond the traditional practice of memory-based learning with one that encourages creative and critical thinking, skills that are believed to be crucial in meeting the challenges of the 21st century world. In order to achieve this ICT classes must go beyond only teaching students how to use the equipment and must focus on providing their students with the ability to use the technology to generate new learning content. Thus, teachers need a space to work in that goes beyond the traditional classroom setup and that allows them to function in a new information environment that is constantly changing and where there are no one time activities. They need open, flexible, authentic and autonomous learning environments to teach in. Classroom Congestion One challenge faced by schools in Africa that incorporate ICT into their curriculum is overcrowding and congestion, which can result in overheating and teaching difficulties. This is caused by large class sizes (80 students to 1 teacher is not uncommon) and the high ratio of students per computer. In most cases it is not feasible to provide every student with an electronic device and it is important that the design of an ICT classroom accommodates this. Teachers therefore require a space that is flexible enough to accommodate large numbers of students, that allows for splitting them into groups and that allows for ease of movement between working areas. Curriculum | Teaching Methods, Class Hours & Previous Problems The use of computer technology for teaching and learning and the benefits that come with it has been of hot topic in Africa in recent years. This has resulted in a nationwide effort to incorporate the subject of Information Communication and Technology into the school curriculum, with many countries reforming, or planning to reform, their national education policies accommodate this.
  8. 8. Curriculum & Teaching The use of computer technology has allowed the emergence of new methods of teaching, one example being Open Educational Resources (OER). OER’s are learning and teaching materials (including lesson plans) that are free to download and edit and that allow ever-present access to open content and open courses, providing a cheap solution that is easier to distribute than the traditional textbook. The use of e-learning is justified by its ability to provide education anywhere a learner has an electronic device such as a tablet or a mobile phone. Interestingly, they allow their users to create their own courses using text, graphics, quizzes, audio and video. One challenge faced by African governments is the creation of tight relationships between communities and educational institutions. It is feasible to suggest that allowing community wide access to ICT classrooms and their digital content (e.g. OERs) outside school hours could help encourage a sense of ownership and local maintenance of the classroom. It would also satisfy a common complaint shared by students, which is that they are not offered enough time to use the technology due to short class times and the closing of ICT classrooms in the evenings and weekends. The Ghana Education Service is not prepared to pay overtime allowance to ICT instructors, however if it is possible to have a classroom with a 24 hour wireless server, students and community members could take their own devices to it and download learning content wirelessly, without the classroom having to be open at all. Conclusion A new, self contained ICT classroom, which accommodates active learning environments that communities can care for independently, could not come at a better time. By demonstrating a new way to rapidly and affordably deploy and maintain effective flexible IT learning spaces, The ICT Classroom Project is in line with Ghana’s key stated aims for the next 10 years. If the solution can successfully inspire local commercial, governmental and non governmental bodies in Ghana to invest and continue to innovate, the ICT Classroom Project could be a key component of a successful IT training policy for the whole nation. Curriculum | Teaching Methods, Class Hours & Previous Problems E-Learning and the Community 8
  9. 9. 9 Local Architecture | An Overview Local Architecture: An Overview Examples of vernacular architecture in Ghana. Independence Square in Accra, Ghana. Architecture reflects the people. Hence architecture, especially vernacular architecture in Ghana, is based on a dynamic conception. “Every individual had his definite place with the community. Each shared responsibility for all other...” – Udo Kultermann; New Architecture in Africa. Architecture in Ghana today is in variance – on one hand there is the vernacular architecture that is still occupied, while other buildings embrace modern building construction methods. The latter is obvious in the urban regions of Ghana, the capital city of Accra is no less different than other modern cities across the globe.
  10. 10. Contrary to buildings in modern towns, the construction of buildings in rural Ghana are very much influenced by the availability of local materials that varies between different areas of the country. Below is a list and summary of these materials categorised through the building components: Diagram shows wattle and daub construction. • Foundations : i. Stone: commonly constructed with in South Ghana. ii. Mud: rammed raft foundation, laterite soil with aggregate of gravel or sand are commonly used. iii. Clay. • Floor : • Walls : • Roof : i. Mud: Often, the foundation of the building is the floor slab itself, though another layer of mud or sand screed are often used as finishes. Sometimes, mud bricks are used. ii. Clay. A constructed hut finished with palm fronds and roofing from palm leaves. Diagram briefly showing a typical construction with timber. i. Mud: through the Atakpame construction, sun-dried mud blocks, and used in the ‘wattle and daub’ construction. Sometimes, old mud walls are recycled, as in the case in Kasuliyili of the Dagomba Village. ii. Timber/Bamboo : used in timber wall frame/structure ( as in the ‘wattle and daub’ construction.) Split bamboo fronds for a ventilated wall. iii. Palm and coconut trees. Split palm fronds for screen walls. iv. Creepers: to tie horizontal and vertical timber framework together as a joint. v. Plaster, a mixture of cow dung, locust bean pod juices and mud. As the surface dries, it hardens and becomes impervious to water, lending to the smoothness and durability of the wall. i. Mud, used in the construction of flat roofs. ii. Timber/bamboo, to construct roof frame/structures for both gabled and flat roofs. iii. Palm leaves for thatched roofs provide a bigger potential for rainwater harvesting as water runs smoothly off the leaves. Photo of a building constructed with the ‘wattle and daub’ method. Note the finishing effects of an engraved wall. A building in Ghana constructed with bamboo as a facade screen. Bamboo can be found in abundance in the country and it is an excellent source for construction material. Local Architecture | Locally Available Materials & Local Labour 10 Local Architecture: Locally Resourced Building Materials
  11. 11. Local Architecture: Local Labour About 70% of Ghana’s population live in the south, while the remaining 30% live in the more rural north. 50% of the population live in the country’s urban area that are concentrated in the south. As Ghana embraces modernity like any other developing country, conventional building materials for construction are becoming widely available. For example, concrete blocks, insulated concrete formwork (ICF), aluminium window casement, floor tiles and many others. The construction of Ghana’s vernacular architecture involves both men and women in the labour force. The men will mainly be constructing the structural components of the building – the rammed raft foundation (or any specific regional substructure), the superstructure of walls and laying of roofs. Meanwhile, the women tend to the building elements and finishes – weaving for walls or thatched roofs, applying the finished surface, etc. Thus, the construction and maintenance of a locally resourced building is self-sustaining and efficient for the community initiative. In modern day Ghana, local skills and resources are required by the industry of such a developing nation. Carpentry in particular is Ghanaians dominant craftsmenship. This is no surprise as timber and bamboo are abundant in this country because of its position in the tropical monsoon region. Other prominent local craftsmenship consists of blacksmithing and pottery. Thus, utilising these available resources is highly ideal for the ICT classroom project. Carpentry, Ghanaians craftsmenship. A middle class building in Ghana constructed with the conventional (modern) building materials. dominant Local Resources | Locally Available Materials & Local Labour Local Architecture: Modern Building Materials 11
  12. 12. 12 Climate: Climate Profile in Ghana Wa Average temperature: 28.7ºC Total Precipitation: 992 mm Tamale Average temperature: 27.9ºC Total Precipitation: 1082 mm Accra Average temperature: 26.3ºC Total Precipitation: 753 mm Takoradi (ITCZ – SW) Average temperature: 30.5ºC Total Precipitation: 1379 mm Ecological Zones of Ghana. Located in West Africa and along the Guinea Coast between latitudes of 4 an 12º N, the climate in Ghana is tropical – warm and comparatively dry along the south-east coast, hot and humid in south-west while it is hot and dry in the north. Strongly influenced by the West African Monsoon, the rainfall seasons of Ghana are controlled by the movement of the tropical rain belt a.k.a. the Inter-Tropical Conversion Zone (ITCZ), oscillating between the northern and southern tropics annually. Moist air from the Atlantic is predominantly blown from the south-west, but hot and dusty air Elevation Profile of Ghana. from the Sahara desert (a.k.a. Harmattan) is blown from the north-east of the ITCZ. Thus, this pattern of two opposing wind directions is known as the West Arica Monsoon. In northern Ghana, a single wet season occurs between May and November while the period between December and March observes a dry season when the ‘Harmattan’ wind blows north-easterly. Meanwhile, the southern regions of Ghana have two wet seasons – one from March to July, and another from September to November. Climate | Climate Profile in Ghana (Harmattan)
  13. 13. 13 Climate: Climate Data & Analysis Climate | Climatic Data & Analysis Assesment of Passive Methods Outside of Comfort Zone (red) Sun Shading of Windows (2) Natural Ventalation (7) Thermal Massing (3,4) Climate and Comfort Analysis for Accra, Ghana in School Hours. In general, climate is hot and humid. Cooling and dehumidification are definitely required throughout the whole year. Adaptive thermal comfort due to natural ventilation will provide a habitable environment. However, if looking into standard thermal comfort with passive design methods, more consideration is demanded for providing dehumidified and cool air into the building. Moreover, solar radiation is abundant and cloud cover reaches 65% annually. Glare issues should be considered, especially for rooms with computers. Ground Temperature varies from 25 to 27 in a 4 m depth of ground. Research on earth tubes could be conducted since it might be an effective way of providing ventilation, passive cooling and dehumidification. Wind speed is limited - it varies from 2 m/s to 5 m/s throughout the whole year. Overall, even with the application of all passive cooling methods, it may be necessary to apply hybrid mechanical systems.
  14. 14. 14 Technology The dimensions of each solar panel is 1632 x 986 mm with a weight of about 19kg. 6 solar panels will be supplied. Batteries The batteries need to be placed in a well ventilated cool area preferably away from the users as they give off some noxious gases. 5 batteries each weighing 50kg and ~550x200x200mm. Space to adapt must be accommodated for as batteries may change. 22 Inch Aleutia All in One Fanless PC Router The wireless router will allow other electronic devices (phones, tablets, laptops) in the area to connect both to the internet and to an offline database of information stored in the container. This would mean that even in areas of poor connection a wide variety of information including Wikipedia, videos, and educational material could be available to download and be used by everyone. Storage space required for the bank of batteries. ~550x200x200mm Charge Controller This small device regulates the energy from the solar panels and batteries. Ideally it should be wall mounted somewhere safe near the batteries and where the cables for the solar panels enter the box. All the components of the charge contoller can be mounted in about 1000x500mm of wallspace. Computers The container must be designed to fit 10 x Aleutia 22” All in one PC’s. This means the desk space required for each computer has a minimum width of 540mm and a minimum depth of desk space of about 750mm. The computers are fanless and therefore can be placed anywhere, however they will still emit heat when running and will be stationary. The less enclosed the device is the farther it can transmit a signal so looking into an option of an antenna or tower may be feasible. Configuration The classroom can be configured in several different ways, the approach which allows the greatest amount of information sharing is one in which even when the classroom is closed the router and a server remain operational to allow surrounding buildings to connect to the resources. We are still awaiting confirmation on if this would be possible. Another issue to consider is external charging stations which can be accessed even when the building is shut off. This would facilitate the use of the container however it would also use a large amount of the containers stored energy and there for would need to be monitored to avoid overuse and abuse of the service. Technology | Requirements, Dimensions & Usage Stats Solar Panels
  15. 15. 15 Container Transportation As it was the previous primary function of the container, the transportation abilities of the container are excellent. The ample space means that all the necessary technical equipment, as well as all additional building materials can be delivered on site within the single container. It will be important to account for the length limitations in the design so that all elements of the classroom can be disassembled and fit within the transportation space Structure Structurally the container can be viewed as being composed of many smaller components. Simplified there are two main elements - the frame and the panelling. The frame of the container is a simple 12 edged cuboid with the inclusion of more beams across the ground plane to help bare the load inside the container. The panelling is composed of corrugated steal of varying thickness which is placed in between the frame. The composition of the two elements makes a strong ridged structure in which the external frame carries the load while the panelling provides the lateral and horizontal bracing. This reliance on both components means whenever a section of panelling is removed it must be replaced with further bracing as the individual frame is relatively weak and will buckle under load if bracing is not provided. It is helpful to view the structural composition of the container like an I-Beam; the flanges take the load but without the web would bend and snap and without the flanges the web would struggle to take the load. Loading Points on a Standard Container The roofing panels are capable of bearing around 250kg so it is important to make sure that the roof load is transferred down the corner columns. Also due to the bracing nature of the panels it is not advisable that any cuts are made in the panelling within half a meter of the corners. In the selection of the containers it is important to be wary of any extensive rusting of the steel under the paint especially around the frame as this is a serious structural issue and will likely be why the container was retired from use. Shipping Container Assembly Shipping Container | Specifications & Limitations Specifications The use of a building container as the base and the primary shipping method for the ICT classroom has both advantages and disadvantages all of which must be addressed in the design process. The containers selected for this project are a standard Normal Cap 40 ft container (LxWxH 12.1mx2.4mx2.6m) and a 20ft container (LxWxH 6mx2.4mx2.6m) which will be recycled ex-shipping containers.
  16. 16. 16 Design Strategies The structure will operate off-grid and will investigate strategies of an Autonomous House, with the incorporation of photovoltaic panels on the roof. Solar energy reserves will satisfy the needs for lighting and the use of electronic equipment (laptops, tablets) and no energy will be spent for artificial cooling. The container will have the possibility of travelling to different places in the form of a box and then reconfigured on site using the expertise of the local workmanship. However, when placed at its based location it will become permanent and will initiate a further designing and reconfiguration of its adjacent territory. Furthermore, the design will explore further possibilities of the structure been used throughout the day and present a multi-use function by hosting events or community meetings organized in accordance with the needs and aspirations of the residents. With this in mind, the design will offer the possibility of enlarging the footprint of the building by using temporal or removable devices, like a tent-fabric. The final response will be a hybrid structure, combining local materials with the steel frame structure of the container, for the design of a bioclimatic responsive building. The aim of the design is to test concept design using IES simulation technology and investigate the different techniques and methods for achieving thermal comfort within the ICT classroom, located in a tropical climate and without the use of air-condition. Above: Cross ventilation with manually adjustable louvres Above: Summer Cooling System Design Strategies | Passive Cooling Strategies & Hybrid Approach Investigation The design of the ICT classrooms will use the modular steel shape of a shipping container, which will then be clad and reconfigured in order to incorporate passive design strategies of natural ventilation and thermal mass. We feel that the container is an excellent method of reusing an existing structure as well as offering a quick and inexpensive solution to a new building.
  17. 17. 17 Precedents Tsai Design Studios - Vissershok Container Classroom The Vissershok Primary School located at Durbanville valley (on the outskirts in Cape Town) is a rural school dedicated to children of farm workers and underprivileged communities living in Du Noon. The 12-meter recycled container is an independent classroom for 25 students aged 5-6. This case study is analysed for the design’s effectiveness in being minimal yet robust. The internal classroom space is flexible in capacity – desks and chairs are taken out when needed for schooling hours, and they are stored away to create a child-friendly learning corner. Moreover, the connection between the internal space with the external designed spaces is a good example to be taken for the project’s space planning. Tsai Design Studios - Piketberg Sports Centre, South Africa This ‘Sports-In-A-Box’ container scheme is briefly analysed for its recognised sustainability in design, as well as its efficiency as a solution to provide for the demand of a safe and cost effective sports centre. The simplicity of the structure is also noted. Precedents Sean Godsell Architects - Future Shack The Future Shack is a mass produced relocatable house for emergency and relief housing. The study looks into the structure of the design, particularly the parasol roof that is initially packed inside the container and the mobility of the scheme as a whole.
  18. 18. 18 Precedents Precedents Architecture for Humanity - Oguaa Football for Hope Centre, Ghana Similar to the Africa ICT Classroom brief, the Oguaa Football for Hope Centre is a successful design in integrating shipping containers into its scheme. Located in Ghana, the building promotes passive design scheme, cost efficiency and adaptivity of local resources. Two 12-meter long shipping containers were designed to be within an outer ‘shell’ comprising of scaffolding as the structure for the vertical bamboo screenings. The roof seems to be of a light weight structure – scaffolding truss beams, bamboo-strip ceiling, light-weight roofing material and ceiling fans for adequate ventilation. These are some of the aspects analysed for the project and thus the Oguaa Football for Hope Centre is the team’s main precedent study.
  19. 19. Conclusion At the micro scale, the container classroom will help address the challenges of implementing I.C.T. into the curriculum by providing teachers and students with a comfortable, affordable space designed specifically to enhance their teaching and learning experience. The classroom will bring together communities in both urban and rural areas by making use of local materials and labour in the construction process. Access to technology and learning resources will also be made available to members of the community outwith school hours, encouraging further education and benefiting everyone. At the macro scale, the newly designed I.C.T. classroom is to be a symbol of moving forward and expansion by providing the African people with educational tools and skills that will benefit the nations infrastructure and economy as a whole. ESALA Projects is a pro-bono design team, aiming to illustrate through this report the contextual background to Ghana and the resources available for the design of the prototype display classroom, which is planned to be built in the grounds of the Ghanaian House of Parliament in November 2013. We hope that the success of this design venture will enable location-specific versions of this prototype to be distributed across Africa and other countries around the world. We hope that it can help progess infrastructure and in doing so, provide more children and communities access to affordable information and provide a solution for universal, innovative teaching spaces for international developing nations. ESALA Projects Team Alia Aida, Timilehin Fagbemi, Jonathan Lynn, Shaun McLeod, Suzanne Priestley, Feng Qui and Tanya Saroglou. Team Co-ordinator: Ola Uduku Conclusion It is the intention of this research summary and the topics addressed within it to have made clear the major factors that will influence the final outcome of the I.C.T. Classrooms Project. 19
  20. 20. D esign P roposals S ummar y ICT Classrooms Project ESALA Projects 16-09-2013
  21. 21. Furniture Proposal The design of the classroom’s furniture requires the consideration of a few key areas: - - - - Variation in terms of use of the space The different users of the space Potential class sizes & curricular requirements Working environment created Following the suggestion of mounting the computers on “arms”, we began to explore the notion of an adaptable space that could be facilitated by movable furniture. By mounting the computers to central poles we can allow them to move without risking their security or safety. This concept is also advantageous as it allows the classroom to be safely locked at night. The proposed furniture design involves a basic circular configuration, which would be orientated around the central computer poles. Additional desks, which can be stored neatly underneath the main tables could then be freely movable. These additional desks could also be used to adapt the layout of working space facilitating, individual, small group, large group and presentation work. This will also enable all of the furniture and computers to remain safely inside the locked container when the classroom is closed.
  22. 22. P roposal 40ft Container The most prominent feature of our proposal is the folding wall on the front elevation, which once opened out will form the floor plate of the classroom. This will not only increase the floor area but will also provide a base for the rest of the structure. The supporting structure for the roof is metal scaffold, which offers a simple assembly and is a cost effective option for structure. Where possible this structure will also be able to clip onto the container, minimising the need for further foundations. Following the revision of our initial concept we have also altered the roof form to improve the maximum yield of the solar panels. We have also adapted the layout to allow for a single security shutter, which will isolate the container safely, making it a secure space at night. Our aim throughout the project was to provide a space which can be cooled using only passive strategies. As cross ventilation has been calculated to be the most effective method of doing so, we have been careful to maximise airflow wherever possible. To enable this, the design features a large window in the back wall with operable louvers as well as an open front elevation. The inclusion of a generous overhanging roof on all sides provides solar shading for the windows and openings. This is another popular technique commonly used 1
  23. 23. Roof Panels Scaffold Structure 40ft Container Bamboo Cladding Folding Container Wall Foundation Operable Louvers
  24. 24. Sun Study | Summer 9am 12 pm 4pm NOTe: During summer sun rays are verticle and the roof overhang, in combination with the application of bamboo on the elevation, is sufficient to successfully shade the container.
  25. 25. Sun Study | Winter 9am 12 pm 4pm Note: During the winter the sun angle is low in the sky, entering the building and increasing the thermal properties of the front of the container.
  26. 26. Weather conditions analysis | Rain PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT SHUTTERS FIXED IN THE FRONT ELEVATION CLOSING FOR PLASTIC CURTAIN TO SEAL INTERNAL ELEVATIONS DURING RAIN BAMBOO LOGS PROVIDE MODERATE RAIN SHELTER MANUALLY MOVABLE BLINDS CAN CLOSE TO PROVIDE PROTECTION FROM WIND AND RAIN CONTAINER LIFTED FROM GROUND LEVEL 500 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 1m ROOF OVERHANG PROVIDING PROTECTION FOR WIND AND RAIN PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 1000
  27. 27. P roposal 2x20ft Containers Using a similar concept to our initial proposal, this design features two 20ft containers placed opposite each other, both with a folding front elevation. As is with the proposal for the 40ft container, the additional scaffold structure can also be assembled on site with the floor plate providing a base. The use of spaced bamboo cladding and large open windows with operable louvers allows cross ventilation to act as the primary cooling method. Rolling shutters attached to each crate will provide the necessary security for each container to be totally isolated when necessary. The roof form is a closer design to the initial concept and includes an opening at the top to allow for any stack ventilation that may occur. The pitch of the roof also offers an optimum angle for the solar panels that would be mounted on top. 2
  28. 28. Opening in Roof Roof Panels Scaffold Structure Operable Bamboo Louvers 20ft Container Bamboo Cladding Foundation
  29. 29. Sun Study | Summer 9am 12 pm 4pm
  30. 30. Sun Study | Winter 9am 12 pm 4pm
  31. 31. IC T CLASSROOMS PROJEC T ESALA Projects 6/10/2013
  32. 32. C ontents Lighting Consultation Sun Study Site Strategy Page 37 Page 38 Page 40 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Day-time Visualisation Night-time Visualisation Site Plan Layout Diagrams Section on AA Section on BB Assembly Diagram Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Furniture Examples Page 58 Technical Information Page 59 Credits Page 67 Proposal 1 Day-time Visualisation Night-time Visualisation Site Plan Layout Diagrams Section on AA Front Elevation Section on BB Assembly Diagram Proposal 2
  33. 33. 37 Diagram showing a comparison between original design and the implementation of louvred light shelves. onsultation - Enlargement of louvres (See fig. 1) By enlarging the louvres and painting them white or cream, they will be able to act as a light shelf, maximising the amount of daylight inside the container. Fig. 1 ighting C Following our meeting with Gillian Treacy, a lighting specialist from Edinburgh University, we have been able to more fully assess the lighting conditions inside our intended designs. We have concluded that some small alterations to the design must be made to improve our utilisation of daylight while also minimising the solar exposure to the containers. The following adaptations are: L Lighting Consultation Summary - Alteration to the height of window By extending the window to the top of the container roof we can allow more natural light into the container - Colour of the underside of roof Painting the underside of the roof a light colour such as white or cream will allow day light to be reflected to the inside of the container. Through investigating methods of artificial lighting required for the evening use of the containers we have found that warm LED strip lighting would be the most advantageous solution. We would also like to propose a type of operable casing for the LED lighting which could allow the direction of the light to be adjusted depending on the users needs. For example the light could be used to specifically light the roof or walls to create more ambient lighting within the space, or alternatively it could be directed downwards during times of work or study. We have also considered the possibility of task lighting which could be implemented by the inclusion of smaller LED lights fixed to the desks or poles. This would improve visibility for key boards during times of lower light levels inside the containers. There is also the possibility of incorporating rechargeable battery operated solar lights which could be fully moveable and taken to any part of the container by the user depending on their specific requirements. Gillian has also recommended a couple of specialist lighting companies who may be able to provide additional information: - Mike Stoane Lighting: http://www.mikestoanelighting.com/ - ACDC Lighting: http://www.acdclighting.co.uk/ Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Warm LED strip lighting is recommended as the primary artificial lighting option. An example of possible LED task Lighting which could be desk and pole mounted.
  34. 34. 38 Accra, Ghana S Ghana Accra lat. 5.6 degrees un P ath S Insolation: 21st December time : 12:00 time : 16:00 tud y | 40ft C time : 09:00 ontainer Insolation: 21st June time : 09:00 time : 12:00 time : 16:00
  35. 35. 39 Insolation: 21st December time : 12:00 time : 09:00 time : 12:00 time : 16:00 Insolation: 21st June The study reveals that 2x20 and 40 feet containers are protected from solar exposure both during winter and summer months. Furthermore, sun rays are almost vertical during the day throughout the year. As a result photovoltaic panels on roof structure will have more or less optimum performance regardless of orientation as long as roof angle does not exceed 10 degrees. time : 16:00 Sun Path Study | 2x20ft Container time : 09:00
  36. 36. 40 S ite S NE trateg y Hot & Dusty Air From Sahara North East planting of mixed vegetation to reduce the impact of hot and dusty air from the Sahara. Bamboo when grown sufficiently may be used for replacing damaged bamboo on the structure SW Atlantic Ocean Breeze Moist Air from the Atlantic Ocean coming from the South - West will advance natural ventilation strategies within the containers and cool down the interiors. N
  37. 37. P roposal 1 40ft Container
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  40. 40. 44 S ite P lan | S cale 1:50 N
  41. 41. 45 45 Lay NTS out D Flexible Working iagrams | 40ft C ontainer Full Capacity Use NTS Community Use NTS
  42. 42. 46 D iagrammatic S ection on A A | S Storage space for batteries with a perforated back for ventilation Fixed power outlets Storage space for table legs Gantry cale 1:50 Cupboard for desk-mounted computers Cupboard for pole-mounted computers Storage for table tops A A
  43. 43. 47 F ront E levation | S cale 1:50
  44. 44. 48 S ection on B B | S cale 1:50 B B
  45. 45. 49 49 S equence of A ssembly | 40ft C ontainer 1. Container is lifted onto foundations 2. Openings are created, wall folds down to create floor plate 3. Primary structure 4. Bamboo cladding 5. Louvres 6. Roof
  46. 46. P roposal 2 2 x 20ft Containers
  47. 47. 51
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  49. 49. 53 S ite plan | S cale 1:50 N
  50. 50. 54 Lay out D iagrams | 2x20ft C ontainer Flexible Working NTS Full Capacity Use NTS Community Use NTS
  51. 51. 55 S ection on A A | S cale 1:50 A A
  52. 52. 56 S ection on B B | S cale 1:50 B B
  53. 53. 57 S Similar to the diagrams of the 40ft container, the following images show the sequence of assembly 2x20ft containers While we have focused on these solutions, it is possible that the footprint of the structure could be reduced or extended via a single 20ft container or a 2x40ft option, depending on the needs of the community. equence of A ssembly| 2x20 ft C ontainer 1. Containers are lifted onto foundations 2. Openings are created, wall folds down to create floor plate 3. Primary structure 4. Bamboo cladding 5. Louvres 6. Roof
  54. 54. 58 F Main concept for furniture featuring computers mounted to metal poles, which are attached to a gantry system. Steel gantry system is to be attached to the roof of the container with a supporting framework. urniture E x Option A: Example sourced from Rhubarb Solutions amples Line of Movement Option B: Example sourced from Sung Jang Laboratory Removable table legs made from maple.
  55. 55. PLAN OF 40 Feet CONTAINER scale 1:50 WINDOWS ON BACK ELEVATION WITH MANUALLY MOVABLE LOUVERS FOR ADVANCING NATURAL VENTILATION 5 x BATTERIES LOCATED IN CENTRAL BACK WALL FURNITURE WITH PERFORATED BACK SIDE FOR EXHAUSTION OF FUMES BACK WALL FURNITURE FOR STORING TABLE TOPS AND REMOVABLE TABLE LEGS B 12000 10350 LINE OF ROOF EXTENSION A 2510 A COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED AROUND METAL POLES. THE POLES ARE ATTACHED ONTO A ROOF GUN RAIL SYSTEM FOR MOVING WITHIN THE SPACE. COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED ONTO FREE STANDING TABLES HORIZONTAL BAMBOO LOGS FIXED ONTO BAMBOO FRAME. BAMBOO APPLICATION IS DENSER ON THE LOWER AND UPPER AREAS OF THE ELEVATIONS FOR ADVANCE PROTECTION FROM WEATHER. IN THE MIDDLE PART THE BAMBOO ARE SPREAD MORE WIDELY ALLOWING FOR MORE NATURAL LIGHT WITHIN THE INTERIOR 2400 10000 B PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 10 m. WIDE STANDARD SIZE PERFORATED SHUTTER FIXED IN THE CONTAINER FRONT FOR SECURITY PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 59 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  56. 56. 40 Feet CONTAINER OCCUPATION LAYOUT 60 Flexible layout Classroom layout Community layout PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  57. 57. 40 Feet CONTAINER scale 1:50 1700 HORIZONTAL BAMBOO LOGS FIXED ONTO BAMBOO FRAME. BAMBOO APPLICATION IS DENSER ON THE LOWER AND UPPER AREAS OF THE ELEVATIONS FOR ADVANCE PROTECTION FROM WEATHER. IN THE MIDDLE PART THE BAMBOO ARE SPREAD MORE WIDELY ALLOWING FOR MORE NATURAL LIGHT WITHIN THE INTERIOR 750 500 700 2800 WINDOWS ON BACK ELEVATION WITH MANUALLY MOVABLE LOUVERS FOR ADVANCING NATURAL VENTILATION 2133 2133 1000 2133 2133 2133 12000 1000 Front Elevation Door end of shipping container. COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED AROUND METAL POLES. THE POLES ARE ATTACHED ONTO A ROOF GUN RAIL SYSTEM FOR MOVING WITHIN THE SPACE. 1650 2800 WINDOWS ON BACK ELEVATION WITH MANUALLY MOVABLE LOUVERS FOR ADVANCING NATURAL VENTILATION 5 x BATTERIES LOCATED IN CENTRAL BACK WALL FURNITURE WITH PERFORATED BACK SIDE FOR EXHAUSTION OF FUMES BACK WALL FURNITURE FOR STORING TABLE TOPS AND REMOVABLE TABLE LEGS COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED ONTO FREE STANDING TABLES 750 500 750 4 No. POWER OUTLETS FOR CONNECTING MOVABLE COMPUTER TABLES AND POLES WITHIN THE INTERIOR 705 1000 1545 3280 700 12000 3280 1545 705 1000 Section A-A PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 61 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  58. 58. 62 40 Feet CONTAINER Section B-B with Cross Ventilation Strategies scale 1:25 6 x PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS ANCHORED 10 meter WIDE STANDARD SIZE SHUTTER FIXED IN THE CONTAINER FRONT FOR SECURITY HORIZONTAL BAMBOO LOGS FIXED ONTO BAMBOO FRAME. BAMBOO APPLICATION IS DENSER ON THE LOWER AND UPPER AREAS OF THE ELEVATIONS FOR ADVANCE PROTECTION FROM WEATHER. IN THE MIDDLE PART THE BAMBOO ARE SPREAD MORE WIDELY ALLOWING FOR MORE NATURAL LIGHT WITHIN THE INTERIOR LOCATION OF GUN RAIL FOR ADJUSTING  COMPUTER POLES WITHIN CONTAINER CUPBOARD FOR STORING MOVABLE METAL POLES  COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED AROUND METAL POLES   FURNITURE FOR STORING TABLE TOPS NEW FLOOR FINISH FOR LEVELING INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR FLOOR HEIGHT    PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT  WINDOWS ON BACK ELEVATION WITH MANUALLY MOVABLE BLINDS FOR ADVANCING NATURAL VENTILATION PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT ONTO THE ROOF OF THE CONTAINER  PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  59. 59. PLAN OF 2 x 20 Feet CONTAINER scale 1:50 A 6000 4500 COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED AROUND METAL POLES. THE POLES ARE ATTACHED ONTO A ROOF GUN RAIL SYSTEM FOR MOVING WITHIN THE SPACE. 2 x BATTERIES LOCATED IN BACK WALL FURNITURE WITH PERFORATED BACK SIDE FOR EXHAUSTION OF FUMES COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED ONTO FREE STANDING TABLES 4500 HORIZONTAL BAMBOO LOGS FIXED ONTO BAMBOO FRAME. BAMBOO APPLICATION IS DENSER ON THE LOWER AND UPPER AREAS OF THE ELEVATIONS FOR ADVANCE PROTECTION FROM WEATHER. IN THE MIDDLE PART THE BAMBOO ARE SPREAD MORE WIDELY ALLOWING FOR MORE NATURAL LIGHT WITHIN THE INTERIOR 4800 2400 4.5 m. WIDE SHUTTERS FIXED IN THE FRONT ELEVATION FOR SECURITY B 2400 B 3 x BATTERIES LOCATED IN BACK WALL FURNITURE WITH PERFORATED BACK SIDE FOR EXHAUSTION OF FUMES COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED ONTO FREE STANDING TABLES BACK WALL FURNITURE FOR STORING TABLE TOPS AND REMOVABLE TABLE LEGS. FURNITURE INCORPORATES 2 No. POWER OUTLETS COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED AROUND METAL POLES. THE POLES ARE ATTACHED ONTO A ROOF GUN RAIL SYSTEM FOR MOVING WITHIN THE SPACE. 4500 6000 A PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 63 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  60. 60. 64 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 2 x 20 Feet CONTAINER OCCUPATION LAYOUT Classroom layout Community layout PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT Flexible layout PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  61. 61. 2 x 20 Feet CONTAINER Section B -B scale 1:25 HORIZONTAL BAMBOO LOGS FIXED ONTO BAMBOO FRAME. BAMBOO APPLICATION IS DENSER ON THE LOWER AND UPPER AREAS OF THE ELEVATIONS FOR ADVANCE PROTECTION FROM WEATHER. IN THE MIDDLE PART THE BAMBOO ARE SPREAD MORE WIDELY ALLOWING FOR MORE NATURAL LIGHT WITHIN THE INTERIOR    PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT WINDOWS ON SIDE ELEVATION WITH MANUALLY MOVABLE LOUVERS FOR ADVANCING NATURAL VENTILATION     SITTING BENCH ON WEST SIDE FOR CASUAL WAITING AND CONVERSATIONS PREFABRICATED METALLIC STEPS   PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 65 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  62. 62. 2 x 20 Feet CONTAINER SECTION A - A with cross & stack ventilation SCALE 1:50 5° 3 x PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS ANCHORED ONTO THE ROOF OF THE CONTAINER 500 0.5 M. MINIMUM DISTANCE FOR CUTTING AWAY PARTS OF THE CONTAINER 750 700 2880 500 4.5 m. WIDE SHUTTERS FIXED IN THE FRONT ELEVATION FOR SECURITY COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED AROUND METAL POLES WINDOWS ON SIDE ELEVATION WITH MANUALLY MOVABLE LOUVERS FOR ADVANCING NATURAL VENTILATION COMPUTERS FIXED ONTO MOVABLE ARMS ANCHORED ONTO FREE STANDING TABLES NEW FLOOR FINISH FOR LEVELING INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR FLOOR HEIGHT 2400 1000 2400 9720 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 1700 CUPBOARD FOR STORING COMPUTERS 1000 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 3 x PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS ANCHORED ONTO THE ROOF OF THE CONTAINER 10° PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 66 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
  63. 63. ESALA Project Team Alia Aida Jonathan Lynn Shaun McLeod Suzanne Priestley Tanya Saroglou Feng Qui Team Co-ordinator: Dr Ola Uduku

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