Emotional
Argumentation
Three strategies
Appeals to
Emotion
Rhetorical
Figures
Framing
Rhetorical Figures
	

 1.	

Repetition Figures
	

 2.	

Contrast and Parallelism
	

 3.	

Amplification
	

 4.	

Disruption...
REPETITION FIGURES
Alliteration
"Somewhere at this very moment a child is
being born in America. Let it be our cause
to give that child a hap...
Anaphora
Repeating the first word
With malice toward none;
with charity for all;
with firmness in the right,...
— Abraham Li...
Anadiplosis
Repeating the last part and the first part
"Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger.
Anger leads...
Epistrophe
Repeating the last word
"Don't you ever talk about my friends!
You don't know any of my friends. You
don't look...
Epizeuxis
Three words in a row:
Words, words, words!
--Hamlet
Repetition Figures
Polysyndeton/Asyndeton
More Conjunctions/No Conjunctions
"He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, a
maniac."
...
Symploce
Repeating the first and last words
"Much of what I say might sound bitter, but it's the
truth. Much of what I say ...
contrast and
parallelism
Antithesis
Balanced opposites
"I would rather be ashes than dust! I would rather that
my spark should burn out in a brilli...
antonomasia
Changing the Name
When you’re talking about rock ‘n roll, everything
begins with The King.
diazeugma
Clusters of verbs following one subject
"Swallows dart, dip, dive, swiftly pluck perching
insects from slow movi...
Isolcolon
Items in a series are equal in length and form
"Nothing that's beautiful hides its face.
Nothing that's honest h...
Paranomasia
Puns
"I have a mind to join a club and beat you over the head
with it."
(Groucho Marx)
Tricolon
Three items in a series
"You are talking to a man who has laughed in the face
of death, sneered at doom, and chuc...
Tricolon
Three items in a series
"I require three things in a man. He must be handsome,
ruthless, and stupid."
(Dorothy Pa...
Zeugma
The Yoking Figure--literal and figurative
Your phone is off the hook, but you're not.
Zeugma
The Yoking Figure--literal and figurative
My teeth and ambitions are bared; be
prepared! - Scar, from The Lion King
disruption
Aporia
Real or pretended uncertainty
“Well, Mrs. Jones, I know there must be a simple
explanation, but what I don’t unders...
Apoplanesis
Digressing or Evading
You’ve asked me to elaborate on my health care policy,
and I will. These questions are g...
aposiopesis
Pretending to be unable to speak
"Almira Gulch, just because you own half the county
doesn't mean that you hav...
Chiasmus
The X-figure
"I had a teacher I liked who used to say good fiction's
job was to comfort the disturbed and
disturb t...
tmesis
Inserting words inside other words
"I don't like tmesis; it's abso-bloody-lutely ri-flipping-
diculous."
ARGUMENT
Apodioxis
Your argument is ridiculous
"Then there's the disease excuse.
"It goes like this: Drug addiction is a disease, s...
Concessio
At least one part of your argument has merit
"It has been said that Rowcliff is handsome, and I'll
concede that ...
enumeratio
The listing or detailing of the parts
Kramer: "Who's gonna turn down a Junior Mint? It's
chocolate; it's pepper...
horismus
Offering a definition often by making a distinction
between two things
“Management is doing things right; leadersh...
metanoia/correctio
Changing your mind (or pretending to) in the middle of
your argument
Fido was the friendliest of all St...
Address
Anamnesis
Recalling
Was it not Socrates who said the unexamined life is not
worth living?
Apostrophe
Directly speaking to a person or figure
Hello, Darkness, my old friend. I’ve come to talk with
you again.
--Simo...
argumentum ad populum
Arguing that popularity is
on your side
comprobatio
Flattering your audience
Can I say how lovely this audience looks
this evening? Give yourselves a hand! You
de...
epiplexis
Rhetorical questions designed to hurt
"Let us not assassinate this lad further,
Senator. You have done enough. H...
erotema
Rhetorical
questions
Paralipsis
Ironic Denial
"Let's pass swiftly over the vicar's predilection for
cream cakes. Let's not dwell on his fetish ...
Paraprosdokian
Surprising Ending
Metaphor
An idea is a feat of
association, and the
height of it is a good
metaphor.
Robert Frost
Humor
"Cigarettes are like
hamsters. Perfectly
harmless until you
put one in your
mouth and light it"
Framing
George Lakoff
The Conceptual
Metaphor
Argument is a
WAR
She shot down
my arguments.
He won the argument
Her criticisms
were right on
tar...
The Conceptual
Metaphor
Social
organizations
are plants
The math club withered after
Mindy left.
We need to let
our school...
The Conceptual
Metaphor
Life is a Journey
The Conceptual
Metaphor
Democrats = Mom
Republicans = Dad
George Lakoff
Frank Luntz
Word
Associations
Government vs.Washington
Tax Cuts vs.Tax Relief
Inheritance Tax vs. Death Tax
Undocumented Workers vs. Illegal
Aliens
Dril...
Imagine
Hastle-free
Lifestyle
Results
Can-Do spirit
Innovation
Renew
Efficiency
The Right to...
Words that
work
Appeals to Emotion
fear
If you don’t graduate from high school, you
will end up a ditchdigger.
Appeals to pity
"Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, look at
this miserable man, in a wheelchair, unable to
use his legs. Co...
Appeal to ridicule
Oh sure! Of course, evolution makes sense!
It’s perfectly obvious that people are related
to gorillas!
Appeal to
consequences
"Free will must exist: if it didn't, we would all
be machines."
Appeal to flattery
Honors students such as yourselves are too
smart to be fooled by companies like Jostens
that try to sell...
Appeal to spite
"Stop recycling! Aren't you tired of
Hollywood celebrities preaching to
everyone about saving the Earth?"
Appeal to popular
sentiment
Emotional argumentation3
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Emotional argumentation3

  1. 1. Emotional Argumentation
  2. 2. Three strategies Appeals to Emotion Rhetorical Figures Framing
  3. 3. Rhetorical Figures 1. Repetition Figures 2. Contrast and Parallelism 3. Amplification 4. Disruption 5. Argument 6. Address
  4. 4. REPETITION FIGURES
  5. 5. Alliteration "Somewhere at this very moment a child is being born in America. Let it be our cause to give that child a happy home, a healthy family, and a hopeful future." -- Bill Clinton, 1992 Democratic National Convention Acceptance Address Repetition Figures
  6. 6. Anaphora Repeating the first word With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right,... — Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address Repetition Figures
  7. 7. Anadiplosis Repeating the last part and the first part "Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering. I sense much fear in you." (Yoda in Star Wars Episode 1: The Phantom Menance) Repetition Figures
  8. 8. Epistrophe Repeating the last word "Don't you ever talk about my friends! You don't know any of my friends. You don't look at any of my friends. And you certainly wouldn't condescend to speak to any of my friends." (Judd Nelson in The Breakfast Club) Repetition Figures
  9. 9. Epizeuxis Three words in a row: Words, words, words! --Hamlet Repetition Figures
  10. 10. Polysyndeton/Asyndeton More Conjunctions/No Conjunctions "He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, a maniac." (Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957) "[I]t is respectable to have no illusions--and safe--and profitable--and dull." (Joseph Conrad, Lord Jim, 1900)
  11. 11. Symploce Repeating the first and last words "Much of what I say might sound bitter, but it's the truth. Much of what I say might sound like it's stirring up trouble, but it's the truth. Much of what I say might sound like it is hate, but it's the truth." -- Malcolm X Repetition Figures
  12. 12. contrast and parallelism
  13. 13. Antithesis Balanced opposites "I would rather be ashes than dust! I would rather that my spark should burn out in a brilliant blaze than it should be stifled by dryrot. I would rather be a superb meteor, every atom of me in magnificent glow, than a sleepy and permanent planet. The proper function of man is to live, not to exist. I shall not waste my days in trying to prolong them. I shall use my time." (Jack London)
  14. 14. antonomasia Changing the Name When you’re talking about rock ‘n roll, everything begins with The King.
  15. 15. diazeugma Clusters of verbs following one subject "Swallows dart, dip, dive, swiftly pluck perching insects from slow moving current." (Robert Watts Handy, River Raft Pack of Weeping Water Flat. Writer's Showcase, 2001)
  16. 16. Isolcolon Items in a series are equal in length and form "Nothing that's beautiful hides its face. Nothing that's honest hides its name." (Orual in Till We Have Faces: A Myth Retold by C.S. Lewis. Geoffrey Bles, 1956)
  17. 17. Paranomasia Puns "I have a mind to join a club and beat you over the head with it." (Groucho Marx)
  18. 18. Tricolon Three items in a series "You are talking to a man who has laughed in the face of death, sneered at doom, and chuckled at catastrophe." (The Wizard in The Wizard of Oz, 1939)
  19. 19. Tricolon Three items in a series "I require three things in a man. He must be handsome, ruthless, and stupid." (Dorothy Parker)
  20. 20. Zeugma The Yoking Figure--literal and figurative Your phone is off the hook, but you're not.
  21. 21. Zeugma The Yoking Figure--literal and figurative My teeth and ambitions are bared; be prepared! - Scar, from The Lion King
  22. 22. disruption
  23. 23. Aporia Real or pretended uncertainty “Well, Mrs. Jones, I know there must be a simple explanation, but what I don’t understand is how you said you were home alone and had no visitors all day but the radiator of your car was still hot when I got here at 3 PM today. I’m sure you can explain that and there’s just one more thing, Mrs. Jones . . . .”.
  24. 24. Apoplanesis Digressing or Evading You’ve asked me to elaborate on my health care policy, and I will. These questions are good questions and our face-to-face engagement of these pressing issues is one of the best ways to sort out our differences and provide people with a clear-cut avenue of choice. Making choices and  . .(continues until audience falls asleep)
  25. 25. aposiopesis Pretending to be unable to speak "Almira Gulch, just because you own half the county doesn't mean that you have the power to run the rest of us. For 23 years I've been dying to tell you what I thought of you! And now--well, being a Christian woman, I can't say it!" (Auntie Em in The Wizard of Oz, 1939)
  26. 26. Chiasmus The X-figure "I had a teacher I liked who used to say good fiction's job was to comfort the disturbed and disturb the comfortable." (David Foster Wallace)
  27. 27. tmesis Inserting words inside other words "I don't like tmesis; it's abso-bloody-lutely ri-flipping- diculous."
  28. 28. ARGUMENT
  29. 29. Apodioxis Your argument is ridiculous "Then there's the disease excuse. "It goes like this: Drug addiction is a disease, so society has no right to punish addicts for their illness. Well, this kind of ridiculous argument makes me ill. We need to stop feeling sorry for people who careen out control, and begin to impose sanctions on them." (Bill O'Reilly)
  30. 30. Concessio At least one part of your argument has merit "It has been said that Rowcliff is handsome, and I'll concede that his six feet of meat is distributed well enough, but his face reminds me of a camel with a built-in sneer." (Rex Stout, Please Pass the Guilt, 1973)
  31. 31. enumeratio The listing or detailing of the parts Kramer: "Who's gonna turn down a Junior Mint? It's chocolate; it's peppermint; it's delicious." Seinfeld: "That's true." Kramer: "It's very refreshing!"
  32. 32. horismus Offering a definition often by making a distinction between two things “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.” -- Peter Drucker
  33. 33. metanoia/correctio Changing your mind (or pretending to) in the middle of your argument Fido was the friendliest of all St. Bernards, nay of all dogs. or Fido was the friendliest dog in the world, or at least in my neighborhood.
  34. 34. Address
  35. 35. Anamnesis Recalling Was it not Socrates who said the unexamined life is not worth living?
  36. 36. Apostrophe Directly speaking to a person or figure Hello, Darkness, my old friend. I’ve come to talk with you again. --Simon and Garfunkle
  37. 37. argumentum ad populum Arguing that popularity is on your side
  38. 38. comprobatio Flattering your audience Can I say how lovely this audience looks this evening? Give yourselves a hand! You deserve it!
  39. 39. epiplexis Rhetorical questions designed to hurt "Let us not assassinate this lad further, Senator. You have done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?" (Joseph Welch to Senator Joseph McCarthy, June 9, 1954)
  40. 40. erotema Rhetorical questions
  41. 41. Paralipsis Ironic Denial "Let's pass swiftly over the vicar's predilection for cream cakes. Let's not dwell on his fetish for Dolly Mixture. Let's not even mention his rapidly increasing girth. No, no--let us instead turn directly to his recent work on self-control and abstinence." (Tom Coates, Plasticbag.org, Apr. 5, 2003)
  42. 42. Paraprosdokian Surprising Ending
  43. 43. Metaphor
  44. 44. An idea is a feat of association, and the height of it is a good metaphor. Robert Frost
  45. 45. Humor
  46. 46. "Cigarettes are like hamsters. Perfectly harmless until you put one in your mouth and light it"
  47. 47. Framing
  48. 48. George Lakoff
  49. 49. The Conceptual Metaphor Argument is a WAR She shot down my arguments. He won the argument Her criticisms were right on target.
  50. 50. The Conceptual Metaphor Social organizations are plants The math club withered after Mindy left. We need to let our school grow. Soccer associations sprouted up all over Boston.
  51. 51. The Conceptual Metaphor Life is a Journey
  52. 52. The Conceptual Metaphor Democrats = Mom Republicans = Dad
  53. 53. George Lakoff Frank Luntz Word Associations
  54. 54. Government vs.Washington Tax Cuts vs.Tax Relief Inheritance Tax vs. Death Tax Undocumented Workers vs. Illegal Aliens Drilling for oil vs. Exploring for Energy
  55. 55. Imagine Hastle-free Lifestyle Results Can-Do spirit Innovation Renew Efficiency The Right to... Words that work
  56. 56. Appeals to Emotion
  57. 57. fear If you don’t graduate from high school, you will end up a ditchdigger.
  58. 58. Appeals to pity "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, look at this miserable man, in a wheelchair, unable to use his legs. Could such a man really be guilty of embezzlement?"
  59. 59. Appeal to ridicule Oh sure! Of course, evolution makes sense! It’s perfectly obvious that people are related to gorillas!
  60. 60. Appeal to consequences "Free will must exist: if it didn't, we would all be machines."
  61. 61. Appeal to flattery Honors students such as yourselves are too smart to be fooled by companies like Jostens that try to sell you ovepriced junk.
  62. 62. Appeal to spite "Stop recycling! Aren't you tired of Hollywood celebrities preaching to everyone about saving the Earth?"
  63. 63. Appeal to popular sentiment

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