Emotional argumentation2


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Emotional argumentation2

  1. 1. Emotional Argumentation
  2. 2. Three strategies Appeals to Emotion through word choice Rhetorical Figures Framing
  3. 3. Framing
  4. 4. Imagine…you want to convince an audience to support tougher sentence for people who write graffiti on public buildings.
  5. 5. Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 People who sprawl graffiti on the walls of our elementary schools and courtrooms are the worst terrorists.They intimidate law- abiding people and make our streets war zones of profanity and indecency. Graffiti artists are the unsung creative heroes of our society. In a world where so many poor and disadvantaged people are not able to make their voices known, graffiti provides an artistic medium for their perspective. Graffiti on public walls are the cracks in the dam that responsible societies patch up before those cracks become holes and eventually complete breaches —flooding the entire city with a wave of lawlessness.
  6. 6. Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Graffiti writers are terrorists. Graffiti writers are artists. Graffiti is a crack in the infrastructure.
  7. 7. Always ask: WHAT is being compared to What? Why? What characteristics does the writer want the frame to borrow? Which to avoid?
  8. 8. George Lakoff
  9. 9. Metaphor
  10. 10. "Cigarettes are like hamsters. Perfectly harmless until you put one in your mouth and light it"
  11. 11. The Conceptual Metaphor Argument is a WAR She shot down my arguments. He won the argument Her criticisms were right on target.
  12. 12. The Conceptual Metaphor Social organizations are plants The math club withered after Mindy left. We need to let our school grow. Soccer associations sprouted up all over Boston.
  13. 13. The Conceptual Metaphor Life is a Journey
  14. 14. The Conceptual Metaphor Democrats = Mom Republicans = Dad
  15. 15. Bunny Rabbit Words Matter
  16. 16. George Lakoff Frank Luntz Word Associations
  17. 17. Bureaucrats Tax Relief Inheritance Tax Government takeover Exploring for Energy Small business owners Tax Cuts Government- run Death Tax Drilling for oil -vs- -vs- -vs- -vs- -vs-
  18. 18. Imagine Hastle-free Lifestyle Results Can-Do spirit Innovation Renew Efficiency The Right to... Words that work
  19. 19. Frame the situation: Teenagers Trick or Treating Both Pro and Con
  21. 21. Alliteration "Somewhere at this very moment a child is being born in America. Let it be our cause to give that child a happy home, a healthy family, and a hopeful future." -- Bill Clinton, 1992 Democratic National Convention Acceptance Address Repetition Figures
  22. 22. Anaphora Repeating the first word With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right,... — Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address Repetition Figures
  23. 23. Anadiplosis Repeating the last part and the first part "Fear is the path to the dark side. Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering. I sense much fear in you." (Yoda in Star Wars Episode 1: The Phantom Menance) Repetition Figures
  24. 24. Epistrophe Repeating the last word "Don't you ever talk about my friends! You don't know any of my friends. You don't look at any of my friends. And you certainly wouldn't condescend to speak to any of my friends." (Judd Nelson in The Breakfast Club) Repetition Figures
  25. 25. Polysyndeton/Asyndeton More Conjunctions/No Conjunctions "He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, a maniac." (Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957) "[I]t is respectable to have no illusions--and safe--and profitable--and dull." (Joseph Conrad, Lord Jim, 1900)
  26. 26. Symploce Repeating the first and last words "Much of what I say might sound bitter, but it's the truth. Much of what I say might sound like it's stirring up trouble, but it's the truth. Much of what I say might sound like it is hate, but it's the truth." -- Malcolm X Repetition Figures
  27. 27. contrast and parallelism
  28. 28. Antithesis Balanced opposites "I would rather be ashes than dust! I would rather that my spark should burn out in a brilliant blaze than it should be stifled by dryrot. I would rather be a superb meteor, every atom of me in magnificent glow, than a sleepy and permanent planet. The proper function of man is to live, not to exist. I shall not waste my days in trying to prolong them. I shall use my time." (Jack London)
  29. 29. Tricolon Three items in a series "You are talking to a man who has laughed in the face of death, sneered at doom, and chuckled at catastrophe." (The Wizard in The Wizard of Oz, 1939)
  30. 30. Tricolon Three items in a series "I require three things in a man. He must be handsome, ruthless, and stupid." (Dorothy Parker)
  31. 31. Chiasmus The X-figure "I had a teacher I liked who used to say good fiction's job was to comfort the disturbed and disturb the comfortable." (David Foster Wallace)
  32. 32. Appeals to Emotion
  33. 33. Positive vs. Negative
  34. 34. Positive vs. Negative = Hope Fear
  35. 35. hope Graduating from high school is taking the first step on the staircase of prosperity.
  36. 36. fear If you don’t graduate from high school, you will end up a ditchdigger.
  37. 37. Appeals to pity "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, look at this miserable man, in a wheelchair, unable to use his legs. Could such a man really be guilty of embezzlement?"
  38. 38. Appeals to guilt “While we are snug in our beds, the poor citizens of ____ are suffering from the aftermath of horrible floods and the spread of disease.”
  39. 39. Appeal to ridicule Oh sure! Of course, evolution makes sense! It’s perfectly obvious that people are related to gorillas!
  40. 40. Appeal to disgust Oh sure! Of course, evolution makes sense! It’s perfectly obvious that people are related to gorillas!
  41. 41. Appeal to consequences "Free will must exist: if it didn't, we would all be machines."
  42. 42. Appeal to flattery Honors students such as yourselves are too smart to be fooled by companies like Jostens that try to sell you overpriced junk.
  43. 43. Appeal to spite "Stop recycling! Aren't you tired of Hollywood celebrities preaching to everyone about saving the Earth?"
  44. 44. Appeal to popular sentiment The American people are tired of being preached to by self-righteous tree huggers.
  45. 45. How about this one? The Oregonian/OregonLive editorial board to join him "in supporting Australian-style gun control." (In 1996,Australia rounded up all the firearms and destroyed them.) I suppose that "Australian-style gun control" sounds a lot better than "Nazi- style gun control," although they are one and the same.
  46. 46. How about this one? Students should never given homework. Can we not see that our students need a real childhood, not a enforced slog through worksheets and word problems that obliterate any possibility that their remember their younger years with anything but pain and suffering?