More people are looking to exercise to promotetheir psychological well-beingMany researchers, clinicians, and laypeople haveobserved that physical activity enhancesfeeling of well-being, in particular byreducing anxiety and depression.Landers,1999; Landers & Arent,2001 –Exercise is related to decreases in anxietyand depression as well as to increases infeeling of general well-being
The mental health problems anxiety depressionThe effects of exercise on anxiety and depression can be classified as acute chronic Acute effects refer to immediate and possibly, but not necessarily, temporary effects arising from a single bout of exercise Long term or chronic effects of exercise has focused on changes over time in both anxiety and depression.
EXERCISE IN THE REDUCTION OF ANXIETY Reductions in state Exercise training is Longer training anxiety and particularly effectiveprograms are more depression after for individuals who effective than aerobic exercise have elevated levels shorter ones in may be achieved of anxiety, but itproducing positive with exercise reduces anxiety changes in well- intensities between even for people with being 30%-70% of low levels of anxiety maximal heart rate
EXERCISE IN THE REDUCTION OF ANXIETY State anxiety Reductions in returns to anxiety are notAll durations pre-exercise Exercise is necessarily of exercise anxiety levels associated with tied to thesignificantly within 24 reductions in physiological reduced hours (maybe muscle tension gains resulting anxiety as quickly as from the 4-6 hours) exercise bout
EXERCISE IN THE REDUCTION OF ANXIETY The anxiety Aerobic exercise reduction can produce Anxiety reduction following anxiety after exercise exercise occurs reductions similar occurs for allregardless of the in magnitude to types of intensity, those with other participantsduration, or type commonly used of exercise anxiety treatment
The positive effects are seen across agegroups, health status, race, socioeconomicstatus, and gender Exercise is as effective as psychotherapy in reducing depression Exercise produces larger antidepressant effects when the training program is at least 9 weeks long Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise are associated with reductions in depression Reductions in depression following exercise do not depend on fitness levels.
• Mood can be MOOD defined as a host of transient, fluctuating • is generally affective states defined as a state that can be of emotional or positive or affective arousal negative of varying, impermanentBerger, Pargman, & duration Weinberg, (2002)
• The existence of changes in Biddle, (2000) positive mood states related to exercise • They are more likely to use exerciseThayer, Newman, & rather than other techniques to McClain, (1994) energize themselves • showed increases in positive mood Hansen, Stevens, states with as little as 10 minutes of and Coast (2001) moderate exercise Giacobbi, • Exercise improved positive moodHausenblas, & Frye, regardless of the number of negative and positive events in a given day (2005)
Rhythmic abdominal breathing Relative absence ofDuration, interpersonalintensity, competitionfrequency GUIDELINES FOR USING EXERCISE TO ENHANCE MOODenjoyment Closed and predictable Rhythmic and activities repetitive movements
PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS EXPLANATIONS Increase in cerebral blood Enhanced feeling of controlflow Feeling of competency andChanges in brain self-efficacyneurotransmitters ( e.g., Positive social interactionsnorepine phrine, endorphins, Improved self-concept andserotonin) self-esteemIncrease in maximal oxygen Opportunities for fun andconsumption and delivery of enjoymentoxygen to celebral tissuesReductions in muscletensionStructural changes in thebrain
Exercise Higher levels of self confidence, greater feeling of control, improved imagination, and a greater sense of self-sufficiency. Regular exercise has been show to be related to increased self-esteem. It is believed that changes in the body as a result of physical fitness training can alter one’s body image and thus enhance self concept and self esteem.
Hardiness personally style that enables person to withstand or cope with stressful situations. Have 3 traits : ◦ A sense of personal control over external events ◦ A sense of involvement, commitment and purpose in daily life. ◦ The flexibility to adapt to unexpected changes by perceiving them as challenges or opportunity for further growthExercise can help protect against stressrelated illness, especially for hardy people
Motor development is important to the development of inteligence in children (Piaget, 1936) Chronic exercise, in comparison with acute exercise, showed greater effects on cognitive performance. Exercise programs conducted over longer periods of time are associated with gains in cognitive functioning.
Fitness training had beneficial effects on the cognitive functioning of older adults. Fitness training combined with strength and flexibility had a greater positive effect on cognition than fitness training with only an aerobic component Exercise effects on cognition were largest when exercise training exceeded 30 minutes per session. Cardiovascular exercise appears to protect the brain and help repair or restore the aged brain.
Quality of life one’s behavioral functioning ability, or being able to “do every stuff” and living long enough to do it. Active individuals tend to be better health, report more stamina, have more positive attitudes toward work, and report a greater ability to cope with stress and tension. Small increase in sleep. Greater life satisfaction. Exercise programs contribute to a person’s quality of life by influencing affects, perceived stress, physical health, and life satisfaction.
Euphoria, spiritually, power, gracefulness, effortless movement, a glimpse of perfection, and spinning out.( Sach 1984 & Berger 1996 ) euphoric sensation, usually UNEXPECTED, of heightened wee-being, an appreciation of nature, and the trancesdence of time and space.
Cant reliably predicted but is facilitated by the presence of few distractions and cool, calm weather with low humidity. Not concern with pace and time Endorphins were produced during running. Activated when people are involved in romantic love or listening to music. The greater euphoria, the higher the levels of endorphins found in the brain.
To be a useful adjunct to traditional psychotherapy, but does not replace therapy especially in patients who have a clinical disorder. Popular because they provide a natural, practical, inexpensive, and time efficient adjunct to traditional psychoterapies. SHOULD NOT USE for : ◦ Obese ◦ severe heart desease ◦ Those with high blood pressure that cannot be controlled by medication