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  • 1.
    • Hong Kong
    • November 13, 2010
    • The Science of Açai
    • 巴西莓的科研價值
    • Alexander G. Schauss, PhD, FACN
    • Senior Research Director,
    • Natural and Medicinal Products Research,
    • AIBMR Life Sciences
    • Tacoma, Washington USA
  • 2. Aging 衰老
    • Aging is basically the inability of the body to repair itself.
    • 基本上,衰老是身體逐漸喪失自我修補能力的現象。
  • 3. What Contributes To aging? 衰老的原因是什麼?
      • As we get older repair mechanisms decline
      • 當年紀漸長,身體的自我修補功能逐漸衰退
      • They simply don ’ t work as fast or as efficiently
      • 再不像年輕時那麼敏捷及有效率
      • Our body ’ s ability to repair itself declines making us more vulnerable to damage caused by:
      • 由於身體修護功能衰退,導致細胞很容易受到下列 2 種的侵害:
      • 1) inflammation & 2) oxidative stress
      • 1) 發炎 2) 被氧化
  • 4. What is Inflammation? 發炎是什麼?
    • Inflammation occurs when our tissue responds to pathogens, irritants, or damaged cells.
    • 當細胞受到病原體、刺激物或受損細胞的侵害時,炎症便會發生
    • It ’ s an attempt to remove whatever is injured or irritated from further damage so we can heal.
    • 發炎便是把受損的細胞隔離起來,免受進一步的襲害
    • Without it, a wound or infection would never heal.
    • 若沒有發炎這過程,細胞受傷或受感染將不可能復原
  • 5. Chronic Inflammation 慢性發炎
    • Leads to a host of diseases.
    • 引發一連串的疾病
    • During chronic inflammation certain cells accumulate at the site of inflammation and can become destructive while healing occurs.
    • 當身體出現慢性發炎時,某些細胞在發炎處積聚可能會在身體自癒造成破壞
    • This slows down recovery. 這會減慢復原速度
  • 6. Anti-Inflammation 抗炎功能
    • Foods contain compounds that have anti-inflammatory properties.
    • 某些食物含有具抗炎功能的複合物
    • In early 2000, we discovered that something in acai pulp had potent anti-inflammatory activity in human cells.
    • 在 2000 年初,專家發現了在巴西莓的果肉中含有某些在人體細胞中具抗炎效能的物質
    • But what was it?
    • 但是,這到底是什麼物質?
  • 7. Compound discovered 發現抗炎複合物
    • In 2010, we discovered what may be the most potent anti-inflammatory compound found yet in a food.
    • 在 2010 年,我們發現了也許是目前在所有食物中已發現最具抗炎能力的複合物
    • It was a class of compounds we studied in 2009.
    • 它就是我們專家在 2009 年重點研究的一種複合物系列
    • Our discovery will be presented next year at one of the largest scientific meetings in the world.
    • 我們的最新的研究結果將會在明年其中一個全球最大的科研會議中發表
  • 8.
      • As our body ’ s ability to repair itself declines it makes us more vulnerable against the damage caused by inflammation.
      • 當我們身體的修護能力逐漸下降時,細胞會更容易受到發炎的襲害
      • So does oxidative stress.
      • 同樣地,身體細胞亦會受到被氧化的損害
  • 9. Oxidative Stress 氧化侵害
    • Caused by imbalance between production of free radicals and the ability of the body to control their overproduction.
    • 氧化侵害是因自由基製造的失衡及身體喪失控制自由基不斷增加的功能所導致的
  • 10. Free Radicals 自由基
    • Destroy pathogens (bacteria, viruses), cancer cells, as part of our immune system ’ s defenses.
    • 作為身體免疫系統的防禦部份,自由基可以消滅病原體 ( 細菌、病毒 ) 和癌細胞等等
    • They are created when 當遇到下列情況時,身體便會產生自由基 :
      • we breathe (University of Colorado experiment)
      • produce energy in trillions of cells,
      • 呼吸時 ( 根據科羅拉多州大學的實驗報告 ) ,會產生數以億兆計的自由基
      • during cell metabolism, 當細胞生陳代謝時 or 或
      • suffer from chronic inflammation or illness. 患上慢性炎症或其他疾病時
  • 11. What Stimulates over production of Free Radials? 是什麼造成自由基過度產生的原因?
    • Mental and/or physical stress 精神及 / 或肉體上的壓力
    • Pollution 污染
    • Cigarette smoke: 1 cigarette produces 1 trillion free radicals = chronic oxidative stress = eventual illness and disease.
    • 香煙煙霧:每一根香煙會產生 10 兆的自由基 = 引致慢性氧化侵害 = 最後產生各種疾病
    • Sun ’ s ionizing radiation (UV radiation) 太陽所產生的紫外光輻射
    • Illness (cold, flu, etc.) 疾病 ( 傷風、感冒等等 )
    • Chronic inflammation 慢性炎症
  • 12. Many Radicals in Our Body 身體裡各類不同的自由基
    • Some of the most important 其中最重要的包括 :
      • Peroxyl radical- most abundant 脂質過氧化自由基 – 蘊含量最豐富
      • Hydroxyl radical- can be most damaging 羥基自由基 – 造成最大損害
      • Superoxide - produces hydroxyl radical 超氧化物 – 產生羥基自由基的元凶
      • Hydrogen peroxide - can damage cells 過氧化氫 – 能破壞細胞組織
      • Peroxynitrite radicals - can damage muscles cells 過氧亞硝酸根自由基 – 能損壞肌肉細胞
  • 13. Antioxidants in Fruits 水果中的抗氧化劑
      • Overall fruits and berries good source of antioxidants.
      • 整體而言,水果及莓果類植物含有豐富的抗氧化劑
      • They provide twice the antioxidant capacity of vegetables.
      • 它們能提供比蔬菜高兩倍的抗氧化能力
      • Population studies around the world show that consuming more fruits and vegetables improves health and quality of life.
      • 研究報告指出食用多些水果及蔬菜能改善健康及提升生活素質
      • But are people eating lots of fruits and vegetables?
      • 但是,一般人有食用足夠的水果及蔬菜嗎?
  • 14. What Fruits/Berries to eat? 我們應該食用哪些水果 / 莓果?
    • Assays can help food scientists compare antioxidant capacity of different foods.
    • 進行分析試驗能幫助科學家比較不同食物的抗氧化能力
    • One assay is the ORAC assay: O xygen R adical A bsorbance C apacity assay, used since 1991.
    • 其中一項試驗是 ORAC 的測試:即氧自由基吸收能力的分析,自 1991 年沿用致今
    • Food scientists estimate we need 5,000 to 10,000 ORAC units of antioxidants from food each day to handle oxidative stress.
    • 食物專家估計我們每天需要從食物攝取 5,000 至 10,000 抗氧化單位的抗氧化劑來對抗來自細胞氧化的侵害
  • 15. In 1997 we discovered extraordinarily high Antioxidant Capacity of Açai Compared to Other Antioxidant-rich Foods 在 1997 年,我們發現了蘊含超高抗氧化能力的巴西莓,它的抗氧化功能值比其它的蔬果高出很多 Cranberries 小紅莓 Wild blueberries 野藍莓 Strawberries 草莓 Cultivated blueberries 養植藍莓 Wild black raspberries 野黑木莓 巴西莓 1027
  • 16. Potent Antioxidant 有效抗氧化劑
    • In 2004, we discovered that if we dilute the concentration of antioxidant compounds in acai ’ s pulp down to 1 part per trillion , it still protected human cells from damage by hydrogen peroxide.
    • 在 2004 年,我們發現即使把巴西莓果肉中的抗氧化複合物的濃度稀釋至每 1 兆 (1 萬億 ) 只含有 1 單位,它仍然可以有效地保護人體細胞免受過氧化氫的侵害
  • 17. What is Açai? 巴西莓是什麼? Where does it Come From? 它產自何地? What do we know about it? 我們對它的認識有多少? Why Did it Take So long To discover its Extraordinary Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties? 為何經過如此長時間才發現它蘊含的特殊抗氧化物及抗炎特性?
  • 18. Acai Fruit Berry is 1.5 to 2.0 cm 巴西莓果實的直徑為 1.5 至 2.0 公分
  • 19. 2,000 to 7,000 açai palms per hectare grow in the Amazon in the green zone. 在亞瑪遜河流域的綠色地帶裡,每 公頃 地平均生長了 2,000 至 7,000 株巴西莓樹 Equator Amazon
  • 20. Açai Palm Trees, 30 meters Tall 每株巴西莓樹平均可生長至 30 米高
  • 21. (Left) Mature Fruit.( 左 ) 成熟了的果實 (Right) Immature Fruit.( 右 ) 尚未成熟的果實 Produces four Harvests a Year 每年可收割 4 次
  • 22. Water rises from 7.5 to 15 meters in Flood Plains of the Amazon delta twice each day due to ocean tides 因受到海洋潮汐的影響,在亞瑪遜三角洲的漲潮地帶,每天兩次河水會由 7.5 米漲至 15 米 water level
  • 23. The earliest consumption documented of açai fruit in the Amazon was reported in 1768 in the diary of Joseph Banks. 有關最早服用巴西莓的文獻記載首見於 1768 年約翰比爾斯的日記
    • “ Palm berries appear much like black grapes but for having scarce any pulp covering a very large stone.” (p.201)
    • “ 樹上的莓果外形很像黑葡萄,其果肉包圍着一顆頗大的果核。”
  • 24. Consumption of Açai Pulp as a Food in the Amazon Painted by Portuguese Botanist in 1791. 左圖示在 1791 年一位葡萄牙的植物學家繪畫出在亞瑪遜河流域巴西莓的果肉 ( 漿 ) 已被用作食物。
    • Schauss, AG. Acai: An Extraordinary Antioxidant-rich Palm Fruit from the Amazon . Biosocial Publications: Tacoma, WA, 2009, p. 30.
  • 25. Preparing Açai Pulp for Research 巴西莓果漿用作研究
    • Preserve the pulp’s 保存果漿的 :
            • Phytochemicals 植物營養素
            • enzymatic activity 酵素活動
            • nutritional value 營養數值
            • antioxidant activity 抗氧化功能
    • maintain bioactivity 維持生化作用功能
    • Maintain taste & color 保存味道及顏色
    • increase shelf-life 延長食用期限
    Freeze-dry in a vacuum to remove water to: 在真空情況下,用冷凍乾燥法把水份抽掉,從而:
  • 26. Nutritional Composition of A ç ai 巴西莓果的營養成份
      • Discovered it was an extraordinary source of “ good ” fats (mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids)
      • 被證實是一個 “好”脂肪的來源 ( 單元及多元不飽和脂肪酸 )
      • Contains all vitamins & minerals 蘊含絕大部份的維生素及礦物質
      • Contains all essential amino acids (protein) 蘊含絕大部份的必需氨基酸 ( 蛋白質 )
      • Extremely low in sugar (<1.3%) 含極低糖份 ( 低於 1.3%)
      • Contains thousands of phytochemicals 含有數以千計的植物性維生素
  • 27. Life Extension? 可延長生命?
      • Observed first evidence of lifespan extension in files when a ç ai was added to a high-fat diet and the ability to respond to stress was removed so they could not produce an enzyme (SOD) to counter superoxide
      • 從一項研究中觀察所得,當巴西莓被加進了一個高脂肪的膳食中,它所產生的其中一種酵素 ( 超氧化物歧化酶 ) 能有效抑制超氧化物的破壞
      • (U.S. National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, study published in 2010).
      • ( 國家抗衰老研究院,美國保健研究所 2010 發表的研究報告 )
  • 28. DEMONSTRATED BENEFITS 已經證實的好處
      • In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross over study, 19 to 52 yr olds, a patent protected acai-enriched juice was in 1- 2 hours able to 在一個隨機、雙盲、安慰劑效應及跨界的研究裡,數十位由 19 歲至 52 歲的測試者,在飲用某受專利保護的巴西莓果汁 1-2 小時後,被驗出下列的結果 :
      • 1) enter human cells 果汁成份進入人體細胞
      • 2) increase antioxidant levels in cells 增加細胞的抗氧化層次
      • 3) increase antioxidant activity in cells 增加細胞的抗氧化活動
      • 4) protect cells during oxidative stress 在身體氧化過程時保護細胞
      • 5) reduce levels inflammatory compounds 降低導致發炎複合物的水平
      • 6) reduce lipid peroxidation of fats in blood serum 減少血清中脂質的過 氧化反應
  • 29. PAIN and MOBILITY Aging Study 減少痛楚及增強活動能力的抗衰老研究
      • Would drinking an acai fruit/berry juice reduce pain and improve mobility in adults 48 to 84 years old within 12 weeks?
      • 飲用巴西莓果汁能夠在 12 個星期內令年齡由 48 歲至 84 歲的成年人減少痛楚及增加關節活動能力嗎?
  • 30. Range of Motion Study: 身體活動範圍研究 Lumbar Motion (Lower Back) and knees 腰部 ( 背後下方 ) 活動膝蓋活動
  • 31. PAIN Reduced, MOBILITY Improved 痛楚減少,活動能力增加
      • Range of motion (mobility) of lower back (lumbar spine) and both knees was improved, and pain reduced in 44 - 84 yr olds.
      • 在年齡由 44 歲至 84 歲的測試者當中,其腰椎及膝蓋的活動範圍有所改善,關節痛楚亦有減少
      • Benefits reported in first 2 weeks for lower back and by 12 weeks in both knees in all study subjects.
      • 所有測試者的腰椎在首 2 個星期及膝蓋在首 12 星期情況均有所改善
      • A placebo controlled trial is still needed.
      • 仍需進行慰安劑效應實驗
  • 32. Benefits Seen in Animal Studies 在動物測試中結果相當正面
      • Protected coronary arteries of pigs exposed to superoxide.
      • 保護了暴露在超氧化物中的測試豬隻冠狀動脈
      • Reduced total and LDL-cholesterol in stressed animals fed a hypercholesterolemic diet by reducing protein damage caused by oxidized amino acid residues in stress conditions.
      • 通過減少已被氧化胺基酸殘留物所造成對蛋白質的破壞,成功地降低進食了高血脂膳食的動物的整體及低密度膽固醇水平
  • 33. Benefits Seen in Animal Studies 動物測試結果相當正面
      • When added to a high-fat diet in animals that produce 10 times normal amounts of cholesterol 當被加進了一個產生比正常膳食高 10 倍膽固醇的高脂肪膳食中,我們發現下列的結果 :
      • 1) raised HDL-cholesterol 增加了高密度 ( 好 ) 膽固醇的水平
      • 2) inhibited formation of atherosclerotic lesions 抑制了動脈硬化組織的形成
      • 3) reduced lipid peroxidation 降低脂質的過氧化反應
      • 4) up-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes 促進了抗氧化酵素基因的活動
      • 5) down-regulated genes that promote inflammatory factors 抑制助長炎症基因的活動
      • 6) up-regulated genes that promote anti-inflammatory factors 促進抗炎基因的活動
  • 34. Cancer Research 癌症研究
      • Increased cell death (apotosis) of certain leukemia cells in vitro.
      • 增加在活體外某些白血病細胞的自毁情況
      • Inhibited the number, size and lethality of experimentally induced esophageal tumors in vivo.
      • 抑制在活體內由實驗引發的食道癌腫瘤的數目、體積及破壞力
      • Inhibited C-9 glioma (brain) cancer cells in vivo.
      • 抑制在活髏內的腦癌細胞的生長
  • 35. Mechanisms of Action(How does it work) 巴西莓果複合物的活動模式 ( 方式 )
      • Discovered that a ç ai compounds can directly affect genes ( “ gene expression ” ) and cell signaling ( “ cell communication ” ).
      • 發現了巴西莓果複合物能直接影響基因的 “表達”及細胞之間的溝通訊息
      • For example, in one study, a ç ai down-regulates gluconeogenesis, during oxidative stress, which may be important in managing or preventing diabetes.
      • 舉例來說,在其中一項研究中,巴西莓在細胞氧化過程中能抑制糖異生的出現,此舉對控制及預防糖尿病有所幫助
  • 36. Brain research 腦部研究
      • Autophagy (natural housekeeping) is the process by which the brain removes toxic proteins that can damage cells and impair brain function.
      • 細胞自體吞噬是指腦部消除能破壞細胞及損害腦部運作的有害蛋白質
      • A decline in autophagy is linked to age-related memory loss, mental decline, senility, and possibly Alzheimer ’ s disease.
      • 引致減少細胞自體吞噬的原因可能與跟年齡相關的失憶、腦部活動減少、衰老及老人痴呆症有關
      • Using mouse brain cells it was discovered in 2010 that compounds in a ç ai pulp activate autophagy and remove toxic proteins.
      • 在 2010 年一項使用老鼠腦細胞所作的研究顯示,巴西莓果漿的複合物能促進細胞自體吞噬和消除腦部有害的蛋白質
  • 37. For copies of research papers: www.aibmr.com/resources To download research papers 如要下載研究報告,可登入以上網站:
  • 38. Healthy Living Recommendations 健康生活提示
    • Exercise vigorously on a regular basis. 定時進行一些激烈的運動
    • Don ’ t smoke. Avoid second-hand smoke. 不要抽煙。避免抽「二手煙」
    • Get 7 hours of quality sleep. 每天享有 7 小時高素質的睡眠
    • Eat fruits and vegetables of different colors and nuts. 盡量進食不同顏色的蔬
    • 果和果仁
    • Avoid deep fried foods, hydrogenated fats, trans-fats. 避免食用油炸食物、
    • 攝取氫化脂肪及反式脂肪
    • Reduce red meat (beef, pork) consumption. 減少進食紅肉 ( 牛肉、豬肉 )
    • Wash your hands with soap for at least 20 seconds. 經常用肥皂洗手至少
    • 20 秒鐘
    • Higher incomes can lead to longer life & better health. 高收入能延長壽命及帶來健康
    • Strong social networks contribute to longer life. 良好的社會關係網絡可延長
    • 壽命
    • Stay healthy , have fun , be generous , and enjoy life!
    • 記着要保持健康、心境愉快、豁達開朗和享受生命!
  • 39. Thank you for inviting me to speak about açai. 多謝邀請我前來講述巴西莓的各種好處。

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