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Digital Humanities Research, Europeana  and The Embedded Semantic Research                  Library:         A Vision for ...
OverviewLots of context:  Container → Content → Context: Libraries approaching  the End of the Gutenberg Galaxis in the co...
Container → Content → ContextLibraries approaching the end of the          Gutenberg Galaxis   DH Research, Europeana and ...
Long before the Parenthesis:Alexandria                                                                   Librarians:      ...
Before the Parenthesis: St. Gall        DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library               Pr...
The Gutenberg Parenthesis Opens … Dissociation of container and content         in the print paradigm     DH Research, Eur...
Dissociation of Roles in theGutenberg galaxy         DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library    ...
Catalogue Based LibraryFunctional Axioms (1)       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library      ...
Catalogue Based LibraryFunctional Axioms (2)       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library      ...
Catalogue Based LibraryFunctional Axioms (3)       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library      ...
Catalogue Based LibraryFunctional Axioms (4)       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library      ...
Library Functional Principles (2)  Mediating access to information objects via  catalogues  Mediating links as pointers fr...
… and closes againThe end of the print paradigmDH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library       Pro...
Web Based Scholarly Working Continuum ...… a triple paradigm shift: Beyond Documents Decreasing functional determination b...
Ted Nelsons Xanadu:radicalised Hypertext ...     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library        ...
The Web of Documents                                                                  Information                         ...
Resources and Linksin the Document WebWe have HTTP URIs to identify resources and links betweenthem – but we are missing a...
Syntactically Extending theDocument Web (1) We add a syntax for making statements on resources: RDF triples We add a schem...
Syntactically Extending theDocument Web: RDF (2) And thus are able to establish structures in triple aggregations resultin...
Extending the Web in Scope:The Web of Things … (slightly Mistaken)                                                    What...
… and the Way we extend the Web inscope to make it a Web of Things         DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semanti...
And we get … Linked Data                                   Standard Identifiers                                          S...
A few Bubbles: 5/2007Over 500 million RDF triplesAround 120,000 RDF links between data sources                        ...
And a lot of Bubbles as of last Year      DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library             Pr...
Google entering the Floor     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefa...
Modelling Object Representations as RDFAggregations generates new questions ...                                  B        ...
Aggregations and Context:Calculating Closeness     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library      ...
… and new opportunities: TripleSets and Reasoning       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library ...
... based on Documents asAggregations of RDF-Triples (1)         DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research...
Documents as Aggregationsof RDF-Triples (2)<nanopublication id="0"><assertion>  <subject>NG_000007.3:g.70628G>A</subject> ...
The use of InferencesCitation: van Haagen HHHBM, t Hoen PAC, Botelho Bovo A, de Morrée A, van Mulligen EM, et al.(2009) No...
Data = PublicationDistinction data vs. publication will get increasinglyobsolete in semantic publishing environments …… at...
→ Visualise and Explore Cultural ContextMapping the Republic of Letters:https://republicofletters.stanford.edu/#mapsOr aga...
Graph of Thinkers     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradma...
Graph of Philosophers     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
KUL vs. UCL                                   Imagine including the digitized archive                                   Of...
The Europeana Data Model (EDM)       in the LoD Context   DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Librar...
EDM – what is it?And what not?EDM is the metadata model in the course ofreplacing the ESE …… a model for making statements...
EDM: ClassesCIDOC CRM E5 hierarchycould be pruned here           DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research...
EDM: Properties     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann...
Mona Lisa: French Ministry ofCulture       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library              ...
Metadata Record in EDM                                                                   Digital                          ...
Semantic Enrichmentens:Agent: persons or organizations          ens:TimeSpan: time periods or datesens:Place: spatial enti...
Event-Centric ModelingPreserving and exploiting original data also means being compatiblewith descriptions beyond simple o...
Complex Objects                                              Part-whole links for                                         ...
Les Fleurs du Mal: UNIMARChttp://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37367035f  000 nam 22 450  001FRBNF373670350000003  009http...
Les Fleurs du Mal: Gallicahttp://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k70861t           DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded S...
Les Fleurs du Mal: Digitisedhttp://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k70861t.textePage.f1                 DH Research, Europea...
Les Fleurs du Mal: EDM                                        Digital                                        Representatio...
What can you use it for:De arte venandi cum avibusDH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library       ...
De Arte Venandi … (1)     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
De Arte Venandi … (2)     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
De Arte Venandi … (3)     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
De Arte Venandi … Subgraph 1       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library              Prof. Dr...
De Arte Venandi … (4)     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
De Arte Venandi … (5)     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
De Arte Venandi … Subgraphs1+2      DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library             Prof. Dr...
De Arte Venandi … (6)     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
De Arte Venandi … (6)     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
De Arte Venandi … (6)     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gr...
De Arte Venandi …done right    DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library           Prof. Dr. Stefa...
De Arte Venandi …theres more!    DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library           Prof. Dr. Ste...
De Arte Venandi …theres more (2)!    DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library           Prof. Dr....
De Arte Venandi …theres more (3)!    DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library           Prof. Dr....
An Opportunity for the Library ...… and what it needs to do to be up to it     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Sem...
“What do you do with a millionbooks?” (G. Crane)  Digitisation and semantic publishing result in     growing quantity     ...
Ceci nest pas une bibliothèque      DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library             Prof. Dr...
Ceci nest pas une bibliothèque      DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library             Prof. Dr...
Catalogue                                                                        The card catalog                         ...
Catalogue Entry: MARC Record       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library              Prof. Dr...
Library Collections                                                                   Photo © Ralf Küpper     DH Research,...
Change Thinking,Change Terminology! Libraries will serve research as part of the Linked Open Data web – or else risk becom...
From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (1)                                                   Reverse             ...
From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (2)                                                                       ...
From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (3)       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Librar...
From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (4)       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Librar...
Sticking to empty metaphors ..."Whats in a name? That which we call a roseBy any other name would smell as sweet."(Shakesp...
Lessons learned in Europeana                    We have learned some of these                    lessons in Europeana     ...
An Aggregation ...     DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library            Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradm...
… some context    DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library           Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, C...
… more context    DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library           Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, C...
… and the Big Picture:Object and Semantic Data Layer       DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Libra...
EDM and Linked Open DataContext Data•DBpedia•GND•Geonames•LCSH•…          DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic...
A Triple WinEuropeana wins    Becoming a prime resource for digital humanities    scholars    Winning a new and clearly fo...
Suggested ReadingGregory Crane (2006): What Do you Do with a Million Books? In: Dlib  Magazine, Vol. 12, March. (http://bi...
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Digital Humanities Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library

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Presentation given by Stefan Gradmann during the workshop "Open platforms for digital humanities". See http://openplatformsforhumanities.org/

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  • Europeana intends to connect to the Linked Open Data community. In the Linked Open Data cloud we find many more knowledge sources like Dbpedia, Geonames, or Library of Congress Subject Headings. Europeana wants to use them to further contextualize and enrich the objects in its information space. At the same time Europeana wants to make its own data available to other communities. The EDM is crucial for realizing this vision. [ LOD cloud July 2009 ]
  • Hier könnte ein Exkurs zu RTP Doc ansetzen, wenn ich mehr als 20 Minuten Zeit hätte
  • Mona Lisa as described and depicted by the French ministry of culture (Directions des musees de France)
  • This is the metadata record of the French ministry of culture modeled in EDM. Each bubble represent a resource. In the bubble you have the class of the resource (its type) in italics and beneath the URI of the resource which identifies it. The arrows are the semantic links (the properties) between the resources. If there are two properties then the one below is the sub-property of the other one with a more specific meaning. First we have the Aggregation node which groups together all information pieces delivered by the Ministry. It aggregates the node representing the physical object “Mona Lisa”, the digital representations of the Mona Lisa, and the proxy node which is specific to a given provider, and is used to represent the description of the provided object, as seen from the perspective of that specific provider. This is how every metadata record provided to Europeana will look like in its basic form. Why manage central nodes for provided objects? The ORE model says so: an ORE proxy has to be proxy for some &quot;view- independent&quot; resource. Users are looking for (real world) objects (the painting Mona Lisa) and not for the specific view on it of Louvre, or Jaconde (of which they normally do not know anyway). So the approach is: Find the object first (PhysicalThing) and then proceed to the specific views on it. This is also the LOD approach.
  • Europeana wants to contextualize and enrich its objects by linking them to resources which contain additional knowledge. This enables richer functions, such as query expansion (e.g., using alternatives for a creator&apos;s name), recommendation of objects using semantic relations between them (objects created by connected artists), etc. This is the same Proxy from the slide before but now all the string values are converted to resources and typed. For example the subject of the painting Mona Lisa “femme” is now a resource typed as a concept and with the english and french spelling of the concept attached taken from a KOS in the Semantic Data Layer. And in the same KOS we could also properly find the broader term for this concept. Furthermore we could semantically align the concept femme with the concept femme in the Wikipedia (LOD cloud) and take all the information available there for this specific subject, including the many translations of the term itself. To increase the data value of its objects.
  • What we looked at so far can be understood as object-centric modeling. The second general modeling approach is event-centric which tries to tell a story about the object’s history. For this purpose EDM provides a simple “event-centric core” of one class and three properties: ens:Event: hub for event descriptions ens:wasPresentAt, holding between any resource and an event it is involved in; ens:happenedAt, holding between an event and a place; ens:occurredAt, holding between events and the time spans during which they occurred. This is to give you an impression of what is possible without going into details.
  • This is a (more or less fictional) example of three records about a translation of Edgar Allan Poe’s “ The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket ” to french: Record from BNF about an edition from 1868 Record from Gallica about an edition from 1868 (which offers a digital version of the book online: this the WebResource) Record from BNF with an edition from 2007 A few things I want to point out: Two records about the same thing and both point to the same object of interest, the 1868 edition. The user will look for this edition and not for the specific view of Gallica or BNF on this edition. So this node is the point of entry from which a user will proceed to a specific view on the object. It is also apparent now why Proxies for the descriptive metadata are helpful: Because this way we can keep the two views on the 1868 edition distinct. Finally the link „isDerivativeOf“ is an example of an inter-object link. So, for example, if a user found the 2007 edition he will be also hinted to the digital version of the 1868 edition in Gallica. With respect to FRBR one could start discussing now what and where is the work, expression, manifestation, and item here. Although the development of the EDM has been inspired by FRBR it is not implemented yet. That will happen after 2011.
  • First a few words about the envisioned information architecture of Europeana: This is how the information space of Europeana will be restructured : At the “bottom” we have the objects which are provided to Europeana. Above we have the “Semantic Data Layer” which is new. It contains various kinds of KOSs with knowledge about people, places, concepts, and so on. These concepts are linked to the objects below and thereby contextualize and enrich them.
  • Europeana intends to connect to the Linked Open Data community. In the Linked Open Data cloud we find many more knowledge sources like Dbpedia, Geonames, or Library of Congress Subject Headings. Europeana wants to use them to further contextualize and enrich the objects in its information space. At the same time Europeana wants to make its own data available to other communities. The EDM is crucial for realizing this vision. [ LOD cloud July 2009 ]
  • Transcript of "Digital Humanities Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library"

    1. 1. Digital Humanities Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library: A Vision for KU Leuvens Library System (and for others?)Prof. Dr. Stefan GradmannHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin / School of Library and Information ScienceKatholieke Universiteit Leuvenstefan.gradmann@ibi.hu-berlin.de DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013
    2. 2. OverviewLots of context: Container → Content → Context: Libraries approaching the End of the Gutenberg Galaxis in the context of the emerging Linked Data Web The Europeana Data Model (EDM) in this context EDM (and RDF) as enabling Digital Humanities ResearchAn agenda for the Embedded Semantic Research Library: Opportunities: Content based and context driven services Required Cultural Changes: Terms and thinking to get rid of A Triple Win DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 2
    3. 3. Container → Content → ContextLibraries approaching the end of the Gutenberg Galaxis DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 3
    4. 4. Long before the Parenthesis:Alexandria Librarians:  Zenodotus  Callimachus  Erathosthenes … Scholars and / or Poets DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 4
    5. 5. Before the Parenthesis: St. Gall DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 5
    6. 6. The Gutenberg Parenthesis Opens … Dissociation of container and content in the print paradigm DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 6
    7. 7. Dissociation of Roles in theGutenberg galaxy DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 7
    8. 8. Catalogue Based LibraryFunctional Axioms (1) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 8
    9. 9. Catalogue Based LibraryFunctional Axioms (2) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 9
    10. 10. Catalogue Based LibraryFunctional Axioms (3) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 10
    11. 11. Catalogue Based LibraryFunctional Axioms (4) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 11
    12. 12. Library Functional Principles (2) Mediating access to information objects via catalogues Mediating links as pointers from metadata to objects Objects are part of a library collection An object to be used within a library typically is part of this librarys collection Internal processing logic: focus on objects as information containers, not so much on the content of these containers and accordingly cataloguing is focussed on container attributes Functional macro-primitives are ingestion, storage, description and retrieval of information containers DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 12
    13. 13. … and closes againThe end of the print paradigmDH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 13
    14. 14. Web Based Scholarly Working Continuum ...… a triple paradigm shift: Beyond Documents Decreasing functional determination by traditional cultural techniques Disintegration of the linear / circular functional paradigma Erosion of the monolithic document notion in hypertext paradigms DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 14
    15. 15. Ted Nelsons Xanadu:radicalised Hypertext ... DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 15
    16. 16. The Web of Documents Information Management: A Proposal (TBL, 1989) ... twice extended: •in syntax •in scope DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 16
    17. 17. Resources and Linksin the Document WebWe have HTTP URIs to identify resources and links betweenthem – but we are missing a few things!What kinds of resources are Louvre.html and LaJoconde.jpg? A machine cannot tell. Humans can: we recognize implied context!How exactly do they relate to each other? A machine cannot tell. Humans can: again we recognize implied context! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 17
    18. 18. Syntactically Extending theDocument Web (1) We add a syntax for making statements on resources: RDF triples We add a schema language (RDFS) with elements such as classes (chair as instance of chairs), hierarchies of classes and properties (chairs are a subclass of furniture, teaches is a sub-property of communicates) inheritance (communication based on language → teaching also is) support for basic inferencing, deterministic logical operations DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 18
    19. 19. Syntactically Extending theDocument Web: RDF (2) And thus are able to establish structures in triple aggregations resulting in lightweight domain ontologies: DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 19
    20. 20. Extending the Web in Scope:The Web of Things … (slightly Mistaken) Whats wrong with this picture? Taken from Ronald Carpentiers Blog at 2007/08/08/1-2-3/ DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 20
    21. 21. … and the Way we extend the Web inscope to make it a Web of Things DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 21
    22. 22. And we get … Linked Data Standard Identifiers Standard Pointers Standards for Queries and Statements Link to ContextCopyright © 2008 W3C (MIT, ERCIM, Keio)http://www.w3.org/2008/Talks/0617-lod-tbl/#(4) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 22
    23. 23. A few Bubbles: 5/2007Over 500 million RDF triplesAround 120,000 RDF links between data sources © Richard Cyganiak DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 23
    24. 24. And a lot of Bubbles as of last Year DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 24
    25. 25. Google entering the Floor DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 25
    26. 26. Modelling Object Representations as RDFAggregations generates new questions ... B Where do resource A aggregations start? Where do they end? And what constitutes document boundaries?? And which node was connected to which one at a given C time??? DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 26
    27. 27. Aggregations and Context:Calculating Closeness DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 27
    28. 28. … and new opportunities: TripleSets and Reasoning DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 28
    29. 29. ... based on Documents asAggregations of RDF-Triples (1) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 29
    30. 30. Documents as Aggregationsof RDF-Triples (2)<nanopublication id="0"><assertion> <subject>NG_000007.3:g.70628G>A</subject> <predicate>has variant frequency</predicate> <object>0.25%</object> </assertion> <condition>Sardinian</condition> <provenance> <dateofcreation>March 24, 2011</dateofcreation> <lastedit>March 24, 2011</lastedit> <evidenceType>empirical</evidenceType> <authorID>Giardine et. al.</authorID> <curatorID>unresolved</curatorID> <registrantID>Mons et. al.</registrantID> <PMID>6695908</PMID> <PMID>1428944</PMID> <PMID>1610915</PMID> <DOI>http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.785</DOI> <linkout>http://globin.bx.psu.edu/cgi-bin/hbvar/query_vars3?mode=output&display_format=page&i=239</linkout> <linkout>http://phencode.bx.psu.edu/cgi-bin/phencode/phencode?build=hg18&id=HbVar.239</linkout> </provenance><nanopublication id="0"> DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 30
    31. 31. The use of InferencesCitation: van Haagen HHHBM, t Hoen PAC, Botelho Bovo A, de Morrée A, van Mulligen EM, et al.(2009) Novel Protein-Protein Interactions Inferred from Literature Context. PLoS ONE 4(11): e7894.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007894 / Example provided by Jan Velterop DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 31
    32. 32. Data = PublicationDistinction data vs. publication will get increasinglyobsolete in semantic publishing environments …… at least in the STM sector.The move into semantic publication will be muchslower in the SSH because of fuzzy and unstable terminology fuzzy linking semantics hard to formalise consistently close relation between complex document formats and scholarly discourseCurrent examples are mostly from the medical andbio-medical area as a consequenceWe are exploring potential of change in the SSH in DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 32
    33. 33. → Visualise and Explore Cultural ContextMapping the Republic of Letters:https://republicofletters.stanford.edu/#mapsOr again a Finnish example (Kultuurisampo):http://www.kulttuurisampo.fi/kulsa/historiallisetKartat.shtmlOr again the graph of writers and thinkers andhow they are connected:http://zoom.it/Vj6F (is this one really useful?)→ http://mariandoerk.de/edgemaps/demo/Or, finally: KUL vs. UCL:http://www.visualdataweb.org/relfinder/relfinder.php DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 33
    34. 34. Graph of Thinkers DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 34
    35. 35. Graph of Philosophers DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 35
    36. 36. KUL vs. UCL Imagine including the digitized archive Of KUL in this picture! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 36
    37. 37. The Europeana Data Model (EDM) in the LoD Context DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 37
    38. 38. EDM – what is it?And what not?EDM is the metadata model in the course ofreplacing the ESE …… a model for making statements about digitalrepresentations of cultural heritage objects… a model for contextualising such representationsEDM is not an object model (but might be combinedwith object and process models)!EDM is an RDF based graph modelEDM enables modeling of objects and context andthus knowledge generation DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 38
    39. 39. EDM: ClassesCIDOC CRM E5 hierarchycould be pruned here DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 39
    40. 40. EDM: Properties DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 40
    41. 41. Mona Lisa: French Ministry ofCulture DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 41
    42. 42. Metadata Record in EDM Digital Representations ProxyAggregation Cultural Heritage Object DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 42
    43. 43. Semantic Enrichmentens:Agent: persons or organizations ens:TimeSpan: time periods or datesens:Place: spatial entities skos:Concept: entities from KOS DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 43
    44. 44. Event-Centric ModelingPreserving and exploiting original data also means being compatiblewith descriptions beyond simple object level (→ CIDOC CRM!) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 44
    45. 45. Complex Objects Part-whole links for complex (hierarchical) objects Order among parts of objects Derivation and versioning relations DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 45
    46. 46. Les Fleurs du Mal: UNIMARChttp://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37367035f 000 nam 22 450 001FRBNF373670350000003 009http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37367035f 039 $oGEA$a000288182 100 $a19920409d1857 m y0frey50 ba 1010 $afre 102 $aFR 105 $a||||z 00||| 106 $ar 2001 $aˆLes ‰fleurs du mal$bTexte imprimé$fpar Charles Baudelaire 210 $aParis$cPoulet-Malassis et De Broise$d1857 215 $a248 p.$d19 cm 676 $a841.8$v22 686 $a840$2Cadre de classement de la Bibliographie nationale française 700 |$311890582$aBaudelaire$bCharles$4070 801 0$aFR$bBNF$c19920409$gAFNOR$2intermrc DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 46
    47. 47. Les Fleurs du Mal: Gallicahttp://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k70861t DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 47
    48. 48. Les Fleurs du Mal: Digitisedhttp://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k70861t.textePage.f1 DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 48
    49. 49. Les Fleurs du Mal: EDM Digital Representations Semantic ContextAggregation Proxy Cultural Heritage Object (CHO) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 49
    50. 50. What can you use it for:De arte venandi cum avibusDH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 50
    51. 51. De Arte Venandi … (1) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 51
    52. 52. De Arte Venandi … (2) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 52
    53. 53. De Arte Venandi … (3) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 53
    54. 54. De Arte Venandi … Subgraph 1 DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 54
    55. 55. De Arte Venandi … (4) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 55
    56. 56. De Arte Venandi … (5) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 56
    57. 57. De Arte Venandi … Subgraphs1+2 DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 57
    58. 58. De Arte Venandi … (6) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 58
    59. 59. De Arte Venandi … (6) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 59
    60. 60. De Arte Venandi … (6) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 60
    61. 61. De Arte Venandi …done right DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 61
    62. 62. De Arte Venandi …theres more! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 62
    63. 63. De Arte Venandi …theres more (2)! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 63
    64. 64. De Arte Venandi …theres more (3)! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 64
    65. 65. An Opportunity for the Library ...… and what it needs to do to be up to it DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 65
    66. 66. “What do you do with a millionbooks?” (G. Crane) Digitisation and semantic publishing result in growing quantity increased complexity Well beyond scholarly processing capacity (=reading faculty) Scientists and Scholars will badly need help in three areas: Semantic abstracting, named entity recognition for “strategic reading” (Renear) Contextualisation of information objects Robust reasoning and inferencing yielding digital heuristics => Opportunities for Research Libraries! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 66
    67. 67. Ceci nest pas une bibliothèque DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 67
    68. 68. Ceci nest pas une bibliothèque DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 68
    69. 69. Catalogue The card catalog in the nave of Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University. Picture by Henry Trotter, 2005. DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 69
    70. 70. Catalogue Entry: MARC Record DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 70
    71. 71. Library Collections Photo © Ralf Küpper DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 71
    72. 72. Change Thinking,Change Terminology! Libraries will serve research as part of the Linked Open Data web – or else risk becoming insignificant. For operating this change we definitely need to change terminology and underlying thinking patterns: Aggregation Catalogue Document Graph DiscoveryHoldings Information Knowledge Record Context LinkLibrary Search Navigation DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 72
    73. 73. From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (1) Reverse Proportional! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 73
    74. 74. From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (2) Reverse Proportional! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 74
    75. 75. From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (3) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 75
    76. 76. From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (4) DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 76
    77. 77. Sticking to empty metaphors ..."Whats in a name? That which we call a roseBy any other name would smell as sweet."(Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 1-2)) Why then do we stick to emptied metaphors? … because they constitute identity (a very bad reason!) … because they guarantee institutional persistency (a fallacy!) … because we are afraid of substantial changes and believe in things changing only once we use new terms (dangerously childish!) … or simply because we do not have new terms yet? Let us then start looking for them! DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 77
    78. 78. Lessons learned in Europeana We have learned some of these lessons in Europeana – we dropped the brand “EDL” very early – we decided not to have a catalogue We know that the current portal is not enough – we devised the RDF based Europeana Data Model (EDM) – we are gradually migrating to EDM based operations – we make Europeana part of the Linked Open Data cloud DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 78
    79. 79. An Aggregation ... DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 79
    80. 80. … some context DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 80
    81. 81. … more context DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 81
    82. 82. … and the Big Picture:Object and Semantic Data Layer DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 82
    83. 83. EDM and Linked Open DataContext Data•DBpedia•GND•Geonames•LCSH•… DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 83
    84. 84. A Triple WinEuropeana wins Becoming a prime resource for digital humanities scholars Winning a new and clearly focused customer groupDigital humanists win Gaining a prime resource on the WWW Gaining new research methods based on semantic technologiesLibrarians win With a new profile, a new identity Back in content and knowledge generation business On a par with scholars again All libraries? All librarians?? DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 84
    85. 85. Suggested ReadingGregory Crane (2006): What Do you Do with a Million Books? In: Dlib Magazine, Vol. 12, March. (http://bit.ly/JhzF90)Gutenberg Paranthesis Research Group / University of Southern Denmark: Position Paper (http://bit.ly/JjGKb6)David Parry: Burn the Boats/Books. Presentation to Digital Writing and Research Lab, Austin. (http://bit.ly/JYLlJV)David Shotton (2009a): Semantic Publishing. The coming revolution in scientific journal publishing. Learned Publishing Volume 22, No 2, 85– 94, April 2009; doi:10.1087/2009202David Shotton et al. (2009b): Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article (http://bit.ly/IgT5Km)Barend Mons, Jan Velterop: Nano-Publication in the e-science era (http://bit.ly/IISMGt)Alan Renear, Carol Palmer (2009): Strategic Reading, Ontologies and the Future of scientific Publishing. In: Science, August 2009, p. 828 – 832.Thank you for your patience and attention DH Research, Europeana and The Embedded Semantic Research Library Prof. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, Cortona, January 18, 2013 85
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