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# Problem formulation

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• Hi can i get a soft copy of the book Research Methodology by Kumar? can you send it in my email address, I will appreciate your help. thanks in advance.

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• Beautiful and easy to understand

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### Transcript

• 1. Problem formulation<br />A problem well defined is a problem half solved<br />created by the Dreamteam<br />
• 2. Overview<br />What is a good problem formulation?<br />Why is a good problem formulation important?<br />How to set up a problem formulation?<br />Do‘s &amp; Dont‘s<br />Sources<br />
• 3. Whatis a goodproblemformulation?<br />Definition:<br />„Problem formulation is the creative and probably the more important step towards overcoming a problematic state than problem-solving. A good definition of what the problem is, is believed to be more than half of the way towards is eventual elimination.“ (ask.references.com)<br />
• 4. What is a good Problem formulation?<br />Interesting – keeps the researcher involved in it throughout the research process<br />Researchable – can be investigated through the collection and analysis of data, using case study or other techniques <br />Understandable and logically build up – well formulated and has logical structure with main question and following sub-questions<br />
• 5. What is a good problem formulation?<br />Manageable – fits the level of researcher’s level of research skills, needed resources, and time restrictions<br />Purposeful – establishes cooperation between researcher and business which should lead to economical and practical development of both sides<br />Ethical – does not embarrass or harm participants<br />
• 6. Why is a good problem formulation important?<br />Formulating a Problem formulation is the first and most important step of a research process<br />The problem formulation is like an identification of a destination before undertaking a journey<br />The research problem serves as a foundation of a research study; like a building and its foundation<br />If it is well formulated, you can expect a good study to follow<br />Remember: Confusion is often but the first step to clarity<br />
• 7. How to set up a problem formulation?<br />
• 8. How to set up a problem formulation?<br />Step 1: Choose a area/topic<br />Your own interest is your most essential motivational factor (Andersen, 2005)<br />Brainstorm techniques<br />Be creative, be open to new ideas<br />Quantity<br />Step 2: Narrowing down<br />Be critical<br />Determine whether the information already exists<br />Choose a subject<br />Think: what is the problem, why is it a problem, and who is it a problem for? (Andersen,2005)<br />Divide the broad area into sub areas<br />
• 9. How to set up a problem formulation?<br />Step 3: Write the problem formulation<br />Raise research questions + sub questions<br />Understandable language<br />Clearly delimited<br />Determine whether the question can be answered<br />Step 4: Double check<br />Check everything (main question, sub questions)<br />Ask yourself the question if you are satisfied with your problem formulation<br />Remember in any case to always justify why you choose exactly the problem formulation you do, rather than other possible problem formulations (Andersen, 2005)<br />
• 10. Do‘s &amp; Dont‘s<br />Do’s<br />Free thinking wild ideas, spontaneous, creative<br />Use brainstorm techniques<br />Seek help if running in circles/empty of ideas<br />Always look on the bright side of life<br />Dont’s<br />Avoid negative thinking<br />Don’t panic<br />Don’t push yourself in a corner<br />
• 11. Thank you for your attention<br />
• 12. Sources<br />Andersen, IB (2002): Den SkinbarlingeVirkelikghed. Copenhagen: Samfundsliteratur<br />http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;id=x_kp__WmFzoC&amp;oi=fnd&amp;pg=PR16&amp;dq=guide+for+problem+formulation&amp;ots=mPrby18e29&amp;sig=eMLKjP-0v8kXOv65-EgP7Om81zY#v=onepage&amp;q=&amp;f=false<br />Kumar, R (2005). Research methodology, a step by step guide for beginners, SAGE<br />Andersen (2005). Guide to problem formulation, Samfundslitteratur Press<br />Table: Kasper Kok, Peter Valkering, et al.<br />http://edepot.wur.nl/19270<br />