Test presentation


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Test presentation

  1. 1. TEST Presented By Nadia Nazir 1
  2. 2. TEST A test is a means of measuring the knowledge, skills, feelings, intelligence or aptitude of an individual or group. 2
  3. 3. Test are divided into two categories:  Objective items It is highly structured and requires the pupils to supply a word or two or to select the correct answer from a number of alternatives.  Essay questions It permits the pupils to select, organize and present the answer in essay form. 3
  4. 4. The objective test items classified into:  Supply types that require the pupil to supply the answer.  Selection types that require the pupil to select the answer from the nunmber of alternatives. 4
  5. 5. Essay questions classified into:  Extended response type In which people are given complete freedom in making their responses.  Restricted response type In which the nature, length or organization of the response is limited. 5
  6. 6. Comparative advantages of objectives and essay tests: Objective test Essay Test Learning outcomes measured Efficient for measuring knowledge of facts Inefficient for measuring knowledge of facts Preparation of questions Large number of questions is needed A few questions are needed Sampling of course content Provides an extensive Sampling of course sampling of course content is usually limited content Complete structuring of Freedom to respond task limits pupil to type of response called for. Control of pupil’s response 6
  7. 7. Objective Test Scoring Influence on learning Reliability Objective scoring is quick, easy and consistent Encourages pupil to develop a comprehensive knowledge of specific facts High reliability is possible Eassy Test Subjective scoring is slow, difficult and inconsistent Encourages pupils to concentrate on larger units of subject matter with special emphasis Reliability is typically low 7
  8. 8. Selecting the most appropriate item types  Supply the answer  Selection type • Multiple-choice item • True-false item • Matching items 8
  9. 9. Consideration in preparing relevant test items STEP 1: The purpose of the step should be determined. STEP 2: A set of specifications should be developed. STEP 3: The most appropriate item types should be selected. STEP 4: The test item should be constructed in accordance with the specification developed during the preceding steps. 9
  10. 10. Selecting Proper Item Difficulty Item Difficulty Item difficulty is expressed as the percentage of pupils answering the item correctly. Criterion-Referenced: The difficulty of the items to be included in a classroom test depends largely on whether the test is being designed to describe the specific learning tasks pupils can perform. Norm-Referenced: To rank the pupils in order of their achievements. 10
  11. 11. Some Possible Barriers in Test Items: >Ambiguous statements >Excessive wordiness >Difficult vocabulary >Complex sentence structure >Unclear instructions >Unclear illustrative material >Race, ethnic and sex bias 11
  12. 12. Some Common Clues in Test Item: Grammatical inconsistencies Verbal associations Specific determiners Length of correct responses Location of correct responses 12
  13. 13. General Suggestions for Writing Test Items: 1.Use your test specifications as aguide to item writing. 2. Write more test items than needed. 3. Write the test items well in advance of the testing date. 4. Write each test item so that it calls forth the performance described in the intended learning outcome. 13
  14. 14. 5. Write each test item so that the task to be performed is clearly defined. 6. Write each test item at an appropriate reading level. 7. Write each item so that it does not provode help in answering other items in the test. 8. Write each test item so that the answer is one that would be agreed upon by experts 14
  15. 15. 9. Write each item so that it is at the proper level of difficulty 10. Whenever a test item is revised, recheck its relevance 15
  16. 16. Focusing on improving learning and instruction: 1. Tests can have a desirable influence on pupil learning if attention is paid to the breadth of content and learning outcomes measured by the tests. 1. Constructing tests that measure a variety of learning outcomes should also lead to improved teaching procedures and thus indirectly to improved pupil learning. 1. Finally a test will contribute to improved teacher-pupil relations if pupils view the test as a fair and useful measure of their achievement. 16