Discrimination on the Base of Gender in Hotelling Business


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Discrimination on the Base of Gender in Hotelling Business

  1. 1. Discrimination On The Base Of GenderProblem Area Discrimination on the base of Gender.Literature review This literature review evaluation is based on the impact of discrimination on thefoundation of gender in organization. There is a lot of discrimination in the organization in thewhole world. The gender discrimination may exist in various dimensions which include hiringdiscrimination, variations in wage and income, inequity in marketing and discrepancy related todifferent products and features offered to different gender. Although many organizations hasobserved discrimination of gender, need and have started activities which eliminate the genderdiscrimination. Title VII of the Civil Rights (Act of 1964). According to this act provides strongprotections against gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, Title VII makes it illegalfor an employer: To fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual or otherwise to discriminateagainst any individual with respect to his [or her] compensation, conditions, or right of career,because of such individuals Gender. To limit, individual or categorized employees or candidates for employment in any waywhich would deprive or tend to deprive any individual job possibilities or otherwise impact [theindividuals] position as an worker, because of such individuals gender. Title VII also prohibits sex discrimination in on-the-job and apprenticeship programs,retaliation against an employee for opposing a discriminatory employment practice, andsexually stereotyped advertisements for employment positions. The 1964 Civil Rights Act effectively outlawed the practice of discrimination.Unfortunately, gender discrimination still occurs at companies across the country. Genderdiscrimination impacts a company in a very negative way. The hostile work environmentfostered by gender discrimination lowers productivity and decreases employees sense of wellbeing. In addition, managers who practice gender discrimination may pass over the best workerfor the job. Moreover, gender discrimination leaves a organization liable for costly, time-consuming lawsuit. (Morgan, 1967) says that gender discrimination can be seen with unequal treatmentbased on gender. Notice that the treatment has to be defined as being "unequal." Obviously,its not gender discrimination to have men and women using different bathrooms, but it isgender discrimination if one restroom is cleaned by a cleaning crew and the other bathroom iscleaned by those people using it. 1
  2. 2. Discrimination On The Base Of Gender (Hearn and Parkin, 1987) emphasized on female issue in those organizations who arecontrolled by male. Economic Forum of the world describes Gender inequality “no country inthe world has yet managed to eliminate the gender gap and discrimination”. Workforce marketis divided into horizontally and vertically with reference to male biasness and female biasnesssuch as unfair distribution of pay and wages of male worker and female worker. Hiring criteriais different for male staff and female staff. (Anderson, 1988) defines as Gender refers to the social roles and status differencebetween women and men in a society. These roles are determined by the social, cultural andeconomic organizations of a society and the prevailing religious, moral and legal norms. Sex isa biological term while “gender” a psychological and socio-cultural one. According to (Williams, 1990) all employees are presumed to be treated equal.Unfortunately, that is not always the case. Employees have been excluded from hiring orpromotion not because they were unqualified, but simply based on their gender. Under U.S.law, Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits the discrimination of any employee basedon gender. (Abbas and Waheed, 1963) conduct this research that gender discrimination may existin various dimensions which include hiring discrimination, differences in salary and wages,inequity in promotion and imbalance related to different goods and facilities provided todifferent gender. Employee is a back bone of the organization that performs critical tasks forthe survival of the organization and employee productivity affected by gender discrimination.Therefore this study is designed to investigate gender discrimination and its affect on employeeproductivity. Normally, Male is dominated in Pakistan so first choice is male. We have done thisresearch in order to check gender discrimination & its effect on productivity level in Telecomsector of Pakistan. This study helpful for the human resource managers of telecom sector whoare facing such kind of issues related to gender discrimination and its affect on employeeproductivity. It swill also helpful for the employee in any telecom company, by providinginformation about the basic effective points of gender discrimination on your productivity. According to (CRA, 1991) The civil act of 1991 into a law in November 1991. The effectof cva 1991 was roll back equal employment law to where it stood before the 1980 decision. (Anderson, 1997) present a solution to preventing people from getting hired based ontheir gender is to remove the implications of gender from the hiring and promotion process.When managers get together to discuss hiring a candidate, the information given should bebased on the candidates qualifications. The candidates name and gender should be kept out ofthe final decision process. When considering promotions within the company, use theemployees accomplishments and background without including the name or gender in thediscussion. All qualified employees should be considered for promotions based on their record 2
  3. 3. Discrimination On The Base Of Genderwith the company. When creating human resources policies that deal with hiring andpromotions, they should be based on qualifications and not gender, the "Journal of the NationalMedical Association" reports. (McLeary, 2002) argue that gender discrimination is the unfair treatment or judgment ofan individual based on his gender. This type of discrimination is especially rampant in the areaof employment, where promotion, job employment, wage and other benefits tend to be genderbiased. (Syed, 2003) says Equal employment opportunity (EEO) is a new concept in Pakistan.Pakistan´s constitution puts a ban on discrimination on the basis of gender (Articles 27 and 34).Pakistan is also a signatory of ILO instruments (Conventions No. 100, 111, 159 etc) that prohibitdiscrimination in employment. However, Pakistani organizations in practice do not offer equalopportunities and there are instances of discrimination on the basis of gender, religion,ethnicity etc. Effect of discrimination is more pronounced for women due to a host of factorsincluding feudal and patriarchal nature of society and misunderstanding of religion. There is no concerted effort on the national scale to introduce equal employmentpractices. Government and corporate sector do not have a model for EEO, and do notappreciate its foundation. A majority of employers in Pakistan perceive equal employment andaffirmative action (AA) as a western idea not relevant to Pakistani society. Popular opinion is tothink of EEO and AA as an additional bureaucratic expenditure that does not contribute toorganizational productivity and competitiveness. With short-term monetary targets as the topmost main concern, a typical Pakistani employer fails to understand that EEO will contribute tocost effective decision-making and efficient management. In the absence of a practical modelfor EEO, equal employment for Pakistani organizations will remain a dream.It would beimprudent to transplant a western concept of EEO that does not conform to Pakistani cultureand value system. In his article he proposes a model for EEO in Pakistan, based on two factors: 1. Identification of specific characteristics of Pakistani society 2. Analysis of a survey about discrimination in Pakistani society (Jawad.S, 2003) tells in his study that The Federal Government introduced new laborpolicy in 2002 empowering labor courts to order re-instatement of illegally dismissed workersor award reasonable compensation in lieu of re-instatement. This policy also calls for extensionand up gradation of vocational and industrial training programs to meet the changes ofglobalization and avoidance of redundancies. If implemented intrude spirit, this is expected tobe a right step towards affirmative action and equal employment opportunity. This is expectedto result in good employer-employee relationship through the strategy of interdependence byemployers and employees and their mutual trust. New laws also promise protection ofcontractual labor by redefining temporary jobs in accordance with international standards. The 3
  4. 4. Discrimination On The Base Of Genderpolicy pledges equal opportunities for all and categorically bans child and bonded labor, anddiscrimination on the basis of gender etc. Research has found that using a computer at work is associated with higher pay and isone of the contributing factors in wage differences between men and women. (Allyn, 2003)indicates that men appear to receive more pay because of their higher returns to education. According to the study conducted on computers with gender and pay as variables, menreceive complimentary benefits from education which is enough to create a bigger wage gapwhen they use the computers. According to (Allyn, 2003) citing Krueger and Pischke, there is a substantial wage gapbetween those who use computers and those who do not. The raw wage gap demonstratedthat male users are the beneficiaries of greater salary increments compared to females, thusthe overall impact of the use of computers on the wage gap has been negligible and has notbeen reduced. (Okpara, at al, 2005) have conducted a study on gender differences and job satisfactionof United States academics. The researchers found that there are gender differences in the jobsatisfaction levels of the university professors that they surveyed. Female professors inacademics earn less and are less satisfied with their pay than their male colleagues. (Kara, 2006) in his study on occupation gender wage discrimination in Turkey,Turkey has the lowest women employment/population ratio in which women earn 16% lessthan men per hour on average. Turkey has numerous laws governing wage discrimination, yetthere is indeed wage discrimination in favor of men. The researcher emphasizes the use ofhuman capital theory which explains that productivity is basically determined by the stock ofhuman capital a worker holds. Formal education and work experience are human capitalinvestments which affect productivity and earnings. (Peterson and Thea, 2006) describe that their are so many ways of the genderdiscrimination in organizations due to the unfair actions of the employer; discrimination in jobcompensation package, hiring discrimination, and favoritism related to job promotion, andunfairness in wage setting for different type of job work. Many analysts agree on this “hiring ismost important; promotion is second; and wages are third.” Although in organizationalresearch literature, Gender issues related to the differences of male and female werepinpointed in decade of 1950s, but highlighted as an important issue in management andorganizational studies in between 1980s & 1990s. The duration between these two periodsrecognized the gender effects in different studies. (Mukhtar.S, 2008) explains Women in Pakistan, to the social and cultural conditions, aremore disadvantaged than the women in modern western democratic societies. Educated andprofessional women in urban areas, who are from upper class of the society, enjoy much better 4
  5. 5. Discrimination On The Base Of Genderstatus and rights than illiterate women in rural areas. This is the reason we dont find girls atoffices as much as we find men. This is a major drawback as it leads a nation towards economic disaster as half thenation in the form of girls if wont participate then economic will reduce. They are not allowedto participate in economic activities and hence their professional qualification goes in the bin.The story of social and economic injustice with reference to gender discrimination is very long.As it exists in almost all the societies. Girls excel in academics so more girls avail admissions inmedical colleges. After getting qualified as M.B.B.S, majority girls do not practice due to oursocial factors. (Elisabeth K. Kelan, 2009) claimed that gender-quake is disturbing gender terms andrelations dramatically. It looks like those western well developed countries are well aware thisissue but don’t like to address gender inequality among male & female employee. Workplace Gender discrimination is not only harmful to the professional growth of anindividual but also limits the growth of business firm. There are laws to prevent violation ofemployees, be it on the basis of gender. However, these laws may vary depending on the lawsof the state where the business firm is registered. There may also be a time limit between theact of discrimination and time of bringing the act in front of the legislation. To maximize oneschance of stopping such harassment at workplace, timely action on part of the victim is critical. (The News) ISLAMABAD: Chief Justice of Pakistan Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhryobserved that discrimination on gender basis should not be permitted at any level. A two-member bench of the apex court, comprising Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry andJustice Ghulam Rabbani, was hearing a promotion case of some nine females who wereappointed as Assistant Sub Inspectors in the FIA. (Kaz, 2011) declares that according to the constitution of Pakistan all citizens are equalbefore the law and are entitled to equal protection. It prohibits discrimination on the basis ofsex and commits the State to take steps to ensure the full participation of women in all area oflife. The Government has committed using a rights-based approach towards gender justice andequality and had set out two main objectives for 2005 to 2010 i.e meeting women‘s basic needsand promoting poverty reduction and economic empowerment. Under new initiatives theMTDF (Medium Term Development Framework) directs that lawmaking reform should speciallyfocus on discriminatory laws. The MTDF also commits to implementing the national Policy onDevelopment and Empowerment of Women (2002) The Government of Pakistan hasobligations for human rights under International agreements. Gender is often misunderstood asbeing the protection of women rights only. That may be because at present concentration is onempowerment of women socially and economically. Government of Pakistan, therefore, needsto uplift the status of women, to bring them a bit closer to status of male population if notequal to them, because at present it seems a farfetched dream. 5
  6. 6. Discrimination On The Base Of Gender References: Allyn, M.R. (2003). Computers, gender, and pay. The Journal of Business and Economic Abbas.Dr. Qasir. Gender Discrimination & Its Effect on Employee Performance/Productivity Professor Dr. Qaisar Abbas Managing Editor South Asian Journal of Global Business Research COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Pakistan. Anderson.(1988). Thinking about women. 2nd Ed. McMillan, New York. Anderson Arnold. (1997). Solutions for Gender Discrimination .Journal of the National Medical Association Debopriya Bose. 21 sep 2011 Kalan.k Elisabeth. (2009).Gender Fatigue: The Ideological Dilemma of Gender Neutrality and Discrimination in Organizations. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences Vol. No.26, pp. 197-210. Hearn & Parkin (1987).gender at work. The power and paradox of organizational sexuality, Press pp 20-24 New York, united state of amrica Jawad S. (2003). Naqvi is a human resource practitioner and is serving in a textile factory ,Lahore,Pakistan Kara, O. (2006). Occupational gender wage discrimination in turkey. Journal of Economic Kazi. April (2011). specialist women empowerment and gender rights planning and development division.commission government of Pakistan Mari Teigen (1999). Documenting Discriminatio.:A Study of Recruitment Cases Brought to the Norwegian Gender Equality Ombud. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Vol.6 No.2, pp.91- 105 McLeary Lita. (2002). Issues in Gender Discrimination Mukhtar.sanam. January 30, 2008. Gender Discrimination in Pakistan.News and Society,pakistan . Okpara, J. O., Squillace, M., & Erondu, E. A. (2005). Gender differences and job satisfaction. Peterson and Thea. (2006) .Getting the offer. Sex discrimination in hiring. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility science Direct Vol. No. 24, pp. 239–257. Jawad Syed (2003). University of Kent. Equal Employment Model for a Pakistani Organization, Pakistan. Sarfin Rachel Levy (1998). Ways That Gender Discrimination Impacts a Company Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964). Title VII – prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The Civil Rights Act (1991). Provides monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination 6
  7. 7. Discrimination On The Base Of Gender Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of (1964). The News (2010). Tuesday 10 June. Williams Shemiah (1990). A STUDY OF What Is Gender Discrimination in the Workplace Hameed Abdula Aamer Waheed Lecturer, Management Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad, Pakistan. 7