- 1. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 1 Impact of Capital Structure on Profitability in Pharmaceutical Industry of Pakistan. A Thesis Submitted to Superior University, Lahore, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of Degree of Master in Commerce, superior University Lahore, Pakistan BY Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 2013
- 2. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 2 Impact of Capital Structure on Profitability in Pharmaceutical Industry of Pakistan. BY Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 Approved By ____________________________ Supervisor ____________________________ External Examiner ____________________________ Chairman
- 3. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 3 DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY I, Mutahir bilal, declare that this thesis is my own work and has not been submitted in any form for another degree or diploma at any university or other institute of tertiary education. Information derived from the published and unpublished work of others has been acknowledged in the text and a list of references is given in the bibliography.
- 4. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 4 DEDICATION I dedicate my work to my parents who devoted their lives and resources for my disciplined qualifications. I specially dedicate this to my mother and offer thanks to her for her love, sincerity, prayers and mellifluous affections which hearten me to achieve success in every sphere of my life and without whose encouragement and moral support, the present study would have been a mere dream.
- 5. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to first and foremost thank God for being my strength and guide in the writing of this thesis. Without Him, I would not had the wisdom or the physical ability to do so. I express my gratitude to my thesis advisor Miss KHANSA for devoting much time to reading my work over and over again. Her special interest and knowledge in issues related to pharmaceutical sector enabled her to give me the right guidance and also provided me with much needed motivation. I also thank my reader Nadia Izhar for taking the time to help me in finding the necessary literature and incorporating it into the writing of this thesis. From her I have learned the importance of producing a good piece of work and putting into it the very best that you have. I thank my parents for always being supportive of my education. I also take this opportunity to acknowledge everyone in my large extended family.
- 6. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 6 ABSTRACT The intent of this research is to determine and examine the nature of relationship that exists between capital structure and profitability in pharmaceutical industry in Pakistan. In view of the fact that this study is quantitative in nature and this area is exceedingly under researched, therefore present study use quantitative methodology. For this purpose 10 companies data of 3 years is collected to determine the relation between capital structure (short term assets, long term assets, short term liability and long term liability) and profitability (return on assets and return on equity). Companies are listed at Karachi stock exchange. Finding of the study show that there is non significant relationship between capital structure and profitability. In view of the fact that not a large level of studies has been conducted which analyzes capital structure and profitability in Pakistani pharmaceutical industry, therefore this study is expected to contribute to the literature. Future more, this study will prove to be the basis for the future research in this area. Keywords: short term assets, long term assets, short term liability, long term liability, return on assets, return on equity.
- 7. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS Declaration of Originality ..........................................................................................3 Dedication ..................................................................................................................4 Acknowledgement......................................................................................................5 Abstract ......................................................................................................................6 CHAPTER 1.............................................................................................................12 1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................12 1.2 Purpose Statmnet............................................................................................14 1.3 Significance of Study......................................................................................15 1.4 Objective of Study..........................................................................................16 1.5 Research Question and Hypothesis ................................................................16 1.5.1 Research Question................................................................................16 1.5.2 Hypothesis ...........................................................................................16 1.6 Term Definitions.............................................................................................18 Capital Structure.....................................................................................18 Profitablity..............................................................................................18 Long Term Assets..................................................................................18 Short Term Assets .................................................................................18 Long Term Liability ..............................................................................18 Short Term Liability..............................................................................19 Return on Equity.....................................................................................19 Return on Assets.....................................................................................19 1.7 Conceptual Framework...................................................................................20 CHAPTER 2.............................................................................................................21 2.1 Literature review.............................................................................................21 CHAPTER 3.............................................................................................................30 3.1 Research Paradigm .........................................................................................30 3.2 Research Approach.........................................................................................31 3.3 Source of Data ................................................................................................33 3.4 Population and Sample...................................................................................34 3.5 Methodology...................................................................................................34 CHAPTER4..............................................................................................................37 4.1 Descriptive Analysis.......................................................................................37 4.1.1 Descriptive Analysis.........................................................................37 4.1.2 Descriptive Analysis.........................................................................37 4.2 Correlation......................................................................................................52
- 8. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 8 4.2.1 Correlation.........................................................................................52 4.2.2 Correlation.........................................................................................52 4.2.3 Correlation.........................................................................................53 4.2.4 Correlation.........................................................................................53 4.2.5 Correlation.........................................................................................54 4.2.6 Correlation.........................................................................................54 4.2.7 Correlation.........................................................................................55 4.2.8 Correlation.........................................................................................55 4.3 Regression ......................................................................................................56 4.3.1 Regression .........................................................................................56 4.3.2 Regression ........................................................................................57 4.3.3 Regression ........................................................................................58 4.3.4 Regression ........................................................................................59 4.3.5 Regression ........................................................................................60 4.3.6 Regression ........................................................................................61 4.3.7 Regression ........................................................................................62 4.3.8 Regression ........................................................................................63 CHAPTER 5.............................................................................................................65 5.1 Discussion.......................................................................................................65 5.2 Conclusion......................................................................................................69 5.3 Recommendation............................................................................................70 5.4 Future Research ..............................................................................................71 5.5 Ethical Consideration .....................................................................................71 References ................................................................................................................72 Appendix..................................................................................................................74
- 9. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 9 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1......................................................................................................................................... 34 TABLE 2......................................................................................................................................... 37 TABLE 3......................................................................................................................................... 37 TABLE 4......................................................................................................................................... 52 TABLE 5......................................................................................................................................... 52 TABLE 6......................................................................................................................................... 53 TABLE 7......................................................................................................................................... 53 TABLE 8......................................................................................................................................... 54 TABLE 9......................................................................................................................................... 54 TABLE 10....................................................................................................................................... 55 TABLE 11....................................................................................................................................... 55 TABLE 12....................................................................................................................................... 56 TABLE 13....................................................................................................................................... 56 TABLE 14....................................................................................................................................... 56 TABLE 15....................................................................................................................................... 56 TABLE 16....................................................................................................................................... 57 TABLE 17....................................................................................................................................... 57 TABLE 18....................................................................................................................................... 57 TABLE 19....................................................................................................................................... 58 TABLE 20....................................................................................................................................... 58 TABLE 21....................................................................................................................................... 58 TABLE 22....................................................................................................................................... 58 TABLE 23....................................................................................................................................... 59 TABLE 24....................................................................................................................................... 59 TABLE 25....................................................................................................................................... 59 TABLE 26....................................................................................................................................... 59 TABLE 27....................................................................................................................................... 60 TABLE 28....................................................................................................................................... 60 TABLE 29....................................................................................................................................... 60 TABLE 30....................................................................................................................................... 60 TABLE 31....................................................................................................................................... 61 TABLE 32....................................................................................................................................... 61
- 10. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 10 TABLE 33....................................................................................................................................... 61 TABLE 34....................................................................................................................................... 62 TABLE 35....................................................................................................................................... 62 TABLE 36....................................................................................................................................... 62 TABLE 37....................................................................................................................................... 63 TABLE 38....................................................................................................................................... 63 TABLE 39....................................................................................................................................... 63 TABLE 40....................................................................................................................................... 64 TABLE 41....................................................................................................................................... 64 TABLE 42....................................................................................................................................... 64
- 11. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 11 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1........................................................................................................................................ 20 FIGURE 2........................................................................................................................................ 20 FIGURE 3........................................................................................................................................ 38 FIGURE 5........................................................................................................................................ 39 FIGURE 4........................................................................................................................................ 40 FIGURE 6........................................................................................................................................ 41 FIGURE 7........................................................................................................................................ 42 FIGURE 8........................................................................................................................................ 43 FIGURE 9........................................................................................................................................ 44 FIGURE 10...................................................................................................................................... 45 FIGURE 11...................................................................................................................................... 46 FIGURE 12...................................................................................................................................... 47 FIGURE 13...................................................................................................................................... 48 FIGURE 14...................................................................................................................................... 49 FIGURE 15...................................................................................................................................... 50 FIGURE 16...................................................................................................................................... 51
- 12. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 12 CHAPTER NO 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction According to a journal (vol-1No. June 2011) on pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan ,the pharmaceutical industry is very active and demanding. About 600 Pharmaceutical companies are working in Pakistan. Out of these corporations 386 are in commission units. A well-built and self dependent National Pharmaceutical Industry is not only playing a explicit role in supporting and encouraging growth in the central pasture of medicine within the country, but is also locate a good manner to take on the international markets. All the pharmaceutical companies should look into these figures and try to discover the sectors for not performing up to the mark in pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, it is also a prospect for the corporation to take advantage of on this situation and attempt to generate trade from the pharmaceutical business. Pharmaceutical Industry is one of the foremost manufacturing industries in Pakistan providing employment to thousands of people openly and ultimately. The Pakistan Pharmaceutical Industry assembles around 70% of the country's demand of refined medicine. The domestic pharmaceutical market, in term of share market is approximately having equally divided between the Nationals and the Multinationals (Anne et al 2005). The significance of pharmaceuticals sold in 2007 exceeded $1.4, which associate to per capita spending of less than $ 10 per year and an assessment of medicines sold is predictable to exceed $2.3 by 2012. Capital structure and profitability plays a major part to the achievement of any operation in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. For the accomplishment of my research estimation I select the sector of pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan. It aimed to provide international verification mode in which capital structure is managed the significant impact on the profitability of pharmaceutical firms. This study explores the variables of Short term liabilities, Long term liabilities, short term assets, long term assets. Pakistan Pharmaceutical industry is mounting at a very rapid velocity and contributing to the general economy (Ford Endexy , 2004). This particular study is deliberate to evaluate the performance of the Pharmaceutical industry in the Pakistan. The aim is to put together existing information and to make all relevant information on the pharmaceuticals sector and conduct a complete assessment on this sector. According to (Kobori, 2002) Pakistan has a growing and an energetic Pharmaceutical Industry. From Pakistan’s 600 pharmaceutical manufacturing units, which also include those managed by 25 multinationals that are present in the country. Around 70% of the country's demand of completed Medicine is uniting by The Pakistan Pharmaceutical Industry. In terms of share market, the marital pharmacy
- 13. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 13 market is almost consistently separated between the Nationals and the Multinationals (Maqsood 2003). At present the industry has the capacity to construct a variety of product that range from simple tablets to difficult Biotech and different Generic compounds. Pakistan Pharmaceutical business enjoy of quality manufacturer and many units are standard by regulatory authorities approximately the world. Like household market where in the last five years, the trade in international market have moved out almost twofold. Rising cost and outlay demands, dogmatic modifications and failing copyright are most important to decreasing limits in the pharmaceutical industry. Almost three in four corporations suppose their industry is in a planned disaster due to capital structure and profitability. For this reason, 78% of the study contributor is of the belief that pharmaceutical corporations must amend their production models to strong the new market necessities (IMS data September 2004) . This includes focusing funds on the high-growth promising selling’s units, which will construct up roughly 40% of the universal pharmaceutical market by 2016.The data also highlights that other sections like blood and blood forming organs, dermatology and systemic hormones, has got significant growth, and if paying attention for providing extensively to the total pharmaceutical market. According to the Population Census Organization of Pakistan (2010), Pakistan has a population of 16.98 million, with a growth rate of 2.69. Besides this health awareness is also growing gradually, which may be accommodating in increasing the per capita outflow in the future. capital structure and profitability in any country made the country’s development by enhancing their capital assets and total equity of shareholders. This will not only help to pay a country debt but also improves its expansion (Antheony ,2012). Capital structure is very important because it not only influence the profitability of a company also influence the earning of the shareholders. Briefly speaking, there are two type of capital structure: equity capital and debt capital, each has its own benefits and disadvantage and corporate managers find the perfect capital structure in term of risk and reward payoff for shareholders (hammes ,2003) . Velnampy & Niresh (2012) ,worked on capital structure is how the company finances its overall operations and maximizes its profitability by using different sources of fund is capital structure. Bond issues or long term notes payables are part of debts and common stock or retained earnings are part of equity. Good companies use the right combination of debt and equity to keep their true cost of capital as low as possible, there are verity of sources and entities are include in generation of capital structure to maximize the profitability of the companies. This assessments focal point is to explore the factors persuade the capital structure of seven companies listed in the pharmaceutical and biotech sector of the Karachi Stock Exchange. Power of pharmaceutical industry has been elected as a delegate of capital structure and profitability of a firm which directly affects its long
- 14. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 14 or short term assets. Seven variables are disguised independent power of pharmaceutical industry has been taken as the dependent variable making the basis for our mutual regression model. Reliability tests is run in classifying the confirmation of this model is constant larger than time. In all above investigation it simplifies that capital structure and profitability are the key points for attaining growth in pharmaceutical sector (Lalitha, 2002). 1.2 Purpose Statement The purpose of this survey based on the quantitative study is to examine the relationship between Capital structure and profitability for the achievement of trade in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. In this study return on assets, is 1st dependent variable and return on equity is second dependent variable. On the other hand,1st independent variable is short term assets, 2nd independent variable is long term asset, 3rd independent variable short term liability, 4rth independent variable long term liability .where the 1st dependent variable return on assets can be generalized as the percentage indicate how a company’s assets are profitable in producing revenue for this company. The 2nd dependent variable return on equity defines as how a sound company utilizes investment finances to make earning expansion. Both the dependent variables return on assets and return on equity relates with the profitability and capital structure. 1.3 Significance of the study This study will enhance the awareness about the relationship of flow of funds and profitability through assets and liabilities and will be helpful for the managers of pharmaceutical sector to attain achievements through observing this study. Return on equity should improve to be profitable for the company’s growth as if the growth of a company increases it will be beneficial for the administrator of medicine laboratories easily. Comprehensive quality assertion and control to the course of making different medicines formulas allows manager to work with new or innovative strategies or techniques for the profitability of the pharmaceutical industry. As in this era of competition every consumer want high quality of biotech this exhaustive research will prove fruitful for them in such a way that it will leads to full or appropriate information for pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. The Pakistan Pharmaceutical Industry accumulates around 70% of the country's demand of experienced and advanced medicine. This includes focusing funds on the high-growth capable selling’s component, which will assemble up roughly 40% of the entire pharmaceutical market by 2016 (IMS data September 2004). The marital pharmaceutical sector, in term of share market is around having equally divided between the Nationals and the worldwide of the medical industry, through this study manager of the pharmaceutical industry are able to make estimates of against their total equity and profitability ratios that how much it should be enhanced to be contributable for the economy of Pakistan. This research attempt to elaborate the comprehensive discussion on the profitability which helps the expansion for the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan.
- 15. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 15 Bringing awareness for the pharmaceutical sector through this research is cost- effective but safe way to increase profitability. This research would be a use full addition in the existing literature as it provides the appropriate know how of the medical sector financials of many years for the investment and productivity of populace revenue structure and growth of capital frame core concepts are also included in it. Research will explain the different features about capital structure and boost up the resources for the productivity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan through different analysis and assessment models. This research is combined through a lot of study guides, research novels, and literatures of different article make this research a significant addition for all the community and the researchers as a guide outline. This research will add value to the ministry of health and services commission of Pakistan through detailed discussion and analysis techniques to purify the way of making formulas and relationship among various variables taken as a part of this research. Traditional policy makers such as Ministries of Health in Pakistan have limited resources and generally meeting point for them is only the service deliverance all the way through government is in possession of or tight channel. There is a lot of obstacle in government path in the availability of excellence of government support services constrains large parts of the inhabitants into trade health services from the ministry of health in Pakistan. In Pakistan. The introduction of health insurance was not good in previous debates. My study will be proving beneficial for the longer term. It also leads towards guidance in the form of a complete or reliable policy framework and guarantee a sufficient level of rigid supervision. The function of this study is to supply a compressed outline to the state of affairs, trends and new models and designs which will give chance the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. It précis data from a number of modern studies and reports that were completed by a range of different studies inside and outside the country as well as discussions with key for the shareholders of Pakistan in the sector. 1.4 Objective of the Study The objectives of the study are: To determine the relationship between short term assets and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. To investigate the relationship between long term assets and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. To examine the relationship between short term liabilities and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. To determine the relationship between long term liabilities and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan.
- 16. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 16 To investigate relationship between short term assets and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. To examine relationship between long term assets and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. To determine relationship between short term liabilities and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. To investigate relationship between long term liabilities and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. 1.5 Research Question and Hypothesis 1.5.1 Research Question What is the Impact of capital structure on the profitability in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan? 1.5.2 Hypothesis H1: There is a relationship between short term assets and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Ho: There is a no relationship between short term assets and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. H2: There is a relationship between long term assets and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Ho: There is no relationship between long term assets and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. H3: There is a relationship between short term liabilities and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Ho: There is no relationship between short term liabilities and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan.
- 17. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 17 H4: There is a relationship between long term liabilities and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Ho: There is no relationship between long term liabilities and return on assets in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. H5: There is a relationship between short term assets and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Ho: There is no relationship short term assets and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. H6: There is a relationship between long term assets and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Ho: There is no relationship between long term assets and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan H7: There is a relationship between short term liabilities and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Ho: There is no relationship between short term liabilities and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan H8: There is a relationship between long term liabilities and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. Ho: There is no relationship between long term liabilities and return on equity in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan.
- 18. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 18 1.6 Term Definitions Capital structure Flannery (2006) defines capital structure as through which an organization provide funds to its general operations by using altered sources of money. It involves the mixture of equity and debt. The capital structure in balance sheet always found on the right side which engages short term or long term liabilities of an organization in the given period of time. There are thought by organization and the shareholders over what blend of liability and shareholder equity to use. The equity or debts are the two major elements that provide aid to make up a company. Profitability Bion B. Howard (2001) defines profitability as the blend of two words profit and ability. It point out the control of an organization to earn profits. The ability of a firm also signifies its producing control or operating performance. It is the measurement of overall earning capacity of a firm .Profitability is the primary target of a firm to achieve in long run for the development of its organization over the years. Without profitability the firm will not stay alive in the long run. So computing present and precedent profitability and projecting prospect profitability which is very crucial. Profitability is considered with revenue and payment. Income is money collected from the performance of the organization. Long term assets Steven M. (2003) defines assets as these are the financial resources. The worth of a company's possessions, tools and other capital resources. These are informed on the left side of the balance sheet. Assets that are not in intention to be twisted into cash or be devoted within one year of the balance sheet date. Long-term assets consist of long-term funds, possessions of property, plant, and other financial resources that enhance the future profitability of the company. Short term assets J.Downes. (2003) defines current assets as which are easily converted into cash or called liquid assets. These assets are held with a company within a year or lass then one year. It includes account receivable, cash at bank, cash in hand etc. Current assets show the liquidity of an organization. These assets are consumed within a year or in the operating cycle without upsetting the regular process of an organization. Long term liabilities Pratt, Jamie. (2003) defines liability is a responsibility to give or provide expected services for something that have granted upon in the earlier period. A long- term liability is one the company imagines to pay over the course of more than one year.
- 19. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 19 Short term liabilities Markle, K. (2004) defines short term liability is one the company suppose to pay in the short term with in the period of one year or less than one year using assets prominent on the present balance sheet. The obligations that will settle by short term assets are known as short term liability. Return on equity In the words of K. Jr. H. Clifton, (1975), "The return on equity communicates net to Shareholder’s equity. Return on equity is the amount of money that is returned to the shareholders from their equity and it computes the prosperity of owner's assets. Return on equity assess an organization's profitability by informative how much profit a company produce with the money shareholders have invested. Return on assets Return on assets (ROA) is a financial proportion that indicates the percentage of profit that a company generates in relative to its general resources. It is normally defined as net profits / total assets. ROA is identified as a profitability or productivity ratio, because it gives information about organizations performance in using the assets of the little production to produce profits (Allred, James K 1997).
- 20. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 20 1.7 Conceptual framework Figure: 1 Figure: 2 Long Term Assets Short Term Assets Long Term Liability Short Term Liability Retrun of Assets Long Term Assets Short Term Assets Long Term Liability Short Term Liability Retrun of Equity
- 21. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 21 CHAPTER NO 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Literature review Velnampy & Niresh (2012) investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability. The objectives of the study was, to find out the relationship between capital structure and profitability, to find an optimal capital structure that would be associated with the best performance and suggest a way to banks for increasing profitability through adapting a better strategic framework of capital structure. They study ten listed Srilankan banks over the past 8 year period from 2002 to 2009; correlation analysis was carried out to identify the relationship between capital structure and profitability. They worked on the variables was, capital structure, profitability, debt, equity, return on equity, where capital structure was the independent variable and profitability was the dependent variable. The findings of the analysis show that there is a negative relationship between capital structure and profitability except the association between debt to equity and return on equity. They concluded that 89% of total assets in the banking sector of Sri Lanka are represented by debt, confirming the fact that banks are highly geared institutions. The outcomes of the study may guide banks, loan-creditors and policy planners to formulate better policy decisions as far as the capital structure was concerned. Derayat (2012) determine the relationship between capital structure and profitability in accepted companies of Tehran stock exchange. The aim of study was to test the major financial management theories, through which examine the relationship between capital structure and profitability of accepted firms in Tehran stock exchange. In addition, by finding this association, they also discover the importance of choosing an optimal capital structure by financial and economical managers in Iran's capital market. The research community consists of all companies accepted in Tehran stock exchange, which have been active continuously from 2006 to 2010, including variables of capital structure, profitability and Tehran stock exchange. Research was deductive - inductive with regards to reasoning and collection, descriptive - correlation - Ex post facto from data collection perspective. The tests results of this analysis showed that, direct relationship between the variables explaining the type of capital structure and company’s profitability. Moreover, there was also some types of industry where the absence of relationship between capital structure and profitability of companies. Therefore, implementing dummy variables technique and examining the model on each industry indicates that, the existence and extent of this relationship was different for different industries. Frielinghaus et al, (2005) explore the relationship between capital structure and the firm’s life stage. The purpose of the study was to find the relationship between capital structure and the firm’s life stage, and suggest the model of capital
- 22. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 22 structure to the firm for financing. They provide overview of the two sets of theories and follow this with a proposed linkage between the life stage and capital structure. They use the questioners and Adizes life stage model to assess the life stage; they examine the domestic and multi-national firms with ongoing operations in South Africa. They use the two variable, capital structures and firm’s life stage. The key finding of the study was produced some interesting results with consequences for organizational life stage theory and capital structure theory, and for practical applications in the field of corporate finance. And they suggested a practical use of the life stage model can help the firms to understand how their financing is likely to change over time. Ajay & Madhumathi (2012) worked on the diversification strategy and its influence on the capital structure decisions of manufacturing firms in India. The purpose of the research was to inspect the impact of diversification strategies (international market and product diversification) on the leverage decisions of firms after controlling other major determinants of capital structure. The variables they use in their research were Capital structure, international market diversification and product diversification. They worked on the annual data of the manufacturing firms for the period of 2004-2010 which was derived from prowess database maintained by CMIE. The panel data set consists of 3103 companies combined to 21721 observations that include domestic as well as multinational corporations. Firms which operate in the financial sector were not included in this analysis since their balance sheets have a different structure from those of the non-financial firms. There were in total 579 multinational companies (MNCs) and 2524 domestic companies (DCs) in the sample which was classified on the basis of presence and absence of overseas asset investment in their balance sheet. They use regression analysis technique to explore the relationship between the variables. In the finding of the study they examine that the diversification strategies (international and product) adopted by the manufacturing firms and its influence on firm’s leverage ratio after controlling for other determinants of capital structure for the period 2004-2010. This study intents to help corporate decision makers to know and select most preferred financial mix to maximize the overall market value of the firm. The study reveals that domestic firms have higher debt in their capital structure as compared to multinational corporations. Qureshi et al, (2012) They describe does diversification affect capital structure and profitability in Pakistan. The purpose was of this study to identify and analyze the nature of relationship that exists between diversification and capital structure as well as profitability of Pakistan. They worked on four variables, capital structure, profitability, diversification and Pakistan, where capital structure is dependent variable and all others were dependent variables. The collect the data from food and chemical sectors, and from various sources for example online publications, KSE, and State Bank of Pakistan, of 10 years from 2000 to 2009. In their sample there are 74 companies of chemicals and food sectors listed at KSE. They use the regression and correlation method to find the relationship among the variables. The finding of the
- 23. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 23 study shows that there was a strong positive correlation between product diversification and return on assets as well as the debt ratio. Amjad et al, (2012) worked on the determinants of capital structure of the banking sector of Pakistan. The purpose of their study to explore the relationship between dependent variable and independent variables, dependant variable was leverage and independent variables was size, tangibility, profitability, growth opportunities and liquidity. They select the banking sector of the Pakistan for the research. They examine the data of 26 banks of the period of 2007 to 2011. They collect the data from the form the Karachi stock exchange and Lahore stock exchange and the publication of the state bank of Pakistan. They used the regression model for find the relationship between the variables. The finding of their study was show that size and liquidity have direct impact on the leverage and tangibly, profitability and growth opportunities have inverse relationship with leverage. Mesquita and Lara (2001) describe the capital structure and profitability in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to define the capital structure which makes the difficult decision easy which is affected by risk and profitably of the Brazilian companies. They worked on the capital structure, profitability and debts. The collect the data from the financial statements of the 70 Brazilian companies, the data was consist of past seven years financial statements. They used the ordinary lest squares method for explore the conclusion of the research. They conclude there was positive relationship among short term debts and equity and negative relationship with long term debts. Shubia and Alsaqalhah (2012) explore the relationship of capital structure and profitability. This research objected to provide international evidence of the way in which capital structure is managed the significant impact on the profitability of firms. They worked on the variables of Short term liabilities, Long term liabilities, Return on Equity and Amman stock Exchange. They examined the data of 39 Industrial Jordan firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange for a period of six years from 2004-2009 and used regression analysis and statistical techniques to investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability. The results of the study showed that there was indirect relationship between debts and profitability and direct relationship between size, sale and profitably. Abor (2005) explain the effect of capital structure on profitability of the listed firms of Ghana. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability of listed firms on Ghana stock exchange. He worked on the capital structure, gearing, Ghana and profit of the companies. He used the five years data of the listed companies and regression analysis to find the relationship. The finding of the study was showed that there was a positive relation between the ration of short term debt to total assets and return on equity, and also a negative relationship between the ratio of long term debt to total assets and return on equity. And finding
- 24. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 24 showed that a positive association between the ratio of total debt to total assets and return on equity. Chinaemerem and Antheony (2012) examined the impact of capital structure on financial performance of the Nigerian firms. The objective of the study was to explain and find the relationship between capital structure and financial performance of the non-financial firm listed in Nigerian stock exchange. They worked on capital structure, financial performance and agency cost and they collect the data from 30 non financial firm listed in Nigerian stock exchange, they review and collected all the information from the financial statement of the companies of the period of 2004 to 2010. The data collected and analyzed by using the ordinary least squares method. The finding of the study shows that debt has significantly negative impact on the return on assets and return on equity. And finding also showed that there was a positive relationship between agency cost and financial performance. Grill al el, (2011) worked on the topic “Effect of capital structure on profitability” evidence from the united state. The aim of the study was to examine and discover the relationship between capital structure and profitability of American firms listed in New York stock exchange. They worked on the capital structure, profitability, short term debts, long term debts, short term assets, long term assets. They collect the data about the study form the financial statements of the 272 companies which are listed at New York stock exchange and use the correlation and regression method for find the result. The findings of the study show that, positive relation between short term debt to total assets and profitability in serves industries. Where as in manufacturing industries was a positive relation of short term debt to total assets and profitability, total debt to total assets and total profitability. Dwilaksono (2010) define the effect of short and long term debt to profitability. The intension of the study was to find the relationship between long term & short term debt to profitability. Variables was used are short term debt, long term debt, return on equity and profitability. He collated the data from the mining industry, listed in stock exchange of in Indonesia in 2003 to 2007. He used the SPSS program, regression analysis and ordinary least square method for finding the result. The finding show that there was a positive relationship between short term debt and return on equity, and negative relationship between long term debt with return on equity. Adrianti analyzed on the effect of capital structure on the profitability of manufacturing companies. The objective of this analysis was to determine the effect of capital structure on the profitability of manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia stock exchange. He worked on the capital structure and profitability, capital structure was independent variable and profitability is dependent variable. He collect the data from the listed manufacturing companies in Indonesia stock exchange, stoical information gathered from financial statements of the 13 companies of the period of 2007 to 2009 and regression method was used for finding the result. The final results
- 25. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 25 of the analysis show that, there was no significant effect on the capital structure and profitability. Chen and hammes (2003) performed the penal data analysis of capital structure. The objective of the study was to define and identify the factors that influencing the firms leverage. Variables they used to identify the effect; dependent variable was leverage, independent variable were market to book ratio, profitability and size. They use the Rajan and Zinglaes (1995) model and ratios. They collect the data from the 7 different countries: Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Sweden, UK and US. The findings of the research show that size, profitability, tangibility, market to book ratio have significant impact on choice of capital structure, tangibility have positively related to leverage and profitability show negative relation with leverage. Size have positive impact on capital structure, and market to book have negative significant relation for all countries in market leverage. Abiodum (2010) examines the impact of firm’s capital structure on firm’s profitability. The aim of the study was to find the relationship between capital structure and profitability of companies listed in Nigeria stock exchange. He worked on the firm size, debt financing, equity financing, debit-equity ratio and profitability. He collect the data from the financial statements of the companies listed in Nigeria stock exchange of the period of 10 years 2000 to 2009 and the co-integration framework of regression model. The finding of the research shows that there was a negative relationship between profitability and debit financing. The finding of the study suggested to management in efficiently borrowing. Shaheen and Malik (2012) investigate the impact of capital intensity, size of firm and profitability on debt financing. The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of size, profitability and capital intensity of the firm on debt financing in textile industry of Pakistan. For this purpose three independent variables; capital intensity, size of firm and profitability, dependent variables; debt financing are used. They select the textile sector companies listed in Karachi stock exchange of Pakistan & collected the data from the financial statements of the companies. They use the ANOVA and financial ratios for finding the result of the study. The study concluded that the debt financing in capital structure is affected by profitability, size and capital intensity of the companies in textile industry of Pakistan. Ahmad et al, (2012) worked on the effect of capital structure on firm’s performance. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of capital structure on firm performance by analyzing the relationship between operation performances of Malaysian Firms. The dependent variable of this study was performance and independent variables were return on asset, return on equity, short term debt and total debt. Research cover the two sector consumer and industry, they collected the data from the financial statements of the 58 firms listed in Malaysia stock exchange in the period of 2005 to 2010, and they applied the regression analysis
- 26. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 26 method. The finding of the study was, short term debt, total debts have significant relationship with return on assets, while return on equity has significant on debt level. Rafique (2011) worked on the effect of profitability and financial leverage on capital structure. The main objective of the research was to define and investigate the relationship between profitability of firm and financial leverage on the capital structure of the automobile sector companies in Pakistan. She worked on the variables; profitability, financial leverage, capital structure and automobile industry of Pakistan. She collect the data from the financial statements of the 11 companies listed in stock exchange of Pakistan and used the correlation coefficient test and regression analysis for test the relationship. She found that profitability of the firm and its financial leverage have an insignificant impact on the capital structure of the studied firms. Gatsi & Akoto (2010) explore the relationship in capital structure and profitability. The intension of the study was to explain the relationship between capital structure and profitability I Ghanaian banks. The variables in this study was; capital structure profitability and Ghanaian banks, they utilized the data of the 14 banks listed in Ghana stock exchange and collect the financial information from the financial statements, of the period of 1997 to 2006. They used the penal data method for find the findings, according to the findings, 87 % of the total capital of the banks in Ghana is made up with debt, of which 65 % short term debts and 22 % is long debts. That showed banks are highly levered institutions, and long term debts are more important than short term debts. San and Heng (2011) examined the relationship between the capital structure and corporate performance. The purposed of this study was to examine the nature of relationship between capital structure and corporate performance of firm in construction sector before and during crisis (2005-2008). They used the capital structure as independent variable and corporate performance as dependent variable. They collected data from 49 all listed construction companies in Main Board of Bursa Malaysia. They analyzed data with the help of line series-cross section and these study measure variables with 4 years from 2005 to 2008 on few ratios. Finally they found that only EPS for small construction companies have significant relationship with capital structure and they concluded that DC Debt to Capital has direct impact on corporate performance of small companies and other independent variables do not affect the dependent variables. Medium companies’ performance is partly affected by the change in capital structure. The portion is small with medium companies but lesser comparing to large companies. Teh Boon Heng (2011) explored the relationship of capital structure and corporate performance of firm before and during crisis (2007). In this research he focused on construction companies which were listed in Main Board of Bursa Malaysia from 2005 to 2008. He collected data from 49 construction companies that based on paid up capital. Saad (2010) Capital structure refers to the firm's financial
- 27. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 27 framework which consists of the debt and equity used to finance the firm. Capital structure was one of the popular topics among the scholars in finance field. The ability of companies to carry out their stakeholders’ needs was tightly related to capital structure. Therefore, this derivation was an important fact that we cannot omit. Capital structure in financial term means the way a firm finances their assets through the combination of equity, debt, or hybrid securities. Debt maturity would influence a company’s option in investing. Furthermore, tax rate would also affect company’s performance. He examined the impact of capital structure’s variables base on company’s performance would present prove for a company’s performance due to the effect of capital structure (Tian & Zeitun, 2007). Abor’s (2005) examine the impact of the capital structure and corporate performance. The intension of this study was to investigate the nature of relationship between capital structure and corporate performance of firm in construction industry during 2005 to 2008. Capital structure was used as independent variable and corporate performance as dependent variable. They collected data from 49 listed construction companies in Main Board of Bursa Malaysia. The use the line series-cross section and ratios for finding the result of the study. Result of the study was only EPS (earning per share) for small construction companies have significant relationship with capital structure and they concluded that DC (Debt to Capital) have direct impact on corporate performance of small companies and other independent variables do not affect the dependent variables. Medium companies’ performance is partly affected by the change in capital structure. Gill, et al., (2011) found the effect of capital structure on profitability by examined the effect of capital structure on profitability of the industrial companies listed on Amman Stock Exchange during a six-year period (2004-2009). In this research, they analyzed does capital structure affect the Industrial Jordanian companies? They collected 39 companies as samples. They applied correlations and multiple regression analysis. They took short term liabilities, long term liabilities, return on equity, Amman stock exchange as a variables. The aim of this research to found that variables was potentially relate with the profitability of firms. They found that it reveal significantly negative relation between debt and profitability. The capital structure was defined as the mix of debt and equity that the firm uses in its operation. The capital structure of a firm was a mixture of different securities. In general, firms can choose among many alternative capital structures. Firms could arrange lease financing, use warrants, issue convertible bonds, sign forward contracts or trade bond swaps. Firms could also issue dozens of distinct securities in countless combinations to maximize overall market value. Mojgan Derayat (2012) investigated the relationship between capital structure and profitability of accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange. In this study, the sample data collected from active companies in stock exchange between 2006 and 2010. According to this research result, direct relationship between the variables
- 28. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 28 explaining the type of capital structure used in companies and return on assets ratio as an indicator for the company’s profitability had confirmed. Moreover, the type of industry was affecting in the presence or absence the relationship between capital structure and profitability of companies. Therefore, implementing dummy variables technique and examining the model on each industry indicates that, the existence and extent of this relationship is different for different industries. Azhagiaiah and Gavoury (2011) examine the impact of capital structure and profitability of IT industry in India. The objective of the study was examine the inter relationship between capital structure and profitability based on Assets size and revenue of business. Capital structure, profitability, return on assets, return on capital employed and debt equity are variables which was used by them. They collects data from center for monitoring India economy and 116 firms was selected as a sample, listed in Bombay stock exchange. They applied statistical techniques , Pear Son’s Coefficient and Regression and Ratio. They concluded that they has been a story one to one relationship between Capital Structure and profitability variables and increase in the use of debt fund and capital structure tend to reduce the net profit of IT firm listed in Bombay Stock Exchange in India. Ferati and Ejupi worked on Capital Structure and Profitability. Aim of the study was to analyze empirically the impact of capital structure on the profitability of the enterprisers. SME, profitability, financial risk and debt are variables used by them. Last ten year data was collected from financial report of 150 firms, methods they used was; correlation and regression analysis to measure individual impact. The result showed positive correlation with short term debt and equity and an inverse correlation with long term debt. Amjed (2007) worked on the impact of Capital Structure on Profitability of Pakistan’s Textile. The aimed of this study to investigated the relationship between capital structure and financial performance of textile sector of Pakistan. He used the dependent variable capital structure and independent variable as Profitability. He took the data of 100 textile firms listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange for period 1999 to 2004 and he used variable s for analysis included profitability ratio and leverage ratio, short term debt, long term debt and total debt. At the end he resulted was partially like with the previous studies as the negative relationship between long term debt and performance. The association of short term debt and Financial Performance in contract attests the static trade off theory. Whole total debt has no association with firm’s profitability due to different characteristics of Short term debt and Long term debts. Khan doker et al worked on the determinant of profitability of non bank financial instantiation in a developing country aimed of this study was the indentify major financial feature affecting the profitability in the NBFI industry of Bangladesh and used the variable non banking financial institutions NBFI’s financial performance and capital structure and collected data from the audited annual financial report
- 29. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 29 published by the listed 22 companies during 2008 to 2011 NBFI and analyzed data with statistical software like SPSS that run Z test, T test and regression and results of this research was to give a simple picture and leaves room for further study in different areas of NBFI functions and this study provided managers with understanding of activates that would improve their NBFI financial performance. Howitt (1990) examine the relationship between capital structure and profitability. The purpose of the study was find the significance of the capital structure and profitability in the banking sector. The collect the data from the 23 banks of India, listed in India stock exchange. Capital structure and profitability are variables used by him. The result of the study show that there is positive relationship between capital structure and profitability.
- 30. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 30 CHAPTER NO 3 DATA AND METHODOLOGY A research is conducted through different ways. Different researchers have different point of view, values and beliefs with reference to their surroundings for collecting data to their studies. Collection of data is the input for any research work and facilitate researcher to construct a design for his research work. Data collection begins with determining what kind of data or samples are required for a research. It includes some standards which makes a paradigm. To add value for of this research, preliminary discussion will includes the information about the paradigms that best fits the attention of this research. 3.1 Research Paradigm Paradigms are the outline or prototype that helps to standardize an investigation within a regulation through different tests or processes. Paradigms are the structures for completing a research study. Paradigms are the set of norms and attitudes for designing a research. It may indicate the path through which a study travels. According to Taylor, Kermode, and Roberts (2007) it is a broad observation or perception of something. Paradigms usually used in treatment of research like positivist, interpretive and pragmatic theory application. It is outline which helps a researcher to design a research. There is a great debate in relation to the research paradigm, the plan of this chapter is to talk about the research design and methodology used in this study. In order to express the mixture of research performance assume during this study, the data anthology actions and connected analysis methods will be analytically argued under three segments. Positivism research is based on scientific methods or psychological experience to describe or understand the prediction about individuals. Research has been expressed as an organized analysis or assessment through which the data is collected by information or observation. Positivist study based on scientific facts and figures, human feelings, convincing knowledge derived from logics or arithmetical treatments. The one and only aim of this positivist paradigm comprises on reality or facts. In this paradigm data is verifies through senses, tests are conducted and theory is verified. Positivist paradigm (Burns, 1997) relates with the scientific tests and experiment to show the logics, specifics of data and authenticity. The positivist paradigms occur through correct facts and rigid rules. According to Schultz, (1962) interpritivism paradigm relates with many truths and authenticity concluded from different peoples point of view. Many people have different awareness, requirements and understanding. Interpretivist has different beginnings in different regulation. The interpretivist paradigm developed as an evaluation of positivism in the scientific studies. In general, interpretivists allocate the all community convictions and ideas about the nature of perceptive and
- 31. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 31 authenticity. This approach carrying out investigation in a courteous conduct attentiveness and expression of the variety and explanation of the associate makes during the examination procedure and confirmation of taking accountability for those preference. In this approach the researcher will interview the populace and be familiar with the assessment and deepness of the individual substance. In this research approach representatives are those who should competent to provide proficiency from different perspectives. The source used in this data is appropriate words of interview data. Pragmatism is a research approach that is a combine study of qualitative and quantitative methods (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2006). It provides new opportunity for concentrate on procedural problems in the social sciences. The pragmatic approach work on adaptation of way of thinking that moves back and forward between induction and deduction. Pragmatic approach alters comments into theories and then measures those theories through action. In research statics it is often delight solely as using theories to report for explanations. From a pragmatic point of view, however, the only way to measure those assumptions are by action. Hence, one of the most general exercise of seizure in pragmatic analysis is to further a process of inquiry that assess the conclusions of previous guidance during their capability to forecast the workability of expectations of behaviour. In this approach the information is collected from all over the world and a single persons or populace is considered as a part of this technique. In observing all of the debate in analysis positivism research approach is used in this study be set to tests, make investigations and verify the hypothesis or theory with appropriate familiarity and examination. The paradigm used in this study is positivism which relates with the quantitative research. The positivist paradigm deals with actual fact and reality of the world through different tests. This paradigm begins from the idea recognized as logical positivism which is relying with strict rules and processes. A valid research is established only by the scale of verification that can be communicate to the phenomena and provide accurate results for research. 3.2 Research Approach Research approach is used to reach at the decision of the specific phenomena of a research study. There are three types of research approaches in a research study. Qualitative approach, quantitative approach, mixed method research. Quantitative research is usually connected with the positivism paradigm. It usually occupies assemble and converting data into statistical form so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions tired from this. Qualitative research is the approach frequently linked with the communal paradigm which highlight the generally assemble nature of reality. It is about copy, investigate and effort to expose the importance and consequence of human behaviour and practice, including opposing beliefs, behaviours and passion. Researchers are paying attention in achievement and complex understanding of people’s familiarity and not in acquiring information which can be
- 32. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 32 global to other larger cluster. The mixed method approach includes both the above mentioned approaches in its fundaments to explain or investigate a fact. Quantitative approach relates with scientific data which consist of reality and true figures. This approach relates with statistical or mathematical data. This research has clearing phenomena by assembling mathematical information. This is analysed by means of numerically based techniques. In order to be able to arrive at a decision the positivist collect data in to numeric form to have solution or answer there setback easily in research. The intention of quantitative research is to build up and spend statistical moulds, theories and hypotheses relating to phenomena. All phases of the research are vigilantly considered earlier than the statistics is composed. Developing models, theories, and hypotheses of what the researcher expects to find. Quantitative research relates with initialling tools and techniques for computing the data. Qualitative approach relates with empirical statements. Generally, empirical statements are articulated in mathematical language. An additional aspect in this research approach is that empirical assessment is used in practise. Empirical assessments are defined as a structure with the purpose of search for establishing the scale to which a definite processes and strategy pragmatically perform a certain model or rule and attitude. This approach is an examination into a community or creature dilemma support with testing a theory make with variables. (John W. Creswel, 1994) Qualitative research is all about recording, analysing or obtain information from peoples experiences. the approach approved by qualitative researchers have a tendency to be inductive which means that they build up a theory or glance for a outline of connotation on the origin of the data that they have composed. This involves a move from the precise to the common. However, most research mission also involves a assured degree of deductive logic. Qualitative researchers (John,1994) do not support their research on programmed hypotheses. Nore, they obviously recognize a trouble or theme that they want to discover and may be conduct by a hypothetical data collection. It is a kind of theory which offers a structure for their examination. The approach to data anthology and analysis is systematic but permit for larger reliability than in quantitative research. Data is composed in documentary form on the basis of inspection and communication with the contributors. It is not converted into statistical form and is not statistically evaluated. Mixed method research approach relates with the both above debated approaches. guba,(1994) explained it as It is also known as pragmatic approach which has the features of both studies. It uses system and course of action characteristically connected with quantitative or qualitative research. They may also use different procedures at the same time or later on. For instance, they might commence their research study of interviews with several people or have a focus group and then use the findings to build a questionnaire to compute thoughts in a large scale trial with the intention of transport the statistical analysis of the community in their research.
- 33. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 33 As indicated above research approach used in this study is quantitative approach. This research approach is applied to show the pragmatic outcome of variables. The intention of this approach is to analyze the association of profitability with different surveys or experiments in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. This research has carry out to test the various variables as short term assets, liabilities, long term assets and liabilities with respect to different researcher’s debate and experiments and tests. Neutrality is very imperative in quantitative research. Subsequently, researchers take immense care to avoid their own existence, performance or actions moving the results. They also significantly examine their methods and conclusions for any potential favouritism. This approach contains positive impacts that help to make exact fats and reliable observation of the argued information in a research. 3.3 Sources of Data A research is combined through different amount of data and information. This all data contains two categories, primary data and secondary data. Primary data is that you have composed physically. It comprises appraisal, interrogation, inspection, and environmental research. These resources take in up to date knowledge, skills, and abilities to make surveys, beliefs and scientific measurements of facts and figures. Primary data is such information that has not been computed before in any other study. It relates with the personal abilities of individual to conduct a research through innovative and feasible information. Identify methods or ways of constancy in the unpredictability of data sets for specified variables, and clearing up them in expression of causal association is one of the main objectives of any scientific control of data collection (Penrose, 2004) . Performing prime research is a valuable expertise to attain as it can deeply enhance a research in secondary source. Secondary data is collected from primary source of data by using quantitative techniques. So the base of secondary data is primary data as it discloses information from census, old records etc. It has already been combined by a lot of researchers to help their studies through scientific primary data techniques. The secondary data may be collected from a lot of sources such as computerised data, previous literatures and surroundings course of actions. The source of data which is consumed in this research is secondary data. Annual reports are used for data collection which discloses full information as required for this research. The facts and figures applied in this study are collected in the light of primary source to throw light on the Pakistani pharmaceutical companies and laboratories for the purpose of testing their profitability with related variables. The data is collected from 10 companies embraced with 3 number of years as 2010, 2011 and 2012 years data from the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. The source used in this research is internal company document as annual reports are taken to combine the information of pharmaceutical companies of Pakistan.
- 34. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 34 3.4 Population and Sample Population shows the complete cluster or fundamentals with general individuality. it show the region on which a research is conducted. The population of this study is the community of pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan. The population size of this research is 30. Whereas the sample is considered as the small group of the huge community which characterize the whole population. So the sample of this research is 10 pharmaceutical companies with 3 years data from internal companies documents or annual reports has been taken for the accomplishment of this research task. Table: 1 Sr.No Companies Name 01 SANOFI 02 Glaxo Smithkline Pakistan ltd. 03 High noon laboratories ltd 04 wyeth pakistan ltd. 05 Feroz sons laboratories ltd. 06 Outsuka pakistan ltd. 07 Abbott pakistan. 08 IcI Pakistan ltd. 09 Searle pakistan ltd. 10 Ferozsons Laboratories ltd. 3.5 Methodology Descriptive analysis is the expression specified for examination of data which aids to express, explain or précis data in a significant sample that has combined from a large amount of data. Descriptive statistics does not permit to compile information ahead of data which is assessed early for our decision. It helps us to draw conclusions and make assumption of our data. In short it is a technique to explain a data. The base if descriptive statics techniques are inferential statistic as inferential statists helps to make observation for the descriptive data. In research it is used to describe the association of different variables of a study to draw hypothesis against them from different assessments of data. It helps us to present our data in more momentous or significant manner. In research it aids to properly describe information through statistics and graphs. According to J.W Tukey, (1977) qualitative descriptive approaches are very supportive because facts of practice and data can be easily checked when quantitative processes are applied. Inferential analysis refers to make simplification derived from approximation support with future point of view. Inferential statistics make assumption which relates with some observations. These observations grip with straightforward starting with a sample to make assess and inferences in relation to huge community. Inferential statistics permit to construct statistical overview of a phase. With this statistics technique, researchers are trying to accomplish results. This analysis is done for predicting data of a large population from a sample by using different numeric
- 35. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 35 computations on research population. Inference statistic is the process of drawing conclusion from information that is subject to random dissimilarity. Inferential method used the estimation and testing techniques to reach at a phenomenon. Inferential analysis is basically used to check the possibility of happening or non happening of an observed decision. This is also indicated for making the average percentage between two components or variables in a research. (J.W Tukey, 1977) Histogram is the graphical representation of the data of a specific study. In a histogram, the achievements are point out on the parallel axis and the frequencies are revealed on the vertical axis. A histogram is graph that exposes frequency of data take place within definite collection or intervals. The height of bars shows the frequency level of the data. Histogram takes a lot of data then make grouping of such data into parts and shows the graphical occurrence of that data. According to (Snee and Pfeifer 1983) Histograms are valuable for imagine a data allocation. A histogram not only makes indications about the frequencies it also exposes the mean, median and mode of the certain data in a research work. Median shows the middle of the graph from where the data is regards as distributed. Histogram are widely utilizes in statistic to show how many definite variables are identified from a huge amount of information. A scatter plot is a valuable graphical strategy use in the descriptive statistics for envisage or imagine information. Scatter plots are well-known way of imagine detached data standards with two data variables as a gathering of separate points. It aim at simplify the impression of scatter plots to the idea of spatially constant contribution data by a constant and solid plot. An example of a permanent input field is data defined on spatial network with relevant interruption or rebuilding of in- between values. According to (utts, 2004) Scatter plots have been proven booming and positive diagramming method in descriptive statistics and information revelation. They take separate data points with two data proportions as input, and construct those data points by drawing particular dots on a diagram with two orthogonal axes signifying the two data dimensions. Scatter plots are effective in displaying relationship in the data, such as correlation or other patterns. Regression is a statistical technique that approximates the dependence of a variable of concentration on one or more independent variables. It is used to calculate approximately the outcome on the dependent variable of a given independent variable while managing the control of other variables at the same moment. According to fox,j (1991) the addition and performance of a detailed graphical methodology in statistic is regression. It is an authoritative and elastic technique that can be used in a multiplicity of ways when computing and authenticate the impact of different effectiveness ventures. Through these course of action basic consideration of the related arithmetical measures and hypothesis are obligatory to use regression analysis with proper authenticity. Regression designs are necessitate several interpretation on the dependent and independent variables. Sometimes when advisory variables are not voluntarily accessible it helps us to make access to alternative. A regression process consist of a process of classify all independent variables used in regression
- 36. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 36 representation then it collects data about that variables for a examine phase that is delegate of the best course of action. Afterwards it coordinates data into suitable time period. Through this appropriate and synchronized data it makes the graphical representation of that data. This data helps researcher to Validate and authenticate his research work in a good manner. Correlations are the linear association linking two variables. The correlation coefficient is a measure of the combination between two arithmetic variables, frequently represented as x and y. It is a proportioned bond: if x is related with y, y is correlated with x. Its value lies between +1 and -1. A optimistic coefficient designate that a high value of x have a propensity to be connected with a high value of y and a pessimistic coefficient point out that as the rate of x raises the value of y is probable to decline. A coefficient of +1 is a perfect positive correlation between x and y, although a coefficient of -1 is a perfect negative correlation A coefficient of 0 indicates that there is no connection between the two variables. Correlation is an algebraic purpose of how two variables shift in relative to each other. Chen PY, (2002) Correlations are exercised in complicated assortment management. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient is a broad computation of relationship between two permanent variables. It is defined as the proportion of the covariance of the two variables to the creation of their particular standard deviations. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient is a grade support description of the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. It approximate or test correlation coefficient.
- 37. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 37 CHAPTER NO 4 ANALYSIS 4.1 Descriptive Analysis 4.1.1 Descriptive Analysis Table: 2 Descriptive Statistics of Figure 1 N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Short Term Assets 30 4.93E5 1.06E9 1.6077E8 3.26264E8 Short Term Liability 30 1.09E5 6.40E8 7.7039E7 1.66016E8 Long Term Assets 30 1.55E5 1.56E9 2.3759E8 4.98016E8 Long Term Liability 30 .00 8.81E8 7.2791E7 1.89069E8 Return on Assets 30 .02 .76 .1374 .16634 Valid N (listwise) 30 In this table Five variables are given, short term assets, short term liability, long term assets, long term liability and return on assets, it provide us the overall summary of the data, there are 30 companies data in this observation. The minimum value of data is lays between .00 to 4.93, the maximum value between .76 to 8.81, mean is between .1374 to 7.7039 and stander deviation is between .16634 to 4.98016. 4.1.2 Descriptive Analysis Table: 3 Descriptive Statistics of Figure 2 N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Short Term Assets 30 4.93E5 1.06E9 1.6077E8 3.26264E8 Short Term Liability 30 1.09E5 6.40E8 7.7039E7 1.66016E8 Long Term Assets 30 1.55E5 1.56E9 2.3759E8 4.98016E8 Long Term Liability 30 .00 8.81E8 7.2791E7 1.89069E8 Return on Equity 30 .19 5.05 1.2852 .92677 Valid N (listwise) 30
- 38. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 38 In this table Five variables are given, short term assets, short term liability, long term assets, long term liability and return on equity, it provide us the overall summary of the data, there are 30 companies data in this observation. The minimum value of data is lays between .00 to 4.93, the maximum value between 1.06 to 8.81, mean is between 1.2852 to 7.7039 and stander deviation is between .82677 to 4.98016. Short Term Assets Figure: 3 In fig. 3 the frequencies (number of Companies), shown by the bars are for a range of points (in this case SPSS selected a range of 100000000: 200000000- 3999999999, 300000000-499999999, etc). Notice that the largest number of companies (about 25) had scores at the left side bar of the range (0-99999999). Similar small numbers of Companies have very high scores. Notice that the bars form a pattern very different from the normal curve line. Thus show that the frequency distribution of the COUNT Short Term Assets is said to be not normally distributed. As we see later in the chapter, the distribution is positively skewed. That is, extreme scores or the tail of the curve are on the high end or right side. Note how much this differs from the normal frequency distribution.
- 39. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 39 Short Term Liability Figure: 4 In fig. 4 the frequencies (number of Companies), shown by the bars are for a range of points (in this case SPSS selected a range of 100000000: 200000000- 3999999999, 300000000-499999999, etc). Notice that the largest number of companies (about 25) had scores at the left side bar of the range (0-99999999). Similar small numbers of Companies have very high scores. Notice that the bars form a pattern very different from the normal curve line. Thus show that the frequency distribution of the COUNT Short Term Liability is said to be not normally distributed. As we see later in the chapter, the distribution is positively skewed. That is, extreme scores or the tail of the curve are on the high end or right side. Note how much this differs from the normal frequency distribution.
- 40. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 40 Long Term Assets Figure: 5 In fig. 5 the frequencies (number of Companies), shown by the bars are for a range of points (in this case SPSS selected a range of 500000000: 200000000- 4999999999, 400000000-999999999, etc). Notice that the largest number of companies (about 25) had scores at the left side bar of the range (0-249999999). Similar small numbers of Companies have very high scores. Notice that the bars form a pattern very different from the normal curve line. Thus show that the frequency distribution of the COUNT Long Term Assets is said to be not normally distributed. As we see later in the chapter, the distribution is positively skewed. That is, extreme scores or the tail of the curve are on the high end or right side. Note how much this differs from the normal frequency distribution.
- 41. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 41 Long Term Liability Figure: 6 In fig. 6 the frequencies (number of Companies), shown by the bars are for a range of points (in this case SPSS selected a range of 100000000: 200000000- 3999999999, 300000000-499999999, etc). Notice that the largest number of companies (about 25) had scores at the left side bar of the range (0-99999999). Similar small numbers of Companies have very high scores. Notice that the bars form a pattern very different from the normal curve line. Thus show that the frequency distribution of the COUNT Long Term Liability is said to be not normally distributed. As we see later in the chapter, the distribution is positively skewed. That is, extreme scores or the tail of the curve are on the high end or right side. Note how much this differs from the normal frequency distribution.
- 42. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 42 Return on Assets Figure: 7 In fig. 7 the frequencies (number of Companies), shown by the bars are for a range of points (in this case SPSS selected a range of 10: 20-19, 20-39, etc). Notice that the largest number of companies (about 20) had scores at the left side bar of the range (0-9). Similar small numbers of Companies have very high scores. Notice that the bars form a pattern very different from the normal curve line. Thus show that the frequency distribution of the COUNT Return on Assets is said to be not normally distributed. As we see later in the chapter, the distribution is positively skewed. That is, extreme scores or the tail of the curve are on the high end or right side. Note how much this differs from the normal frequency distribution.
- 43. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 43 Return on Equity Figure: 8 In fig. 8 the frequencies (number of Companies), shown by the bars are for a range of points (in this case SPSS selected a range of 10: 1-2, 2-3, etc). Notice that the largest number of companies (about 10) had scores at the left side bar of the range (1- 1.5). Similar small numbers of Companies have very high scores. Notice that the bars form a pattern very different from the normal curve line. Thus show that the frequency distribution of the COUNT Return on Equity is said to be not normally distributed. As we see later in the chapter, the distribution is positively skewed. That is, extreme scores or the tail of the curve are on the high end or right side. Note how much this differs from the normal frequency distribution.
- 44. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 44 Short Term Assets & Return on Assets Figure: 9 The output shows a scatter plot for two scale variables i.e. short term assets and return on assets. The overall pattern of the dots show that it is from diagonal down ward straight regression line showing negative association between the two variables and the points fit the line not pretty well and there are very values dispersed far from the regression line so it seems that there is negative relationship between short term assets and return on assets. Quadratic – Linear = Out Put Value 0.019 - 0.013 = 0.006 0.05 > 0.044 so Pearson Correlation
- 45. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 45 Long Term Assets & Return on Assets Figure: 10 The output shows a scatter plot for two scale variables i.e. long term assets and return on assets. The overall pattern of the dots show that it is from diagonal down ward straight regression line showing negative association between the two variables and the points fit the line not pretty well and there are very values dispersed far from the regression line so it seems that there is negative relationship between long term assets and return on assets. Quadratic – Linear = Out Put Value 0.058 - 0.004 = 0.054 0.05 < 0.054 so Spearman Correlation
- 46. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 46 Short Term Liability & Return on Assets Figure: 11 The output shows a scatter plot for two scale variables i.e. short term liability and return on assets. The overall pattern of the dots show that it is from diagonal down ward straight regression line showing negative association between the two variables and the points fit the line not pretty well and there are very values dispersed far from the regression line so it seems that there is negative relationship between short term liability and return on assets. Quadratic – Linear = Out Put Value 0.03 - 0.023 = 0.007 0.05 > 0.007 so Pearson Correlation
- 47. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 47 Long Term Liability & Return on Assets Figure: 12 The output shows a scatter plot for two scale variables i.e. long term liability and return on assets. The overall pattern of the dots show that it is from diagonal down ward straight regression line showing negative association between the two variables and the points fit the line not pretty well and there are some values dispersed far from the regression line so it seems that there is negative relationship between long term liability and return on assets. Quadratic – Linear = Out Put Value 0.011 - 0.01 = 0.001 0.05 > 0.001 so Pearson Correlation
- 48. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 48 Short Term Assets & Return on Equity Figure: 13 The output shows a scatter plot for two scale variables i.e. short term assets and return on equity. The overall pattern of the dots show that it is from diagonal down ward straight regression line showing negative association between the two variables and the points fit the line not pretty well and there are very values dispersed far from the regression line so it seems that there is negative relationship between short term assets and return on equity. Quadratic – Linear = Out Put Value 0.044 - 0.038 = 0.006 0.05 > 0.044 so Pearson Correlation
- 49. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 49 Long Term Assets & Return on Equity Figure: 14 The output shows a scatter plot for two scale variables i.e. long term assets and return on equity. The overall pattern of the dots show that it is from diagonal down ward straight regression line showing negative association between the two variables and the points fit the line not pretty well and there are very values dispersed far from the regression line so it seems that there is negative relationship between long term assets and return on equity. Quadratic – Linear = Out Put Value 0.015 - 0.014 = 0.001 0.05 > 0.001 so Pearson Correlation
- 50. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 50 Short Term Liability & Return on Equity Figure: 15 The output shows a scatter plot for two scale variables i.e. short term liability and return on equity. The overall pattern of the dots show that it is from diagonal down ward straight regression line showing negative association between the two variables and the points fit the line not pretty well and there are very values dispersed far from the regression line so it seems that there is negative relationship between short term liability and return on equity. Quadratic – Linear = Out Put Value 0.1 - 0.066 = 0.034 0.05 > 0.034 so Pearson Correlation
- 51. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 51 Long Term Liability & Return on Equity Figure: 16 The output shows a scatter plot for two scale variables i.e. long term liability and return on equity. The overall pattern of the dots show that it is from diagonal down ward straight regression line showing negative association between the two variables and the points fit the line not pretty well and there are some values dispersed far from the regression line so it seems that there is negative relationship between long term liability and return on equity. Quadratic – Linear = Out Put Value 0.038 - 0.031 = 0.037 0.05 > 0.037 so Pearson Correlation
- 52. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 52 4.2 Correlation 4.2.1 Correlation Table: 4 Correlations Return on Assets Short Term Assets Return on Assets Pearson Correlation 1 -.112 Sig. (2-tailed) .555 N 30 30 Short Term Assets Pearson Correlation -.112 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .555 N 30 30 To investigate if there was a statistically significant association between short term assets and return on assets, a correlation was computed. Both the variables were approximately normal there is no relationship between them hence fulfilling the assumptions for pearson correlation. Thus, the pearson is calculated, .555 > 0.05 relating that there is non significant relationship between the variables. 4.2.2 Correlation Table: 5 Correlations Return on Assets Long Term Assets Spearman's rho Return on Assets Correlation Coefficient 1.000 -.078 Sig. (2-tailed) . .682 N 30 30 Long Term Assets Correlation Coefficient -.078 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .682 . N 30 30 To investigate if there was a statistically significant association between long term assets and return on assets, a correlation was computed. Both the variables were approximately normal there is no relationship between them hence fulfilling the assumptions for spearman correlation. Thus, the spearman is calculated, .682 > 0.05 relating that there is non significant relationship between the variables.
- 53. Mutahir Bilal MCE-12147 53 4.2.3 Correlation Table: 6 Correlations Return on Assets Short Term Liability Return on Assets Pearson Correlation 1 -.153 Sig. (2-tailed) .421 N 30 30 Short Term Liability Pearson Correlation -.153 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .421 N 30 30 To investigate if there was a statistically significant association between short term assets and return on assets, a correlation was computed. Both the variables were approximately normal there is no relationship between them hence fulfilling the assumptions for pearson correlation. Thus, the pearson is calculated, .421 > 0.05 relating that there is non significant relationship between the variables. 4.2.4 Correlation Table: 7 Correlations Return on Assets Long Term Liability Return on Assets Pearson Correlation 1 -.101 Sig. (2-tailed) .596 N 30 30 Long Term Liability Pearson Correlation -.101 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .596 N 30 30 To investigate if there was a statistically significant association between short term assets and return on assets, a correlation was computed. Both the variables were approximately normal there is no relationship between them hence fulfilling the assumptions for pearson correlation. Thus, the pearson is calculated, .596 > 0.05 relating that there is non significant relationship between the variables.