Lecture 5 a_radiographic_presentation_2012

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This is a basic lecture to help dental students at all levels with basic interpretation

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Lecture 5 a_radiographic_presentation_2012

  1. 1. Dr MUMENA C.H
  2. 2. * Dental radiographs are used in combination with the clinical examination to identify pathologic conditions and anomalies* Prerequisite for interpretation: careful exposure and processing technique * Reason: avoid errors that inhibit interpretation of radiographs* Preferred technique: Paralleling technique * Reason: radiographs are most accurate representation of real structure* Prerequisite for interpretation: Understanding normal structures before identifying anomaly or pathology
  3. 3. * Normal radiographic appearance of tooth and surrounding anatomic structures:
  4. 4. * Rec anatomy of tooth (Enamel, dentine, cementum, pulp)* Enamel appears more lighter (More radiopaque) than dentine * Reason: it is the most dense substance in the body * It should appear unbroken by any radiolucency (Dark areas)
  5. 5. * Cementum: * Covers rooth area * Does not appear on radiographs * Reasons: * It is very thin layer * Density is similar to dentine
  6. 6. * Dentin: * Underlies the enamel and cementum * Dentin should appear smooth and unbroken by radiolucency except for the pulp chamber and root canals * Junction between enamel and dentin is clear * Reason: * Different densities
  7. 7. * Pulp chamber and root canals: * Made up of soft tissues * Appear radiolucent * Size of pulp chamber vary between individuals * Root canal appearance vary * Apical foramen and apical 2-3 mm of the canal may or may not be visible * In developing teeth, pulp chambers and canals are quite large * N.B: Pulp chambers and root canals should not contain radiolucencies
  8. 8. * Lamina Dura * It is the radiopaque line that follows the roots of the teeth * Appearance vary depending on root configuration and angulation of the x-ray beam * It may appear well defined or non-existent * In areas of occlusal stress ti will appear thicker and more dense * An interrupted or absent lamina dura in the absence of other signs and symptoms is not necessarily indicative of pathology
  9. 9. * Periodontal ligament space: * Radiolucent are between the lamina dura and the root surface * Extends from the alveolar crest around the root(s) to the opposite alveolar crest * Width of periodontal ligament space varies * Features suggesting pathology: * Widening adjacent to the alveolar crest * Widening in the apical area
  10. 10. * Cancellous or trabecular bone: * Consists of thin radiopaque plates and rods called trabeculae surrounding the bone marrow * It is sandwiched between the cortical plates of maxilla and mandible * Density and pattern of trabeculae bone vary from individual to individual * General presentation: * Trabecular pattern of maxilla is denser and finer than that of mandible
  11. 11. * END OF PART 1: FOLLOW PART 2; RADIOGRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF DENTAL CARIES

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