Benign diseases of breast


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Benign diseases of breast

  1. 1. Benign Diseases Of Breast Dr Mukhilesh R M.S.,
  2. 2. Features Of Benign Breast Disease • Most common cause of breast problems. • 30% of women suffer from a benign breast disorder • The most common symptoms are • Pain, • Lumpiness or • A lump. • Exclude cancer and to treat any existing symptoms
  3. 3. Congenital abnormalities • Amazia • Congenital absence of the breast . • Poland’s syndrome. • Polymazia • Accessory breasts • The axilla • Groin, • Buttock and thigh. • Function during lactation
  4. 4. Contd… • Mastitis of infants • At least as common in boys as in girls. • On the third or fourth day of life, if the breast of an infant is pressed lightly, a drop of colourless fluid can be expressed. • A few days later, there is often a slight milky secretion, which disappears during the third week. - ‘Witch’s milk’ . • Stimulation of the fetal breast by prolactin in response to the drop in maternal oestrogens and is essentially physiological.
  5. 5. Diffuse Hypertrophy • Puberty (benign virginal hypertrophy) and, the first pregnancy. • Attain enormous dimensions and may reach the knees when the patient is sitting. • Rarely unilateral. • An alteration in the normal sensitivity of the breast to oestrogenic hormones . • Treatment -reduction mammoplasty.
  6. 6. Injuries Of The Breast • Traumatic fat necrosis • Acute or chronic • In stout, middle-aged women. • Following a blow, or even indirect violence (e.g. Contraction of the pectoralis major) • A painless lump - mimic a carcinoma, (skin tethering and nipple retraction) • Biopsy • A history of trauma is not diagnostic. • Seat belt injury.
  7. 7. Inflammations Of Breast • Bacterial mastitis - most common variety. • Associated with lactation. • The intermediary – infant harbouring staphylococci in the nasopharynx. • Ascending infection from a sore and cracked nipple
  8. 8. Contd…
  9. 9. Contd… • Classical signs of acute inflammation. • Initially generalised cellulitis but later an abscess will form.
  10. 10. Managment • The cellulitic stage - appropriate antibiotic, (flucloxacillin or co-amoxiclav) • Feeding from the affected side may continue. • Support of the breast and symptomatic managament. • ‘Antibioma’ - a large, sterile, brawny oedematous swelling . • Repeated aspirations under antibiotic cover . • Fluctuation is a late sign
  11. 11. Incision and drainage recommended If the infection did not resolve within 48 hours or if after being emptied of milk there was an area of tense induration or other evidence of an underlying abscess.
  12. 12. Chronic Intramammary Abscess • Inadequate drainage • Injudicious antibiotic treatment, • Encapsulated within a thick wall of fibrous tissue the condition cannot be distinguished from a carcinoma without the histological evidence from a biopsy.
  13. 13. Mondor’s Disease • Thrombophlebitis of the superficial veins of the breast and anterior chest wall the arm. • The absence of injury or infection, the cause is obscure. • Subcutaneous cord, usually attached to the skin. • The skin over the breast is stretched by raising the arm, • A narrow, shallow subcutaneous groove alongside the cord becomes apparent.
  14. 14. Contd… • Differential diagnosis • Lymphatic permeation from an occult carcinoma of the breast. • Rx - restricted arm movements • Spontaneous regression a few months without recurrence, complications or deformity. • Development of malignancy is co incidental.
  15. 15. Ductal Ectasia / Periductal Mastitis • Dilatation of the breast ducts, which is often associated with periductal inflammation. • Etiopathogenesis is obscure , the disease is much more common in smokers. • Arteriopathy is a contributing factor in its aetiology. • Periductal inflammation is the primary condition
  16. 16. • Clinical features • Nipple discharge (of any colour), • A subareolar mass or abscess, • Mammary duct fistula and/or nipple retraction
  17. 17. Management • In the case of a mass or nipple retraction, • A carcinoma must be excluded by obtaining a mammogram and negative histology. • Any suspicion remains the mass should be excised. • Antibiotic therapy may be tried, • Co-amoxiclav or flucloxacillin and metronidazole. • Surgery - cure of this notoriously difficult condition; • This consists of excision of all of the major ducts (Hadfield’s Operation). • Important to shave the back of the nipple to ensure that all terminal ducts are removed. .
  18. 18. Microdochectomy
  19. 19. Ateiology • Disturbances in the breast physiology extending from a perturbation of normality to well-defined disease processes. • There is often little correlation between the histological appearance of the breast tissue and the symptoms
  20. 20. Clinical Features • A benign discrete lump in the breast • a cyst or • fibroadenoma. • Lumpiness • may be bilateral, • commonly in the upper outer quadrant • The changes may be cyclical, with an increase in both lumpiness and often tenderness before a menstrual period.
  21. 21. • Non-cyclical mastalgia • It may be associated with ANDI or with periductal mastitis. • It should be distinguished from referred pain, for example a musculoskeletal disorder. • About 5% of breast cancers exhibit pain at presentation.
  22. 22. Management • Treatment of lumpy breast • Reassurance. • Reviewing the patient at a different point in the menstrual cycle, • Pt will be unnecessarily anxious and to be submitted to multiple random biopsies because the clinician lacks the courage of his or her convictions.
  23. 23. Breast Cysts • Last decade of reproductive life • As a result of a non-integrated involution of stroma and epithelium. • Multiple, may be bilateral and can mimic malignancy. • Diagnosis can be confirmed by aspiration and/or ultrasound.
  24. 24. Treatment
  25. 25. Fibroadenoma • Fully developed breast • Between the ages of 15 and 25 years • They arise from hyperplasia of a single lobule and usually grow up to 2–3 cm in size. • Wellmarked capsule • Giant fibroadenomas - over 5 cm in diameter and are often rapidly growing
  26. 26. • A fibroadenoma does not require excision unless • Associated with suspicious cytology, • It becomes very large or • The patient expressly desires the lump to be removed.
  27. 27. Phyllodes Tumor • Serocystic disease of brodie or cystosarcoma phyllodes, • Women over the age of 40 years • Clinical features • Large, sometimes massive, tumour with an unevenly bosselated surface. • Ulceration of overlying skin occurs because of pressure necrosis. • Mobile on the chest wall.
  28. 28. • Histology • Low malignant potential resembling a fibroadenoma • Higher mitotic index, • They are rarely cystic and only very rarely develop features of a sarcomatous tumour. • These may metastasise via the bloodstream. • Treatment • Benign type is enucleation in young women or wide local excision. • Massive tumours, recurrent tumours and those of the malignant type will require mastectomy
  29. 29. Thank You