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Breast Cancer Staging
Presented by
Ihab Samy
National Cancer Institute – Cairo
Egypt
2014
• The extent or stage of cancer at the time of
diagnosis is a key factor that defines prognosis
and is a critical element in determining
appropriate treatment based on the
experience and outcomes of groups of prior
patients with similar stage.
Accurate staging is necessary to:
1. Evaluate the results of treatments and clinical
trials.
2. Facilitate the exchange and comparison of
information among treatment centers.
3. Serve as a basis for clinical and translational
cancer research.
• Several cancer staging systems are used
worldwide.
• Differences among these systems stem from
the needs and objectives of users in clinical
medicine and in population surveillance.
• The most clinically useful staging system is the
tumor node metastasis (TNM) system
maintained collaboratively by the American
Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the
International Union for Cancer Control (UICC).
History
• The TNM classification of cancer was
developed between 1943 and 1952 by Prof.
Pierre Denoix at the Institute Gustave-Roussy.
• The UICC subsequently established a Special
Committee on Clinical Stage Classification
under the Chairmanship of Dr Denoix.
• The Committee and its direct descendant, the
UICC TNM Prognostic Factors Project,
continued to develop the TNM Classification.
History
• At the same time as the UICC was developing the
TNM Classification, the International Federation
of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) developed
the FIGO Classification for Gyneacological
malignancies.
• A little later, the American Joint Committee for
Cancer (AJCC) began publishing separate
definitions of TNM categories.
• In 1987 the UICC and the AJCC TNM
classifications were unified.
• The TNM system classifies cancers by the size
and extent of the primary tumor (T),
involvement of regional lymph node (N), and
the presence or absence of distant metastases
(M), supplemented in recent years by carefully
selected nonanatomic prognostic factors.
• There is a TNM staging algorithm for cancers
of virtually every anatomic site and histology,
with the primary exception in this manual
being staging of pediatric cancers.
Philosophy of TNM Revision
The AJCC and UICC periodically modify the TNM
system in response to
1. Newly acquired clinical data
2. Improved understanding of cancer biology
and factors affecting prognosis.
The revision cycle for TNM staging is 6–8 years.
AJCC Cancer Staging Manual editions
Dates effective for cancer
diagnosed
PublicationEdition
1978-198319771
1984-198819832
1989-199219883
1993-199719924
1998-200219975
2003-200920026
2010- till present20097
Breast cancer staging
• Since 1905, several systems of classification
have been adopted.
• Steinthal described the first pure clinical
estimation of the stage or the extent of
disease at the time of treatment.
• In 1940, the four stage system for clinical
evaluation was adopted at the Christi Hospital
in Manchester.
• This classification was widely accepted, and is
still in use in many centers all over the world.
Manchester staging system
• Stage 1: The growth is confined to the breast.
• Stage 2: The growth is confined to the breast, but palpable, mobile
lymph nodes are present in the axilla.
• Stage 3: The growth extends beyond the mammary parenchyma:
(a) skin invasion or fixation over an area large in relation to the size
of the breast or skin ulceration; (b) tumor fixation to the underlying
muscle or fascia; axillary nodes, if present, are mobile.
• Stage 4: The growth extends beyond the breast area as shown by
fixation or matting of the axillary nodes, complete fixation of the
tumor to chest wall, deposits in supraclavicular nodes or in the
opposite breast, or distant metastases.
TNM staging system
• In 1972, according to Denoix, and the committee
of clinical staging of the UICC.
• The new method of clinical staging was widely
used by different centers.
• The Manchester system is a simple clinical staging
system, while the TNM classification provides a
more accurate assessment and is useful in clinical
trials.
7th Edition of TNM staging system
• TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed.
• T0 No evidence of primary tumor.
• Tis Carcinoma in situ.
• Tis (DCIS) DCIS.
• Tis (LCIS) LCIS.
• Tis (Paget) Paget disease of the nipple NOT associated with invasive carcinoma and/or carcinoma in situ
(DCIS and/or LCIS) in the underlying breast parenchyma. Carcinomas in the breast parenchyma associated with
Paget disease are categorized based on the size and characteristics of the parenchymal disease, although the
presence of Paget disease should still be noted.
• T1 Tumor ≤20 mm in greatest dimension.
• T1mi Tumor ≤1 mm in greatest dimension.
• T1a Tumor >1 mm but ≤5 mm in greatest dimension.
• T1b Tumor >5 mm but ≤10 mm in greatest dimension.
• T1c Tumor >10 mm but ≤20 mm in greatest dimension.
• T2 Tumor >20 mm but ≤50 mm in greatest dimension.
• T3 Tumor >50 mm in greatest dimension.
• T4 Tumor of any size with direct extension to the chest wall and/or to the skin (ulceration or skin nodules).
• T4a Extension to the chest wall, not including only pectoralis muscle adherence/invasion.
• T4b Ulceration and/or ipsilateral satellite nodules and/or edema (including peau d'orange) of the skin, which
do not meet the criteria for inflammatory carcinoma.
• T4c Both T4a and T4b.
• T4d Inflammatory carcinoma.
Modifications of T stage since the 6th Edition
• Designation changed from T1mic to T1mi
.
Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition
• Inflammatory Carcinoma Term is restricted to
cases with typical skin changes involving a third
or more of the breast (Decreased from majority
of skin to a third or more).
• Demonstration of dermal lymphatic involvement
by tumor not necessary for diagnosis of IBC
(Change from tissue proven necessary to not
required).
Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition
• Identified specific imaging modalities that can be used to estimate clinical tumor
size, including mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
• Made specific recommendations that (1) the microscopic measurement is the
most accurate and preferred method to determine pT with a small invasive cancer
that can be entirely submitted in one paraffin block, and (2) the gross
measurement is the most accurate and preferred method to determine pT with
larger invasive cancers that must be submitted in multiple paraffin blocks.
• Made the specific recommendation to use the clinical measurement thought to be
most accurate to determine the clinical T of breast cancers treated with
neoadjuvant therapy. Pathologic (posttreatment) size should be estimated based
on the best combination of gross and microscopic histological findings.
• Made the specific recommendation to estimate the size of invasive cancers that
are unapparent to any clinical modalities or gross pathologic examination by
carefully measuring and recording the relative positions of tissue samples
submitted for microscopic evaluation and determining which contain tumor.
Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition
• Acknowledged “ductal intraepithelial neoplasia” (DIN) as
uncommon, and still not widely accepted, terminology
encompassing both DCIS and ADH, and clarification that only cases
referred to as DIN containing DCIS (±ADH) are classified as Tis
(DCIS).
• Acknowledged “lobular intraepithelial neoplasia” (LIN) as
uncommon, and still not widely accepted, terminology
encompassing both LCIS and ALH, and clarification that only cases
referred to as LIN containing LCIS (±ALH) are classified as Tis (LCIS).
• Clarified that only Paget’s disease NOT associated with an
underlying noninvasive (that is, DCIS and/or LCIS) or invasive breast
cancer should be classified as Tis (Paget’s) and that Paget’s disease
associated with an underlying cancer be classified according to the
underlying cancer (Tis, T1, and so on).
Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition
• Made the recommendation to estimate the size of
noninvasive carcinomas (DCIS and LCIS), even though it
does not currently change their T classification,
because noninvasive cancer size may influence
therapeutic decisions, acknowledging that providing a
precise size for LCIS may be difficult.
• Acknowledged that the prognosis of microinvasive
carcinoma is generally thought to be quite favorable,
although the clinical impact of multifocal microinvasive
disease is not well understood at this time.
Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition
• Acknowledged that it is not necessary for tumors to be in separate
quadrants to be classified as multiple simultaneous ipsilateral carcinomas,
providing that they can be unambiguously demonstrated to be
macroscopically distinct and measurable using available clinical and
pathologic techniques.
• Maintained that the term “inflammatory carcinoma” be restricted to cases
with typical skin changes involving a third or more of the skin of the
breast. While the histologic presence of invasive carcinoma invading
dermal lymphatics is supportive of the diagnosis, it is not required, nor is
dermal lymphatic invasion without typical clinical findings sufficient for a
diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer.
• Recommend that all invasive cancer should be graded using the
Nottingham combined histologic grade (Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff–
Bloom Richardson grading system).
Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff-Bloom-
Richardson grading system
•• Formation of tubules
• Degree of anaplasia
• Number of mitoses
3-5 points: Low grade
6-7 points: Intermediate grade
8-9 points: High grade
N stage 7th Edition
• NX Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed (e.g., previously removed).
• N0 No regional lymph node metastases.
• N1 Metastases to movable ipsilateral level I, II axillary lymph node(s).
• N2 Metastases in ipsilateral level I, II axillary lymph nodes that are clinically fixed or matted.
OR Metastases in clinically detected ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in the absence of
clinically evident axillary lymph node metastases.
N2a Metastases in ipsilateral level I, II axillary lymph nodes fixed to one another
(matted) or to other structures.
N2b Metastases only in clinically detected ipsilateral internal mammary nodes and
in the absence of clinically evident level I, II axillary lymph node metastases.
• N3 Metastases in ipsilateral infraclavicular (level III axillary) lymph node(s) with or without level
I, II axillary lymph node involvement. OR Metastases in clinically detected ipsilateral
internal mammary lymph node(s) with clinically evident level I, II axillary lymph node
metastases. OR Metastases in ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node(s) with or without
axillary or internal mammary lymph node involvement.
N3a Metastases in ipsilateral infraclavicular lymph node(s).
N3b Metastases in ipsilateral internal mammary lymph node(s) and axillary lymph
node(s).
N3c Metastases in ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node(s).
Recommendations of N stage in the 7th Edition
• Classification of isolated tumor cell clusters and single cells is more
stringent. Small clusters of cells not greater than 0.2 millimeters, or
nonconfluent or nearly confluent clusters of cells not exceeding 200
cells in a single histologic lymph node cross section are classified as
isolated tumor cells.
• Use of the (sn) modifier has been clarified and restricted. When six
or more sentinel nodes are identified on gross examination of
pathology specimens the (sn) modifier should be omitted.
• Stage I breast tumors have been subdivided into Stage IA and Stage
IB; Stage IB includes small tumors (T1) with exclusively
micrometastases in lymph nodes (N1mi).
M stage 7th Edition
• M0 : No clinical or radiographic evidence of distant
metastases.
• cM0(i+) : No clinical or radiographic evidence of distant
metastases, but deposits of molecularly or microscopically
detected tumor cells in circulating blood, bone marrow, or
other non-regional nodal tissue that are ≤0.2 mm in a
patient without symptoms or signs of metastases.
• M1 : Distant detectable metastases as determined by
classic clinical and radiographic means and/or histologically
proven >0.2 mm.
Recommendations of M stage in the 7th Edition
• Created new M0(i+) category, defined by presence of
either disseminated tumor cells detectable in bone
marrow or circulating tumor cells or found incidentally
in other tissues (such as ovaries removed
prophylactically) if not exceeding 0.2 millimeters.
• However, this category does not change the stage
grouping. Assuming that they do not have clinically
and/or radiographically detectable metastases,
patients with M0(i+) are staged according to T and N.
TNM Stage Groups
Stage Groups : Stage I breast cancer
• In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or
smaller and has not spread outside the breast.
• In stage IB, no tumor is found in the breast or
the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.
Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2
millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters)
are found in the lymph nodes.
Stage I A and I B Groups
Stage Groups : Stage II breast cancer
• In stage IIA: no tumor is found in the breast or
the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.
Cancer (larger than 2 millimeters) is found in 1
to 3 axillary lymph nodes); or the tumor is
larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5
centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph
nodes.
Stage II A
In stage IIB, the tumor is:
• larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5
centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger
than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters)
are found in the lymph nodes; or
• larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5
centimeters. Cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph
nodes or to the lymph nodes near the breastbone; or
• larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to
the lymph nodes.
Stage II B
Stage Groups : Stage III breast cancer
In stage IIIA:
• no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor
may be any size. Cancer is found in 4 to 9 axillary
lymph nodes; or
• the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Small
clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2
millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are
found in the lymph nodes; or
• the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer
has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes.
Stage IIIA
• In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and
cancer has spread to the chest wall and/or to
the skin of the breast and caused swelling or
an ulcer. Also, cancer may have spread to:
• up to 9 axillary lymph nodes; or
• the lymph nodes near the sternum.
Cancer that has spread to the skin of the breast
may be inflammatory breast cancer.
Stage IIIB
In stage IIIC,
• no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor may be
any size. Cancer may have spread to the skin of the
breast and caused swelling or an ulcer and/or has
spread to the chest wall. Also, cancer has spread to:
• 10 or more axillary lymph nodes; or
• lymph nodes above or below the clavicle; or
• axillary lymph nodes and lymph nodes near the
sternum.
Stage IIIC
In stage IV, cancer has spread to other organs of the
body, most often the bones, lungs, liver, or brain.
Remarks
• T1 includes T1mi.
• T0 and T1 tumors with nodal micrometastases only are excluded from
Stage IIA and are classified Stage IB.
• M0 includes M0(i+).
• The designation pM0 is not valid; any M0 should be clinical.
• .
Remarks
• If a patient presents with M1 prior to neoadjuvant systemic therapy,
the stage is considered Stage IV and remains Stage IV regardless of
response to neoadjuvant therapy.
• Stage designation may be changed if postsurgical imaging studies
reveal the presence of distant metastases, provided that the studies
are carried out within 4 months of diagnosis in the absence of
disease progression and provided that the patient has not received
neoadjuvant therapy.
• Postneoadjuvant therapy is designated with "yc" or "yp" prefix. Of
note, no stage group is assigned if there is a complete pathologic
response (CR) to neoadjuvant therapy, for example, ypT0ypN0cM0
Thank you

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Breast cancer staging

  • 1. Breast Cancer Staging Presented by Ihab Samy National Cancer Institute – Cairo Egypt 2014
  • 2. • The extent or stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis is a key factor that defines prognosis and is a critical element in determining appropriate treatment based on the experience and outcomes of groups of prior patients with similar stage.
  • 3. Accurate staging is necessary to: 1. Evaluate the results of treatments and clinical trials. 2. Facilitate the exchange and comparison of information among treatment centers. 3. Serve as a basis for clinical and translational cancer research.
  • 4. • Several cancer staging systems are used worldwide. • Differences among these systems stem from the needs and objectives of users in clinical medicine and in population surveillance. • The most clinically useful staging system is the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system maintained collaboratively by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union for Cancer Control (UICC).
  • 5. History • The TNM classification of cancer was developed between 1943 and 1952 by Prof. Pierre Denoix at the Institute Gustave-Roussy. • The UICC subsequently established a Special Committee on Clinical Stage Classification under the Chairmanship of Dr Denoix. • The Committee and its direct descendant, the UICC TNM Prognostic Factors Project, continued to develop the TNM Classification.
  • 6. History • At the same time as the UICC was developing the TNM Classification, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) developed the FIGO Classification for Gyneacological malignancies. • A little later, the American Joint Committee for Cancer (AJCC) began publishing separate definitions of TNM categories. • In 1987 the UICC and the AJCC TNM classifications were unified.
  • 7. • The TNM system classifies cancers by the size and extent of the primary tumor (T), involvement of regional lymph node (N), and the presence or absence of distant metastases (M), supplemented in recent years by carefully selected nonanatomic prognostic factors. • There is a TNM staging algorithm for cancers of virtually every anatomic site and histology, with the primary exception in this manual being staging of pediatric cancers.
  • 8. Philosophy of TNM Revision The AJCC and UICC periodically modify the TNM system in response to 1. Newly acquired clinical data 2. Improved understanding of cancer biology and factors affecting prognosis. The revision cycle for TNM staging is 6–8 years.
  • 9. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual editions Dates effective for cancer diagnosed PublicationEdition 1978-198319771 1984-198819832 1989-199219883 1993-199719924 1998-200219975 2003-200920026 2010- till present20097
  • 10. Breast cancer staging • Since 1905, several systems of classification have been adopted. • Steinthal described the first pure clinical estimation of the stage or the extent of disease at the time of treatment. • In 1940, the four stage system for clinical evaluation was adopted at the Christi Hospital in Manchester. • This classification was widely accepted, and is still in use in many centers all over the world.
  • 11. Manchester staging system • Stage 1: The growth is confined to the breast. • Stage 2: The growth is confined to the breast, but palpable, mobile lymph nodes are present in the axilla. • Stage 3: The growth extends beyond the mammary parenchyma: (a) skin invasion or fixation over an area large in relation to the size of the breast or skin ulceration; (b) tumor fixation to the underlying muscle or fascia; axillary nodes, if present, are mobile. • Stage 4: The growth extends beyond the breast area as shown by fixation or matting of the axillary nodes, complete fixation of the tumor to chest wall, deposits in supraclavicular nodes or in the opposite breast, or distant metastases.
  • 12. TNM staging system • In 1972, according to Denoix, and the committee of clinical staging of the UICC. • The new method of clinical staging was widely used by different centers. • The Manchester system is a simple clinical staging system, while the TNM classification provides a more accurate assessment and is useful in clinical trials.
  • 13. 7th Edition of TNM staging system • TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed. • T0 No evidence of primary tumor. • Tis Carcinoma in situ. • Tis (DCIS) DCIS. • Tis (LCIS) LCIS. • Tis (Paget) Paget disease of the nipple NOT associated with invasive carcinoma and/or carcinoma in situ (DCIS and/or LCIS) in the underlying breast parenchyma. Carcinomas in the breast parenchyma associated with Paget disease are categorized based on the size and characteristics of the parenchymal disease, although the presence of Paget disease should still be noted. • T1 Tumor ≤20 mm in greatest dimension. • T1mi Tumor ≤1 mm in greatest dimension. • T1a Tumor >1 mm but ≤5 mm in greatest dimension. • T1b Tumor >5 mm but ≤10 mm in greatest dimension. • T1c Tumor >10 mm but ≤20 mm in greatest dimension. • T2 Tumor >20 mm but ≤50 mm in greatest dimension. • T3 Tumor >50 mm in greatest dimension. • T4 Tumor of any size with direct extension to the chest wall and/or to the skin (ulceration or skin nodules). • T4a Extension to the chest wall, not including only pectoralis muscle adherence/invasion. • T4b Ulceration and/or ipsilateral satellite nodules and/or edema (including peau d'orange) of the skin, which do not meet the criteria for inflammatory carcinoma. • T4c Both T4a and T4b. • T4d Inflammatory carcinoma.
  • 14. Modifications of T stage since the 6th Edition • Designation changed from T1mic to T1mi .
  • 15. Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition • Inflammatory Carcinoma Term is restricted to cases with typical skin changes involving a third or more of the breast (Decreased from majority of skin to a third or more). • Demonstration of dermal lymphatic involvement by tumor not necessary for diagnosis of IBC (Change from tissue proven necessary to not required).
  • 16. Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition • Identified specific imaging modalities that can be used to estimate clinical tumor size, including mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). • Made specific recommendations that (1) the microscopic measurement is the most accurate and preferred method to determine pT with a small invasive cancer that can be entirely submitted in one paraffin block, and (2) the gross measurement is the most accurate and preferred method to determine pT with larger invasive cancers that must be submitted in multiple paraffin blocks. • Made the specific recommendation to use the clinical measurement thought to be most accurate to determine the clinical T of breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant therapy. Pathologic (posttreatment) size should be estimated based on the best combination of gross and microscopic histological findings. • Made the specific recommendation to estimate the size of invasive cancers that are unapparent to any clinical modalities or gross pathologic examination by carefully measuring and recording the relative positions of tissue samples submitted for microscopic evaluation and determining which contain tumor.
  • 17. Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition • Acknowledged “ductal intraepithelial neoplasia” (DIN) as uncommon, and still not widely accepted, terminology encompassing both DCIS and ADH, and clarification that only cases referred to as DIN containing DCIS (±ADH) are classified as Tis (DCIS). • Acknowledged “lobular intraepithelial neoplasia” (LIN) as uncommon, and still not widely accepted, terminology encompassing both LCIS and ALH, and clarification that only cases referred to as LIN containing LCIS (±ALH) are classified as Tis (LCIS). • Clarified that only Paget’s disease NOT associated with an underlying noninvasive (that is, DCIS and/or LCIS) or invasive breast cancer should be classified as Tis (Paget’s) and that Paget’s disease associated with an underlying cancer be classified according to the underlying cancer (Tis, T1, and so on).
  • 18. Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition • Made the recommendation to estimate the size of noninvasive carcinomas (DCIS and LCIS), even though it does not currently change their T classification, because noninvasive cancer size may influence therapeutic decisions, acknowledging that providing a precise size for LCIS may be difficult. • Acknowledged that the prognosis of microinvasive carcinoma is generally thought to be quite favorable, although the clinical impact of multifocal microinvasive disease is not well understood at this time.
  • 19. Recommendations of T stage in the 7th Edition • Acknowledged that it is not necessary for tumors to be in separate quadrants to be classified as multiple simultaneous ipsilateral carcinomas, providing that they can be unambiguously demonstrated to be macroscopically distinct and measurable using available clinical and pathologic techniques. • Maintained that the term “inflammatory carcinoma” be restricted to cases with typical skin changes involving a third or more of the skin of the breast. While the histologic presence of invasive carcinoma invading dermal lymphatics is supportive of the diagnosis, it is not required, nor is dermal lymphatic invasion without typical clinical findings sufficient for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer. • Recommend that all invasive cancer should be graded using the Nottingham combined histologic grade (Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff– Bloom Richardson grading system).
  • 20. Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff-Bloom- Richardson grading system •• Formation of tubules • Degree of anaplasia • Number of mitoses 3-5 points: Low grade 6-7 points: Intermediate grade 8-9 points: High grade
  • 21. N stage 7th Edition • NX Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed (e.g., previously removed). • N0 No regional lymph node metastases. • N1 Metastases to movable ipsilateral level I, II axillary lymph node(s). • N2 Metastases in ipsilateral level I, II axillary lymph nodes that are clinically fixed or matted. OR Metastases in clinically detected ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in the absence of clinically evident axillary lymph node metastases. N2a Metastases in ipsilateral level I, II axillary lymph nodes fixed to one another (matted) or to other structures. N2b Metastases only in clinically detected ipsilateral internal mammary nodes and in the absence of clinically evident level I, II axillary lymph node metastases. • N3 Metastases in ipsilateral infraclavicular (level III axillary) lymph node(s) with or without level I, II axillary lymph node involvement. OR Metastases in clinically detected ipsilateral internal mammary lymph node(s) with clinically evident level I, II axillary lymph node metastases. OR Metastases in ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node(s) with or without axillary or internal mammary lymph node involvement. N3a Metastases in ipsilateral infraclavicular lymph node(s). N3b Metastases in ipsilateral internal mammary lymph node(s) and axillary lymph node(s). N3c Metastases in ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node(s).
  • 22. Recommendations of N stage in the 7th Edition • Classification of isolated tumor cell clusters and single cells is more stringent. Small clusters of cells not greater than 0.2 millimeters, or nonconfluent or nearly confluent clusters of cells not exceeding 200 cells in a single histologic lymph node cross section are classified as isolated tumor cells. • Use of the (sn) modifier has been clarified and restricted. When six or more sentinel nodes are identified on gross examination of pathology specimens the (sn) modifier should be omitted. • Stage I breast tumors have been subdivided into Stage IA and Stage IB; Stage IB includes small tumors (T1) with exclusively micrometastases in lymph nodes (N1mi).
  • 23. M stage 7th Edition • M0 : No clinical or radiographic evidence of distant metastases. • cM0(i+) : No clinical or radiographic evidence of distant metastases, but deposits of molecularly or microscopically detected tumor cells in circulating blood, bone marrow, or other non-regional nodal tissue that are ≤0.2 mm in a patient without symptoms or signs of metastases. • M1 : Distant detectable metastases as determined by classic clinical and radiographic means and/or histologically proven >0.2 mm.
  • 24. Recommendations of M stage in the 7th Edition • Created new M0(i+) category, defined by presence of either disseminated tumor cells detectable in bone marrow or circulating tumor cells or found incidentally in other tissues (such as ovaries removed prophylactically) if not exceeding 0.2 millimeters. • However, this category does not change the stage grouping. Assuming that they do not have clinically and/or radiographically detectable metastases, patients with M0(i+) are staged according to T and N.
  • 26. Stage Groups : Stage I breast cancer • In stage IA, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has not spread outside the breast. • In stage IB, no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes.
  • 27. Stage I A and I B Groups
  • 28. Stage Groups : Stage II breast cancer • In stage IIA: no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Cancer (larger than 2 millimeters) is found in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes); or the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
  • 30. In stage IIB, the tumor is: • larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes; or • larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or to the lymph nodes near the breastbone; or • larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
  • 32. Stage Groups : Stage III breast cancer In stage IIIA: • no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor may be any size. Cancer is found in 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes; or • the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters) are found in the lymph nodes; or • the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters. Cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes.
  • 34. • In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and cancer has spread to the chest wall and/or to the skin of the breast and caused swelling or an ulcer. Also, cancer may have spread to: • up to 9 axillary lymph nodes; or • the lymph nodes near the sternum. Cancer that has spread to the skin of the breast may be inflammatory breast cancer.
  • 36. In stage IIIC, • no tumor is found in the breast or the tumor may be any size. Cancer may have spread to the skin of the breast and caused swelling or an ulcer and/or has spread to the chest wall. Also, cancer has spread to: • 10 or more axillary lymph nodes; or • lymph nodes above or below the clavicle; or • axillary lymph nodes and lymph nodes near the sternum.
  • 38. In stage IV, cancer has spread to other organs of the body, most often the bones, lungs, liver, or brain.
  • 39. Remarks • T1 includes T1mi. • T0 and T1 tumors with nodal micrometastases only are excluded from Stage IIA and are classified Stage IB. • M0 includes M0(i+). • The designation pM0 is not valid; any M0 should be clinical. • .
  • 40. Remarks • If a patient presents with M1 prior to neoadjuvant systemic therapy, the stage is considered Stage IV and remains Stage IV regardless of response to neoadjuvant therapy. • Stage designation may be changed if postsurgical imaging studies reveal the presence of distant metastases, provided that the studies are carried out within 4 months of diagnosis in the absence of disease progression and provided that the patient has not received neoadjuvant therapy. • Postneoadjuvant therapy is designated with "yc" or "yp" prefix. Of note, no stage group is assigned if there is a complete pathologic response (CR) to neoadjuvant therapy, for example, ypT0ypN0cM0