15102759 chemistry-folio-chapter-9-spm
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15102759 chemistry-folio-chapter-9-spm 15102759 chemistry-folio-chapter-9-spm Document Transcript

  • Hafiz Akmal 1 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry SULPHURIC ACID In the pure, concentratedsulphuric acid is a diprotic form, sulphuric acid is an (dibasic) mineral acid oily, colourless liquid which does not volatise. which is dense and viscous. It has high boiling point, that is 270 ˚C
  • Hafiz Akmal 2 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry USES OF SULPHURIC ACID 18%1% 38% making fertiliser12% paints chemicals detergents 18% 13% removing dust from steel other uses Figure 1:- Uses of Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4
  • Hafiz Akmal 3 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 2H2SO4 (l) + Ca3(PO4)2 (s) Ca(H2PO4)2 (l) + 2CaSO4 (s) superphosphate fertilisers :- - it is manufactured from the reaction between sulphuric acid and calcium phosphate. sulphuric acid: making fertiliser Ammonia Sulphate Potassium Sulphate:- fertiliser:- - It is manufactured by - It is manufactured the neutralisation of by the neutralisation sulphuric acid of sulphuric acid and potassium hydoxide ammonia2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O (l) 2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)
  • Hafiz Akmal 4 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryMANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACIDThe manufacture of sulphuric acid in industry is through thecontact process.The raw materials used to manufacture the acid are sulphur, airand water.The acid is produced in 3 stages:- Stage 1: The production of sulphur dioxide Stage 2: Formation of sulphur trioxide Stage 3: Formation of sulphuric acid
  • Hafiz Akmal 5 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry STAGE 1:THE PRODUCTION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE a) This can be obtained through two methods:- a) Heating liquid sulphur with hot air in a furnace. S (s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g) b) Heating sulphides in air, for example: 4FeS2 (s) + 11O2 (g) 2Fe2O3 (s) + 8SO2 (g) SO2 is a side-product in the extraction of the metal, iron. [Fe2O3 is reduced to iron with coke] Zinc pyrites can also be heated in air as follows: 2ZnO (s) + 3O2 (g) 2SO2 (g) + 2ZnO (s)
  • Hafiz Akmal 6 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry STAGE 2: FORMATION OF SULPHUR TRIOXIDEa) Pure, dry sulphur dioxide is mixed with dry oxygen in excess and passed over vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 as catalyst at a temperature of 450˚C - 550˚C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. The conditions ensure the maximum production of sulphur trioxide: 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g)b) The reaction takes place in a heat converter.c) Excess air is used to ensure higher percentage of SO3 produced.
  • Hafiz Akmal 7 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry STAGE 3: FORMATION OF SULPHURIC ACIDa) The sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7. This is carried out until the concentrated sulphuric acid has reached a concentration of 99.5%. SO3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) H2S2O7 (l)b) The product, oleum will not show any property of an acid. This is because, oleum will ‘not ionise’ without the presence of water.c) Water is then added to the oleum to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) 2H2SO4 (l)d) The reaction in (a) and (b) is equivalent to dissolving sulphur trioxide in water. SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq)e) However, this reaction is not carried out in industry. This is because the reaction is too vigorous.f) It produces a large cloud of sulphuric acid mist. This mist is corrosive and pollutes the air.
  • Hafiz Akmal 8 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry CONTACT PROCESS: Water Concentrated H2SO4 O2 , V2O5, 450˚C, 1 atm concentated Oleum sulphuric H2S2O7 acid, H2SO4Burnt in air Sulphur trioxide SO3 Sulphur dioxide SO2 Sulphur Figure 2:- Flow chart of Contact Process
  • Hafiz Akmal 9 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryThe industrial process in the Manufactured of Sulphuric Acid
  • Hafiz Akmal 10 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryUSES OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY: Examples are ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate and urea. The first two are prepare through neuralisation but urea is produced by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide. The To reaction involved are as the following: manufacture nitrogenous a) 2NH3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (s) ammonium sulphate fertilisers b) NH3 (g) + HNO3 (aq) NH4NO3 (aq) ammonium nitrate c) 2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) (NH2)2CO (s) + H2O (l) urea Having a low melting point, liquefied ammonia makes a good As a cooling cooling agent in refrigerators and agent air conditioners. It neutralizes the organic acids formed To prevent the by microorganisms in latex, thereby coagulation of preventing coagulation and preserving latex in the the latex in liquid form. rubber industry Ammonia is converted to nitric acid in the Ostwald process: 1) ammonia is first oxidised to nitrogen monoxide, NO, by oxygen in the presence of platinum as catalyst at 900˚C. To manufacture 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) Pt/900˚C 4NO (aq) + 6H2O (l) nitric acid in 2) nitrogen monoxide is further oxidised to nitrogen industry dioxide. 2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g) 3) Nitrogen dioxide and oxygen are dissolved in water to produced nitric acid. 4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + H2O (l) 4HNO3 (aq) a) Nitric acid is manufactured from ammonia before To manufacture being used to make explosive like trinitrotoluene explosive (TNT). b) Nitric acid, in this case, is reacted with organic substances like toluene.
  • Hafiz Akmal 11 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE THE PROPERTIES OF AMMONIAAim:- To investigate the properties of ammoniaMaterial:- 0.1 mol dm ammonia solution, 0.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia chloride, calcium hydroxide, concentrated hydrochloric acid, soda lime, distilled water, red litmus paper, Ph paper.Apparatus:- Test tubes, beaker, U-tube, Bunsen burner, glass rod, delivery tube, stoppers.Procedure:- a) Preparation of ammonia gas: 1. Some ammonium chloride is mixed with some calcium hydroxide. 2. The apparatus as shown in Figure 3 is set up
  • Hafiz Akmal 12 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 3. The mixture is heated 4. The ammonia gas produced is collected in a few test tubes. The test tubes containing ammonia gas must be closed with stoppers.b) Alkalinity of ammonia: 1. 5.0 cm of 1 mol ammonia solution and 5 cm of 0.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution are poured into two separate test tubes. 2. A piece of pH paper is dipped into the solution in each test tube. 3. The pH values of both solution are recorded.c) Colour, physical state, smell and solubility of ammonia: 1. The colour and physical state of ammonia are observed. 2. The stopper of a test tube containing ammonia gas is removed and the smell of the gas is identified. 3. A test tube containing ammonia gas is inverted into a beaker of water. 4. All observation are recorded.
  • Hafiz Akmal 13 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryd) Density of ammonia: 1. A test tube containing ammonia gas is held upright and another test rube containing ammonia gas is held upside down. 2. The stopper of the two test tubes are removed. 3. After 20 seconds, a piece of moist red litmus paper is put at the mouth of each test tube as shown in figure 5. 4. The colour of the red litmus paper is recorded.e) Chemical property of ammonia: 1. One end of a glass rod is dipped into concentrated hydrochloric acid. 2. The glass rod is then put on top of a test tube of ammonia gas. 3. Any change taking place is observed.
  • Hafiz Akmal 14 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryObservation :- Section Observation Inference pH of ammonia ammonia is weak solution is 10 alkali b) pH of sodium sodium hydroxide hydroxide solution is a strong alkali is 14 colourless gas ammonia is a pungent smell colourless gas with c) water rushed up a pungent smell and fills up the ammonia is very whole test tube soluble in water moist red litmus paper on top of the upright test tube Ammonia gas has does not change escaped from the d) colour. upright test tube Moist red litmus and thus is slightly paper under the less dense than air inverted test tube turns blue Ammonia react with hydrogen Dense white fumes e) are formed chloride gas to form ammonium chloride
  • Hafiz Akmal 15 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryDiscussion:- Ammonia is a weak alkali and has a pH of 10 Ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent smell Ammonia is very soluble in water, ionize partially in water to form ammonium ions and hydroxide NH3 (g) + H2O (l) = NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Ammonia is slightly less dense than air Ammonia react with hydrogen chloride gas to form ammonium chloride NH3 (g) + HCl (g) = NH4Cl (s)Conclusion:- Ammonia is an alkaline, colourless gas with a pungent smell. It is very soluble in water and is less dense in than air. It react with hydrogen chloride gas to form dense white fumes of ammonium chloride
  • Hafiz Akmal 16 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryHABER PROCESS
  • Hafiz Akmal 17 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryThe manufacture of ammonia through the Haber Process
  • Hafiz Akmal 18 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryPREPARATION OF AMMONIA FERTILISERAim:- To prepare ammonium sulphate.Material:- 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid, 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution, methyl orange, filter paperApparatus:- 25.0 cm pipette, burette, conical flask, white tile, retort stand and clamp, beaker, glass rod, evaporating dish, filter funnel, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze.Procedure:- a) Determining the volume of sulphuric acid that will neutralize 25.0 cm of ammonia solution:- 1. 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is transferred by a pipette to a clean conical flask. 2. Three drops of methyl orange indicator are added to the alkali. The solution turns yellow.
  • Hafiz Akmal 19 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry3. A clean burette is filled with 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid and clamped to a retort stand. The initial burette reading is recorded.4. The conical flask with its content is placed on a white tile below the burette as shown in figure 6 below.5. The sulphuric acid is added slowly into the conical flask. The conical flask is swirled gently throughout the titration.6. The addition of sulphuric acid is stopped when the indicator changes from yellow to orange. The final burette reading is recorded.7. The volume of acid needed to completely neutralize the 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is calculated. Let this volume V cm.
  • Hafiz Akmal 20 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry b) Preparation ammonium sulphate salt:- 1. 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is pipetted into a clean conical flask. No indicator is added. 2. V cm of 1 mol sulphuric acid is added from the burette to the ammonia solution. 3. The mixture in the conical flask is transferred to an evaporating dish and heated until a saturated solution is formed. 4. The hot, saturated salt solution is left to cool for crystallization to occur. 5. The crystal of ammonium sulphate formed are filtered, ashed and dried between sheets of filter paper.Observation:- A colourless solution is formed when sulphuric acid is added to ammonia solution. The crystal obtained are white in colour
  • Hafiz Akmal 21 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryDiscussion:- The equation for the reaction is: H2SO4 (aq) + 2NH4OH (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l) Methyl orange is an acid-base indicator used to determine the end point of the titration. The first titration is carried out to determine the exact volume of sulphuric acid required to completely neutralize the 25.0 cm of ammonia solution. The salt solution in the first titration is discarded because it is contaminated by methyl orange. The ammonium sulphate solution should not be heated until dryness because ammonium sulphate decomposes when it is overheated. The weight of ammonium sulphate obtained from the activity is always less than the theorical value. This is because some of the salt is not fully crystallized out and still remains in the solution. Other ammonium salt such as ammonium nitrate can be prepared from the reaction between nitric acid and ammonium solution.Conclusion:- Ammonium sulphate and other ammonium fertilizers can be prepared by neutralizing ammonia solution with the respective acids.
  • Hafiz Akmal 22 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryTHE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE METAL
  • Hafiz Akmal 23 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA Ammonia turns the damp red litmus paper blue. The gas is less dense than air + - NH3 + H2O NH4 OH alkalineAn inverted filter funnel is used gas, colurless and pungentto prevent sucking back of water gas Aqueous solutions of ammonia react with metal ions (except Na+, K+, and Ca2+) to produce precipitate of metal hydroxide Ammonia is weak alkali which reacts with dilute acids in neutralization to produce salt. Ammonia gas burns in oxygen to 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 produce nitrogen monoxide gas 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O
  • Hafiz Akmal 24 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry ALLOYMeaning and purpose of making alloy:- Alloying is a process of mixing two or more metals (or mixing metals with element such carbon) which cannot be separated using physical wayArrangement of atoms in alloys:- Pure metal A Pure metal B Alloys
  • Hafiz Akmal 25 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPARE THE HARDNESS OF A PURE METAL AND ITS ALLOYSAim:- To compare the hardness of a pure metal and its alloy.Problem Statement:- Are alloys harder than pure metal ?Hypothesis:- Bronze is harder than cooper.Variables:- Manipulated: Different types of materials (cooper & bronze) Responding: diameter of the dent Controlled: diameter of steel ball bearing, height of the weight, mass of the weight.Operational definition:- 1) If the diameter of the dent is smaller, then the material is harderMaterials:- 2) Cooper block, bronze block, cellophane tape
  • Hafiz Akmal 26 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryApparatus:- 3) Retort stand and clamp, 1-kg weight, metre ruler, steel ball bearing, thread.Procedure:- 1) A steel ball bearing is taped onto a cooper block using cellophane tape. 2) A 1-kg weight is hung at a height of 50 cm above the cooper block as shown in the figure 8. 3) The weight is allowed to drop onto the ball bearing. 4) The diameter of the dent made by the ball bearing on the cooper block is measured. 5) Steps 1-4 are repeated twice on the other parts of the cooper block in order to obtain an average value for the diameter of dents formed. 6) Steps 1-5 are repeated using a bronze block to replace the cooper block. 7) The reading are recorded in the table.
  • Hafiz Akmal 27 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryResults:- DIAMETER OF THE DENT (mm) METAL 1 2 3 average Cooper 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 Bronze 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2Discussion:- 1) The smaller the diameter of the dent, the harder and stronger is the material. 2) The average diameter of the dent made on the surface on the cooper block is bigger than the bronze block. 3) Based on the result, bronze is harder than cooper.Conclusion:- The hypothesis is accepted.
  • Hafiz Akmal 28 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry EXAMPLE OF ALLOYS Brass Stainless Bronze SteelBronze steel EXAMPLE OF ALLOYManganese SteelPewter Stainless steel Manganese steel
  • Hafiz Akmal 29 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE RATE OF RUSTING OF IRON, STEEL, AND STAINLESS STEELAim:- To compare the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel.Problem statement:- How does the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel differ?Hypothesis:- Iron rust faster than steel, and steel rust faster than stainless steel.Variables:- Manipulated variable: Different types of nails Responding variable: Intensity & amount of blue colour Controlled variable: Size of nails, concentration of solution used, durations for rusting.Operational definition:- The more intense the blue colour formed, the higher is the rate of rusting.
  • Hafiz Akmal 30 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryMaterials:- Iron nail, steel nail, stainless steel nail, jelly solution, potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution, water, sandpaper.Apparatus:- Test tubes, test tube rack.Procedure:- 1) The nails are rubbed using sandpaper to remove the rust from the surface of the nails. 2) The iron nail placed in the test tube A, the steel nail in test tube B and the stainless steel nail in test tube C. 3) A 5% jelly solution is prepared by adding 5 g of jelly into 100 cm of boiling water. A few drops of potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution are then added to the jelly solution. 4) The hot jelly solution is poured into the three test tubes until all the nails are fully immersed. 5) The test tubes are placed in a test tube rack and left aside for three days. The intensity of the blue colour is observed. 6) All observation are recorded in the table.
  • Hafiz Akmal 31 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryObservation:-Test tube Intensity of blue colour Inference A Very High Rusting occurs very fast B Low Rusting occurs slowly C Nil No rusting occursDiscussion:- 1) When iron rust, each iron atom loses two electrons to form an iron(ll) ion, Fe2+. Fe (s) = Fe2+ (aq) + 2e- (aq) 2) Potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution is added to the jelly solution as an indicator to detect iron(ll) ions. 3) When there is iron(ll) ion, potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution will form dark blue colouration. 4) The higher the intensity of the blue colour, the higher is the rate of rusting. 5) Solidified jelly solution is used to trap and see the blue colouration clearly. This is because diffusions occurs the slowest in solids. 6) Based on the observation, iron rust faster than steel. Stainless steel does not rust. 7) The nail made from stainless steel does not rust. This is because this nail is an alloy of iron with carbon, chromium and nickel.
  • Hafiz Akmal 32 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 8) The nail made from steel will rust slowly. The presence of carbon atoms will make the steel stronger than iron but does not prevent it from rusting. 9) Rusting of iron is an example of corrosion. When corrosion occurs, the metal loses electrons to form metal iron.Conclusion:- Iron rust faster than steel. Stainless steel does not rust. Hypothesis is accepted.
  • Hafiz Akmal 33 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryCOMPOSITONS OF ALLOYS & THEIR USES Alloy Composition Properties Uses Cu 75% Hard, strong,Cupronickel Coins Ni 25% resist corrosion Al 95% Aeroplane part, electric cablesDuralumin Cu 4% Light, strong racing bicycles Mg 1% Fe 99% Hard, strong,Steel Vehicles, bridges, buildings C 1% cheap Fe 73% Kitchen appliance, watches,Stainless Cr 18% Hard, rust knifes, fork, spoons, machinesteel Ni 8% resistant parts C 1% Cu 90% Hard, strong, Decorative items, medals,bronze Sn 10% shining artwork, pots & pans Cu 70% Harder and Musical instrument, bell, nails,Brass Zn 30% cheaper than Cu screw, and pots Pb 50% Low meltingSolder Welding, soldering work Sn 50% point, strong Sn 91% Malleable,Pewter Sb 7% ductile, rust Decorative items,souvenirs Cu 2% resistant Al 70% Tyre rim of racing car, skeletalMagnalium Light, strong Mg 30% body of aeroplane
  • Hafiz Akmal 34 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry POLYMER large molicule that is in the form of long chain with high RMM POLYMER made up of many two types:- monomers which join together- natural polymer through process- syntetic polymer called polymerisation
  • Hafiz Akmal 35 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry NATURAL POLYMERMonomer acid Monomer glucose Monomer isopreneamino Eg: in starch and (2-methylbuta-1,3Eg: in muscle, skin, cellulose diene)silk, hairs, wools, and Eg: in latexfurs
  • Hafiz Akmal 36 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry SYNTHETIC POLYMER & IT USESSynthetic polymers are polymers made in industry from chemicalsubstances.Many of the raw materials for synthetic polymers are obtained frompetroleum, after refining and cracking process. Synthetic Synthetic fibres Thermoplastic rubber (long chained polymer that withstand streching) Nylon (monomers: Polyvinyl chloride(PVC) Styrene- butadlene diamine and dicarboxylic (monomers: rubber (SBR) (monomers: acid) chloroethene) styrene & butadlene. eg:- synthetic eg:- rain clothes, water eg:- shoe soles & tyres textile, string pipes Neoprene (monomers: Terrylene (monomers: Polythene chloroprene) diol and dicarboxylic (monomers: ethene) eg:- gloves, electric wire acid) eg:- battery insulator, water pipes eg:- fishing net cases, pails, plastic bags Polystytrene Butyl rubber (monomers: (monomers: isobutylene & isoprene) phenylethene) eg:- inner tubing of eg:- toys, disposable cup tyre, hoses, shoe soles and plates Perspex (monomers: Polypropene methyl metacrylate) (monomers: propene) eg:- spectacles, car lamps eg:- plastic bottles
  • Hafiz Akmal 37 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryWHY USE SYNTETIC POLYMERS IN DAILY LIFE? Strong & light easily can be made moulded or to have shaped & be special coloured Synthetic properties polymers able to resist cheap corrosion
  • Hafiz Akmal 38 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTIONRESULTING FROM THE DISPOSAL OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS AIR POLLUTION - caused by burning of plastic eg: burning of PVC will produce dioxin. (dioxin will destroy human immune system, reproductive system & nervous system Effects of improper Disposal of Synthetic SOIL POLLUTION Polymer - plastic thrown on land fill up WATER POLLUTION our living spaces - plastic will stop the flow of - destroy the beauty of river water and drains. this environment will cause flash floods. -plastic also cause the soil not - plastic also cause the death suitable for planting because of marine organism if they plastic inhibit the growth of mistaken the plastic as food. root
  • Hafiz Akmal 39 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry GLASSGlass:- The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2 which found in sand.ri Impermeable to liquid Electrical Transparent insulator Properties of glass hard but Heat insulator brittle Chemically inert
  • Hafiz Akmal 40 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryTYPES, COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES, AND USES OF GLASS GLASS COMPOSITION PROPERTIES USES Low melting point Glass container SiO2 – 70% Mouldable into shapes Glass panes Na2O – 15% Cheap Mirror Soda lime glass CaO – 10% Breakable Lamps and bulbs Others – 4% Can withstand high Plates and bowls heat Bottles High density and Containers for drinks refractive index and food SiO2 – 70% Glittering surface Decorative glassLead glass (crystal) Na2O – 20% Soft Crystal glassware PbO – 10% Low melting point Lens for spectacles (600˚C) Resistant to high heat Glass apparatus in lab SiO2 – 80% &chemical reaction Cooking utensilsBorosilicate glass B2O3 – 13% Does not break easily (Pyrex) Na2O – 4% Allow infra-red rays Al2O3 – 2% but no ultra-violet rays High melting point Scientific apparatus (1700˚C) like lens on Expensive spectrometer SiO2 – 99%Fused silicate glass Allow ultraviolet to Optical lens B2O3 – 1% pass through Lab apparatus Difficult to melt or mould into shape
  • Hafiz Akmal 41 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry CERAMICSCeramics:- Ceramic is manufactured substances made from clay that is dried, and heated in a kiln at a very high temperature The main component of clay is aluminosilicate (aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar. Unlike glass, ceramic cannot be recycled. Kaolinite is a high quality white clay that contains hydrated aluminosilicate, Al2O3•2SiO2•2H2O. extremely hard & strong but brittle able to has a very withstand high and resist melting corrosion Properties point of ceramics good insulator of inert to electricity chemicals and heat
  • Hafiz Akmal 42 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryTHE DIFFERENT CLASES OF CERAMIC GROUP COMPOSITIONMineral Quartz – SiO2 Calcite – CaCO3Cement material Mixture of CaSiO3 and ammonium silicateOxide of ceramic Aluminium oxide – Al2O3 Silicon dioxide – SiO2 Magnesium oxide – MgONon-oxides of ceramic Silicon nitride – Si3N4 Silicon carbide – SiC Boron nitride – BN Boron carbide – B4C3
  • Hafiz Akmal 43 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE USES OF IMPROVED GLASS AND CERAMICS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSESGLASS OPTICAL FIBRE CONDUCTING GLASS GLASS-CERAMIC CERAMIC PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS• A pure silica glass thread that • a type of glass that can conduct • Rearrange its atoms into regular SUPERCONUCTOR • sensitive to light intensity conducts light. electricity. patterns by heating glass to form • superconductor can conduct • the glass darken when exposed• this fibres can transmit messages • produce by embedding a thin strong material electricity at low temoerature to sunlight but became clear modulated onto light waves. layer of conducting material in • it can withstand high without resistance, loss of when light intensity decresase.• used inmedical instrument, LAN glass. temperature, chemical attacks electrical energy as heat • used in windows, sunglasses ad • adding a layer of indium tin(iv) • used in • used to make light instrument control oxide (ITO) acts as an electrical tile, cookware, rockets, engine magnet, electric conductor. blocks motors, electrical generators • used in the making of LCD
  • Hafiz Akmal 44 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITE MATERIALSA composite material is structural material formed bycombining two or more materials with different physicalproperties, producing a complex mixture.They are used to make various substances in daily lifebecause of the following reasons:- a) Metals corrode and are ductile and malleable b) Glass and ceramic break easily c) Metal are good conductors but have high resistant, leading to loss of electrical energy as heat. d) Plastic and glass can withstand heat to a certain level only
  • Hafiz Akmal 45 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITE PROPERTIES OF PROPERTIES OF COMPONENT USES MATERIAL COMPONENT COMPOSITE concrete hard but brittle stronger construction of road low tensile strengh higher tensile strength rocket launching pads does not corrode high-rise buildings easily cheaperReinforced concrete can be moulded into shape steel strong in tensile can withstand very strength high applied force expensive can support very can corrode heavy load Cooper(ll) oxide Insulator of Conducts electricity Magnetically levitated Yttrium oxide electricity without resistance train Superconductor Barium oxide when cooled by liquid Transformer nitrogen Electric cable Computer parts Glass Transparent Reduce refraction of Information display Not sensitive to light panels light Control the amount of Light detector device light passed through it Car windshields auto. Optical lensPhotochromic glass Silver chloride Sensitive to light Has the ability to or silver change colour and bromide become darker when exposed to ultraviolet light Glass with low Transparent Low material cost Transmit data using refraction index Does not reflect Reflect light rays and light waves in light rays allow to travel along telecommunications the fibre Fibre optics Can transmit electronic data or Glass with signal, voice and higher image refractive index glass high density high tensile strength car bodies strong but brittle moulded and shaped helmets non-flexible inert to chemicals skies light, strong, tough rackets Fibre glass polyester light non-flammable furniture plastic flexible impermeable to water inflammable resilient elastic but weak flexible
  • Hafiz Akmal 46 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry in the medical field: to replace organs in the form of plastic composite organ Uses of composite material car part now usecomposite material sronger buildings instead iron and are built by usingsteel. this increase reinforce concrete the speed of the car and fuel saver