period during which early humans began to control fire and develop language (11,000 – 6,000 B.C.) Mesolithic Age (Middle Stone Age)
DEVELOPMENT OF PAKISTAN SOCIETY. MESOLITHIC AGE PRESENTATION BY: Uzma Mushtaq MSc. GOS 1 st Semister.
Mesolithic Period Mesolithic Age - Middle Stone Age (11,000 – 6,000 BCE ) The name "Mesolithic" comes from two separate words, Mesos=Middle and Lithos=Stone. Mesolithic Age is a period of transition from Old Stone Age to the New Stone Age. .
MAIN FEATURES OF MESOLITHIC AGE
Mesolithic Age is basically the blend of two societies, existing almost at the same time according to their immediate environment;
Not only use stones but bones,
Bows and arrows
Horticulture is technology based on using hand tools to cultivate plants.
Pastoralism is technology that supports the domestication of animals.
Both of these strategies are capable of producing material surpluses.
Farming communities began to be established. During this period, humans hunted and fished, and began to learn how to domesticate animals and plants. The late Mesolithic hunters are now known to have developed pottery (ceramic objects) and a sedentary lifestyle.
MESOLITHIC HUNTING GROUPS
LIFE STYLE OF THE PEOPLE
Such a large span of time involves quite a bit of variety.
Cultures included: gradual domestication of plants and animals, formation of settled communities. People started living in huts instead of caves.
Hunter-gatherers began to store food in containers (Surplus food).
Less reliance on large mammals for food -- more on fish.
Domestication of animals began with domestication of dogs.
Use of animals and much developed tools, instead of human, emerged in the field of cultivation. Slash and burn technique used by horticultural societies and use of stick and hoe for cultivation.
You would find farming tools, such as a stone hoe, during this time period.
5. Animals became smaller in size and faster than before, so human had to develop his stone tools (Microliths) and weapons made of bones and wood, in a lighter and more practical form, also some personal ornamentation and daily use items such as combs.
Mesolithic tool kits were based on chipped stone and often include microliths (very small stone tools)
War fear was frequent as compare to Paleolithic age, as they used to quarrel over animals, pastures (in the desert areas), land (for cultivation) and water.
In that period several religions were followed, mostly Islam, Judaism, Christianity were followed. (Ancestors worship was also followed)
Nomadic / Sedentary:
The people of this age were Nomadic as well as sedentary according to their surroundings.
Mesolithic Age vegetation
9. SOCIAL COMPLEXITY:
In this age people started to form a leader ship to combat war fear and to resolve their problems. (Governance started).
They started to elect their leader politically, which was authorized to take decisions and was powerful enough to punish any one on behalf of his people.
Education was informal and was not institutionalized.
Children used to learn from their elders as well as their own experiences.
11. MALE DOMINENT:
During this age males started dominent as food production was mainly the job of males.
Review – Prehistoric Art Three periods of Prehistoric Art . Paleolithic Art – Cave Paintings, Venus figurines. Mesolithic Art – Simple, no figures, only red used. Neolithic Art – Figures, Pottery and Megaliths.
Mesolithic Art: The rich art of the Paleolithic is replaced by a Mesolithic art with many changes in style as well as meaning. Paleolithic cave art depicts colored drawings and expressive features of animals. A full range of color is used. Mesolithic art in contrast is schematic; no realistic figures are present and only the color red is used.
Bowmen and Deer, Cliff Painting Los Caballos, Spain,10,000-9000 BC
period marked by the beginning of farming and the development of pottery and weaving (8,000 – 3,000 B.C.) Neolithic Age (New Stone Age)