Achievement Unlocked:Comparing Principles of Video GameDesign to Clinical Practice
Authors• John Wm. Folkins• Tim Brackenbury• Allison Hadley• Miriam KrauseBowling Green State UniversityBowling Green, OhioDisclosure: The authors have no conflict of interest or relevant financialor nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Video Games Motivate• People invest money in video games– Games grossed $10.5 billion in 2009• People willingly invest time and effort in video games– The average gamer spends eight hours per weekplaying video games• People concentrate on video games and stay on task forlong periods of timeReference: http://www.esrb.org/about/images/vidGames04.png
Video Games Motivate• A wide variety of people play video games– 67% of U.S. households play video games– 40% of gamers are female– average age of gamers is 34– 48% of games are rated “E for Everyone”Reference: http://www.esrb.org/about/images/vidGames04.png
The Appeal of Video Games is NotAccidental• Games of all sorts have been refined throughthe years.• Game designers are motivated to make gamesmore engaging.• Principles of game design have been studiedextensively in both industry and academia.• Principles of game design have been appliedin other contexts, e.g. education.
Our Purpose Today:• Introduce five (of many possible) video gamedesign principles.• Discuss ways these principles mightbe applied to improve clinicalpractice.
Five Principles of Video Game Design1. Full Experience Principle2. Risk Taking Principle3. Discovery Principle4. Generalization Principle5. Rewards System Principle
Five Principles of Video Game DesignNotes:• Not every games includes every principle• The newer video games are particularlyrelevant (sorry, Pong)
Five Principles of Video Game DesignYour Task:• As we introduce each principle,start thinking about how it couldrelate to clinical practice.
1. Full Experience Principle• Many games address epic themes– Examples of themes: allocation of limited resourcesor decision making in ambiguous contexts.• Every aspect of the game contributes to the epicthemes• Designers make decisions to guide players inrelation to the epic themesExample Game: Penumbra
2. Risk Taking Principle• Not too difficult, not too hard• Failure has only small penalties and isexpected• Innovation and individual choices areencouraged as the risks are small• Example Game: Braid
3. Discovery Principle• Players learn by exploration andexperimentation• “How to” instruction is kept to a minimum• Players are not dependent on manualsExample Game: World of Goo
World of Goo
4. Generalization Principle• New knowledge is put to work right away• Skills learned early should transfer and beuseful laterExample Game: Epic Mickey
5. Rewards System Principle• Intrinsic rewards are best—they lead to arecognized benefit or ability• Extrinsic rewards (pointification) can often beused to help reach intrinsic rewards• Both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards areubiquitous in video games, appealing toindividual player preferencesExample Game: Pokémon
• Each group gets a principle• Discuss how it might relate to client learning• How might current clinical practice reflect thisprinciple?• What might be new ways to incorporate thisprinciple into practiceGroups will report out in 15 minutes.Groups
Recap of the Five Principles of VideoGame Design1. Full Experience Principle2. Risk Taking Principle3. Discovery Principle4. Generalization Principle5. Rewards System Principle
Group Reports• Each group reports• General Discussion, questions, andobservations
Gee, James, P. (2007) What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning andLiteracy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Koster, Ralph (2005) A Theory of Fun for Game Design. Scottsdale AZ: Paraglyph Press.McGonigal, Jane (2011) Reality Is Broken. New York: Penguin Press.Orlando, John, (2011) Failure is an option: Helping Students Learn from Mistakes,greebananablog.org: Critical Thought About Senseless Contradictions. Retrievedon March 18, 2012 from http://greenbananablog.org/2011/05/failure-is-an-option,Smith-Robins, Sarah (2011) This Game Sucks: How to Improve the Gamification ofEducation. Educause Review, 46(1).Schell, Jesse (2009) The Art of Game Design. Burlington MA: Morgan Kentoran(Elsevier).Zichermann, Gabe and Christopher Cunningham (2011) Gamefication by Design.Sebastopol CA: O’Reilly Media.References & Suggested Readings
Video Game Movie URLs• Penumbrahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GAvQAkXqnUg• Braidhttp://braid-game.com/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QxXkcg-stLE&feature=related• Skyrimhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fe_lhUuyyZw• World of Goohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAoW9fjKmo4• Super Mario Galaxy 2http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3EIVDo_uuSM• Epic Mickeyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-pyQLiE5wEg