SIGGRAPH 2012 Computational Display Course - 2 Computational Displays

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  • Similar ideas have also been applied to increasing the contrast of static prints or other hardcopies. For this purpose, a projector can be used to illuminate the print, an e-reader, x-ray transparencies, or any other type of low-contrast display. As long as the projector is registered with the secondary display, it can just illuminate it with the exact image shown on the hardcopy to increase its dynamic range as seen in these examples on the top.Oliver Bimber also explored the concept of dual modulation for microscopy. The optical design is more involved than for simple printouts, but the idea is the same: a camera observes a specimen and the optics are built so that a programmable light source illuminates it so as to optically enhance the observed contrast. With live camera feedback, the projected images can also be adjusted to allow for dynamic content such as live specimen.
  • Dual modulation has the potential to increase the dynamic range of a variety of other displays as well. As seen in this schematic, the dynamic range of projectors can be extended through dual modulation. What we see is the design of an HDR projector that basically consists of a light source on the left, a conventional reflective or transmissive spatial light modulator for each color channel in the center, and an additional modulator on the right. While the latter only allows for the modulation of the luminance channel, the dynamic range for displayed luminance values is increased as the blacklevel is decreased. Please note that the human visual system is most sensitive to contrast for luminance perception and not very sensitive to chrominance contrast. In effect, the optical projector design enhances the capabilities of the device in a perceptually optimal manner. Exploiting the limitations of human perception for display optics design and the corresponding computational processing is the spirit of computational displays.
  • A somewhat more sophisticated approach to high dynamic range projection was recently presented at Siggraph Asia. While the previous HDR projector blocks a lot of the light inside the device to achieve a lower backlevel, this projector recycles excessive background light in dark image areas. Using an analog micro-mirror array in the optical path, excessive light is steered to other image areas and basically increases the maximum image brightness there.Light re-allocation or recycling in projectors is an idea that not only increases the contrast of the devices but also reduces the heat and cooling power consumption because the produced light is steered out of the physical enclosure rather than dumping it inside.This particular project is a great example of how a similar functionality, in this case high dynamic range imaging, can require very different optical designs and corresponding processing depending on whether it’s a projector or a TV. In one case dual modulation may be a great idea because one can mostly control where light is being emitted whereas in a projector one usually does not have that luxury, so reallocation may be a much better option.
  • Light transport does not always have to be inverted, it can also be transposed. PradeepSen and colleagues have shown that the transpose of the light transport matrix can be useful for generating dual images showing the scene from the point of view of a projector illuminated by a light source at the point of view of a camera. This allows for novel view generation, even unveiling parts of the scene that were only visible by the projector and never by the camera. Relighting a complex scene with novel illumination patters, such as seen in these images, is another application.
  • Arrays of projectors, here simulated with a single device illuminating an array of mirrors, in combination with random illumination patterns can create a large synthetic aperture projector. As is the case for cameras, large apertures for projectors create a very shallow depth of field. In this particular application, individual depth slices of the scene can selectively be illuminated such as seen for the David statue on the right.
  • The display acts as the inverse of a Shack-Hartmann sensor that is often used in astronomical imaging to capture an incident wavefront. In this application, the user basically changes the patterns to align in some form in the perceived image, but the displayed pattern itself is predistorted so as to compensate for the refractive errors of the eye.
  • A very similarly-looking smart-phone clip-on has presented last year at Siggraph with a different purpose: measuring cataracts. In this case, the display basically acts as a radar scanning a pattern over he viewers pupil. The observer simply clicks a few buttons and gets back a detailed map of cataracts on his lens.
  • A very similarly-looking smart-phone clip-on has presented last year at Siggraph with a different purpose: measuring cataracts. In this case, the display basically acts as a radar scanning a pattern over he viewers pupil. The observer simply clicks a few buttons and gets back a detailed map of cataracts on his lens.
  • Finally, a new tailored display is presented at this year’s Siggraph by the same authors. This is a special light field display that has the capability to show a sharp image for an observer that doesn’t need his glasses. It displays the light field corresponding to a 2D image that is moved within the focus range of the observer.
  • Finally, a new tailored display is presented at this year’s Siggraph by the same authors. This is a special light field display that has the capability to show a sharp image for an observer that doesn’t need his glasses. It displays the light field corresponding to a 2D image that is moved within the focus range of the observer.
  • Light transport does not always have to be inverted, it can also be transposed. PradeepSen and colleagues have shown that the transpose of the light transport matrix can be useful for generating dual images showing the scene from the point of view of a projector illuminated by a light source at the point of view of a camera. This allows for novel view generation, even unveiling parts of the scene that were only visible by the projector and never by the camera. Relighting a complex scene with novel illumination patters, such as seen in these images, is another application.
  • SIGGRAPH 2012 Computational Display Course - 2 Computational Displays

    1. 1. Edit this text to create a Heading  Computational Displays as Next- This subtitle is 20 points  generation Technology Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets inFast Forward! the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide Gordon Wetzstein (seven). MIT Media Lab  Sub bullets look like this
    2. 2. HDR Display SystemsEdit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this Local dimming, Sony Micro-dimming, Samsung
    3. 3. Edit this text to create – Dual ModulationHDR Display Systems a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Seetzen et al. 2004, Dolby 2008]
    4. 4. Edit this text to create – Dual ModulationHDR Display Systems a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide [Bimber and Iwai 2008] (seven). [Bimber et al. 2010]  Sub bullets look like this
    5. 5. Edit this text to create – Dual ModulationHDR Display Systems a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Kusakabe 2009]
    6. 6. HDR Projection – Light HeadingEdit this text to create aReallocation  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Hoskinson 2010]
    7. 7. Edit this text to Projectors – Multi-device SystemsComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Raskar et al. 1998] [Majumder and Brown 2007]
    8. 8. Edit this text to Projectors – Radiometric CompensationComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Raskar et al. 2001] [Bimber et al. 2007]
    9. 9. Edit this text to Projectors – Dual Photography Computational create a Heading [Wetzstein and Bimber 2007]  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  [O’Toole and Kutulakos Longer bullets in the form of2010] a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Sen et al. 2005]
    10. 10. Edit this text to Projectors – Synthetic ApertureComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Levoy et al. 2004]
    11. 11. Edit this text to Projectors – Multi-focal DisplayComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Bimber and Emmerling 2006]
    12. 12. Edit this text to Projectors – Coded AperturesComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the Contrast Sensitvity Function maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Grosse et al. 2010]
    13. 13. Edit this text to Projectors – Coded AperturesComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue[Grosse et al. 2010]  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this
    14. 14. Edit this text to Projectors – SuperresolutionComputational create a Heading [Sajadi et al. 2012] This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this
    15. 15. Eyeworn DisplaysEdit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide Steve Mann - Eyetap (seven).  Sub bullets look like this Google ARToolKit
    16. 16. Eyeworn DisplaysEdit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Wetzstein et al. 2010]
    17. 17. Eyeworn DisplaysEdit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after Modulation off Modulation on  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to Color de-metamerization read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this Contrast manipulation Optical object highlighting [Wetzstein et al. 2010]
    18. 18. Lighting-Sensitive Displays (4D) Edit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Nayar et al. 2004]
    19. 19. Lighting-Sensitive Displays – PixelSense (4D) Edit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Microsoft + Samsung 2011]
    20. 20. Lighting-Sensitive Displays – Bidi Edit this text to create a Heading Screen (6D)  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue LCD  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after diffuser  camera Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven). lights  Sub bullets look like this[Hirsch et al. 2009]
    21. 21. Lighting-Sensitive Displays – Bidi Edit this text to create a Heading Screen (6D)  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Hirsch et al. 2011]
    22. 22. Lighting-Sensitive Displays – Bidi Edit this text to create a Heading Screen (6D)  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Hirsch et al. 2011]
    23. 23. Lighting-Sensitive Displays – 6D Edit this text to create a Heading display  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Fuchs et al. 2008]
    24. 24. Lighting-Sensitive Displays – 8DEdit this text to create a Heading displays [Hirsch et al. 2012]  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to SIGGRAPH 2012 Poster read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the [Tompkinet al. 2012] maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this SIGGRAPH 2012 ETech
    25. 25. Computational create a HeadingEdit this text to Reflectance Displays  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the Scratch Holograms maximum recommended number of lines per slide [W. Beaty 1995] (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Regg et al. 2010]
    26. 26. Computational create a HeadingEdit this text to Reflectance Displays [Weyrich et al. 09]  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph BRDF Display are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Hullin et al. 11]
    27. 27. Computational create a Heading Edit this text to Reflectance Displays  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blueSIGGRAPH 2012 ETech  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Ochiai et al. 12]
    28. 28. Computational create a HeadingEdit this text to Reflectance Displays  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to metallic there is insufficient line spacing. This is the read if diffuse maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Matusik et al. 2009] [Hasan et al. 2010]
    29. 29. Computational create a HeadingEdit this text to Transmission Displays  This subtitle is 20 points Goal-based  Bullets are blue  Caustics They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to [Papas et al. 11] read if there is insufficient line spacing. This& Shadows is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Baran et al. 12]
    30. 30. Edit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder toNeri Oxman – MIT Media Lab read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this
    31. 31. Computational create HeadingEdit this text to RubberaBalloons  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Skouras et al. 2012]
    32. 32. Edit this text to create a Heading Computational Probes  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue transparent,  They have 110% refractive object points before & after line spacing, 2 light field probe camera [Wetzstein et al. 2011a,2011b]  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this
    33. 33. Edit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this
    34. 34. Computational create Edit this text to Probesa Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Wetzstein et al. 2011a,2011b]
    35. 35. Computational create a HeadingEdit this text to Ophthalmology  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide [Pamplona 2010] (seven).  Sub bullets look like this
    36. 36. Edit this text to Ophthalmology – Refractive Errors Computational create a Heading Inverse of Shack-Hartmann, user interactive!  This subtitle is 20 points Spot Diagram CellPhone  Bullets areLCD LCD on blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this Displace 25 points but 3 parameters[Pamplona et al. 2010]
    37. 37. Computational create a Heading Edit this text to Ophthalmology - Cataracts  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Pamplona et al. 2011]
    38. 38. Computational create a Heading Edit this text to Ophthalmology - Cataracts  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue Lens Moving  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after patterns  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to on Screen read if there is Pinhole insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven). Cell Phone  Sub bullets look like Display this[Pamplona et al. 2011]
    39. 39. Edit this text to Ophthalmology – Tailored Displays Computational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this[Pamplona et al. 2012]
    40. 40. Edit this text to Ophthalmology – Retinal ImagingComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Lawson et al. 2012]
    41. 41. Edit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this
    42. 42. Edit this text to Projectors – Structured IlluminationComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Bruno et al. 2011]
    43. 43. Edit this text to Projectors – Inverse Light TransportComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Wetzstein and Bimber 2007] [O’Toole and Kutulakos 2010]
    44. 44. Edit this text to Projectors – Dual PhotographyComputational create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Sen et al. 2005]
    45. 45. Light Probing w/ ComputationalEdit this text to create a HeadingIllumination  This subtitle is 20 points operations! All-optical  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven). Photograph Indirect Illumination Direct Illumination  Sub bullets look like this[O’Toole et al. 2012]
    46. 46. Fabricating Cardboard ModelsEdit this text to create a Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the [Hildebrand et al. 12] maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Matusik et al. 2009]
    47. 47. Computational create aEdit this text to Slippers Heading  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub bullets look like this [Bickel et al. 2010]
    48. 48. Fabricating Articulated HeadingEdit this text to create aCharacters  This subtitle is 20 points  Bullets are blue  They have 110% line spacing, 2 points before & after  Longer bullets in the form of a paragraph are harder to read if there is insufficient line spacing. This is the maximum recommended number of lines per slide (seven).  Sub mesh Skinned bullets look like this Optimized joints 3D printed model

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